10,000 FAMOUS




Volume I

A- D

Foreword by

Past Master, Missouri Lodge of Research

Published by
Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., Inc.
Richmond, Virginia


Copyright, I957, William R. Denslow




Harry S Truman, PGM, Grand Lodge of Missouri

It is a great pleasure and satisfaction to me that the Missouri Lodge of Research is to publish four volumes containing the biographies of ten thousand or more Freemasons who have contributed to the history of the Free World.

            We know that research is the most important step in the study of history. Comprehensive and accurate information must be available for those who would interpret trends in world happenings.

            History is made by men. It is therefore necessary to know about the men who have made history. In the study of the past we must know the motives that inspired men who made history. Events and dates are of no value unless we can discover what caused those events at the dates stated in what passes for history.

            Plutarch in Roman times and Abbott in recent times wrote biographies of great men. Thousands of words about the subjects of these biographies have been written by other famous men—Shakespeare, for instance, and Milton and Emerson and Toynbee.

            Perhaps these Masonic biographies will cause future historians, authors and playwrights to appreciate what has been done since these great books were written. Then people of future generations will have a fair basis for the evaluation of our times.



Past Master

Missouri Lodge of Research

Independence, Missouri

December 9, 1957   





This is the first of four projected volumes entitled 10,000 Famous Freemasons, a much needed Masonic research project, sponsored by the Missouri Lodge of Research.

            Perhaps the title is misleading, for the men listed herein, in the main, have not been famous primarily for their contributions to Freemasonry, but they are 10,000 famous or interesting personalities who have made their names in other fields. However, they have been, or are, members of the fraternity. There are hundreds of professional Freemasons and thousands of Masonic dignitaries who will not be mentioned. Their biographies have been inscribed in the various proceedings and annals of Freemasonry and will not be given here. A few national heads, founders and Masonic authors will be the exceptions.

            These volumes do not cover any particular country or time, but, on the contrary, are world-wide in scope and cover the famous men from the beginnings of Freemasonry down to, and including, the present year.

            Many volumes and pamphlets have been written on "Famous Freemasons." This work will exceed them all in scope, and, we hope, in accuracy. Nevertheless it is only a start on the vast amount of material that is available in the field of Masonic biography. It is a continuing process and tomorrow may lift a brother to prominence or rob another of his laurels.

            It is difficult to establish a criteria for inclusion in these volumes. The reader will note, for instance, that many famous Freemasons have been overlooked, whereas many famous men who were anti-Masons are included. Former members who have been "back sliders" are noted as such when it comes to our attention and famous men who have been expelled are listed also. We have given the facts and have not attempted to claim what was not ours.

            The last volume of this series will include an addenda of the many worthy brethren who have been omitted, and we will rely on our readers to bring these names to our attention so that they may be included.

            To understand the difficulties in preparing a volume of this type, let us explain how it has been accomplished. Five years ago, we microfilmed and reprinted several thousand biographical cards in the library of the House of the Temple, Supreme Council, 33°, AASR (SJ). This kind gesture of the Southern Supreme Council is appreciated. This basic card file started our research. In the intervening five years, we have increased our 3 x 5 reference file from the original group to the amazing total of approximately 60,000 cards. To do this, we have read, marked and pasted on 3 x 5 cards, all the biographies in the current Who's Who, the two volumes of Who Was Who and the Who's Who Supplements. The majority of our references, however, have come from thousands of Masonic books and periodicals which we have indexed during this period. This is a continuing process, and we add a dozen or more biographical cards a day to our files. This card file is supplemented by an extensive biographical file for more lengthy material.

            We already have mentioned the valuable assistance given by the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, for the part it contributed to this project. The York Rite also has donated heavily by paying the salary of the author and his staff of The Royal Arch Mason magazine for the many hours they have spent working on these volumes. They have bought card files, cards, books and other material that has been necessary in compiling the original material. The contribution of the General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons will run into five figures before the project is completed.

            The compiler wishes to express his appreciation to Ray V. Denslow, Nada W. Hoffman and Juanita D. Denslow for their help in copyreading and proofreading and to Hazel H. Jackson for maintaining the card files.

            These volumes will stand as a memorial to the criticism of our detractors. What other group of men in the world has accomplished so much? A perusal of these biographies will indicate that a great proportion of the liberators, patriots, royalty, explorers, statesmen, judges, inventors, soldiers, sailors, musicians, entertainers, aviators, and business executives have seen fit to honor our fraternity with their membership. For more than 200 years Freemasonry has produced men of leadership, morals and vision; men of knowledge; men of science; men of war; men who would free their people from the oppressor; men who would fight to maintain that liberty—and men who would offer a helping hand to the downtrodden. They are, indeed, brethren of whom we may be proud!

In these four volumes you may read their record. It will speak for itself!



Compiler of the 1957

Transactions, Missouri

Lodge of Research.






John Aasen A giant 8' 6" tall who, when raised in Highland Park Lodge No. 382, Los Angeles on July 14, 1924, weighed 536 lbs. The raising was done by Arthur S. Crites, G.M. and all ritualistic ceremonies were observed except that 12 craftsmen were required. Fifteen hundred witnessed the ceremony. Aasen appeared in a number of motion pictures including The Circus.


            Leon Abbett Governor of New Jersey, 1885-1887. Past master Mystic Tie Lodge No. 272, New York City. Demitted to Varick Lodge No. 31, Jersey City and later to Temple Lodge No. 110. Was representative to G.L. of Ireland from G.L. of New Jersey from 1886 to 1894. Member of Ancient Chapter No. 1, R.A.M., New York City.


            Stephen Abbot General in American Revolution. Member Essex Lodge, Salem, Mass.


            Bud Abbott Radio, stage and screen performer. b. Asbury Park, N.J., Oct. 2, 1898. Began as a cashier in theatres in 1916 and became famous with the founding of the team "Abbott and Costello." Sold 78 million in war bonds on a 31 day tour during WW2 and entertained in 300 Army and Navy camps. A Mason and a Shriner.


            George B. Abbott English Masonic writer. Member of Gladsmuir Lodge No. 1385.


            Leon M. Abbott (1867-1932) Grand Commander of Supreme Council AASR (NJ) PGM of Mass. Raised in Columbian Lodge, Boston, June 7,1894. PHP of St. Paul's Royal Arch Chapter, Boston.


            Robert 0. Abbott (1824-1867) Surgeon General of the U.S., 1862-67. b. in Pennsylvania, he entered the army in 1849 as assistant surgeon and accompanied Magruder's battery to California. He subsequently served in the East and also in Florida and Texas. During 1861 he was assistant to the chief medical purveyor of New York and later medical director of the Fifth Army Corps. The duties of his office were arduous and he died of overwork. Mentioned as a Mason in the District of Columbia proceedings of 1865.


            William R. Abbott (1869-1950) President of Illinois Bell Telephone Co. 1922-30; chairman of the board, 1930-34. b. Sept. 18, 1869 in New York City. Began as clerk for Erie Railroad in 1885 and with the Westchester (N.Y.) Telephone Company in 1888. Was with Illinois Bell from 1893, becoming general superintendent, general manager, vice president and president. Mason and Knight Templar. d. Mar. 2, 1950.


            Abd-el-Kader (1807-1883) Algerian patriot and emir of Mascara. b. near Mascara, his family were Sherifs or descendants of Mohammed, and his father, Mahi-ed-Din, was celebrated throughout north Africa for his piety and charity. He received an excellent education in theology, philosophy and the manly arts such as horsemanship. After the French had taken possession of Algeria (1830) the Arabs entreated Mahi-ed-Din to become their 1st Duke of Abercorn sultan, which he did, but immediately abdicated in favor of Abd, his son. Abd, at the head of 9,000 troops marched toward Oran to drive out the French. The fighting was bitter, but the French remained in possession of the city. For the next 13 years he stubbornly resisted the French conquest of Algeria, but in 1847 when they massed 120,000 troops against him, he was forced to surrender under these tremendous odds. Although promised that he would be allowed to go to Alexandria, he and his family were detained in Europe for five years. In July, 1860, he was active in defending the Christians against the murderous attacks of the Moslems in the Christian quarters at Damascus. In recognition of saving many lives, he received decorations and presents from many countries.. The remainder of his life was occupied in public devotions, religious instruction and practical charity. A biography published in London in 1867 records this interesting episode: "Abd-el-Kader had just succeeded in achieving, after much toil and self-abnegation, the highest distinction to be attained in a religious profession, dogmatic and exclusive. By a singular contrast he now wished to wear the badge of a society based and established on the principle of universal brotherhood. The Masonid body in Alexandria hastened to welcome the illustrious neophyte. The Lodge of the Pyramids was specially convened for the occasion on the evening of 18th of June (1867). Abd-el-Kader was initiated into the mysteries, and to the privileges of being a 'Fellow of the Prophet,' added the more time-honored privilege of being a 'Free and Accepted Mason.' " He died at Damascus on May 26, 1883.


            James, 1st Duke of Abercorn (18111885) 10th Earl, 2nd Marquis and 1st Duke of Abercorn. Grandson of 1st Marquis; lord lieutenant of Ireland(1866-68; 1874-76). Grand Master of Ireland 1874-1885.


            James, 2nd Duke of Abercorn (18381913) Eldest brother of Lord George Francis Hamilton. Was official figurehead of the Irish landlords in land war and opposed home rule. Grand Master of Ireland in 1886 succeeding his father, the first duke.


            James, 7th Earl of Abercorn (James Hamilton) (?-1744) Privy Councilor of England. Named Grand Master of England by the retiring Grand Master, Duke of Richmond, in 1725. He was at that time master of a lodge and had served on the committee of charity during that year. Succeeded his father as Earl of Abercorn in 1734. Died, 1744.


            John W. Abercrombie (1866-1940) Educator and public official. President of University of Alabama 190211. State supervisor of teacher certification in Alabama 1935-40. Acting Secretary for U.S. Department of Labor 1918-20. Member of 63rd and 64th Congress 1913-17. Member of Alabama Senate 1896-98. Mason and 32° AASR.


            Sir Ralph Abercromby (1734-1801) British general who led the expeditionary force that conquered St. Lucia and Trinidad in 1795-96. He commanded troops in the Mediterranean in 1800, defeated the French at Alexandria in 1801 and died of wounds received there. He is credited with restoring the discipline and efficiency of the British army. Member of Canon-gate Kilwinning Lodge No. 2, Edinburgh, Scotland.


            Charles Aberdour (Lord Sholto) Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) from 1757-61 and 20th Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1755-56. He was later the 15th Earl of Morton.


            Walter S. Abernathy Transportation economist, government official.


            2   Sir Allan Adair b. Sept. 7, 1887 at Petersburg, Va. Transportation specialist, Dept. of Commerce 1928-53; executive secretary Pan American Railway Congress since 1949. Raised in Powhatan Starke Lodge No. 124, Petersburg, Va. on Sept. 5, 1919. Member of Columbia Chapter No. 1, Washington, D.C. 32° AASR (SJ) in Albert Pike Consistory, Washington, D.C. May 28, 1946. Member of Almas Shrine Temple, 1946; Washington Chapter No. 3, National Sojourners, George Washington Camp of Heroes of '76. Past president (1944) of advisory board of Masonic Clubs of D.C. Past deputy state president of National League of Masonic Clubs.


            Robert S. Abernethy Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Aug. 5, 1874 in Gonzales Co., Texas. Commissioned lieutenant in 1897 and promoted through grades to general rank on Oct. 1, 1932. Served in the Spanish American War and in the Philippines. Commanded 175th Field Artillery Brigade, A.E.F. in WW1. His last command was San Francisco Port of Embarkation and he retired in 1938. Member of Summerton Lodge No. 105, Summerton, N.C. and served as national president of the National Sojourners from 1937-40.


            Thomas G. Abernethy Congressman from Mississippi. Member of 76th to 84th Congresses. b. May 16, 1903 at Eupora, Miss. Lawyer. Received degrees in Eupora Lodge No. 423 and presently member of Prairie Lodge No. 87 at Okolona, Miss. Member of Royal Arch Chapter and Commandery, K.T. at Okolona and Hamasa Shrine Temple at Meridian, Miss.


            Edmond Francois Valentin About (1828-1885) French journalist, novelist, playwright and member of the French Academy. Author of Le Roi des Montagnes (1856), Le Nez d'un Notaire (1862) and Madelon (1863). Mason.


            George, 5th Earl of Aboyne (George Gordon) (1761-1853) Soldier; succeeded as 5th Earl of Aboyne in 1794 and the 9th Marquis of Huntly in 1836. Was Grand Master of Scotland in 1802-03.


            Antonine Firmin Abraham A Freemason who made himself notorious at Paris in the beginning of the 19th century by the manufacture and sale of false Masonic diplomas and by trading the higher degrees, from which traffic he reaped a harvest for some time.


            Herbert Abraham President of Ruberoid Co. since 1903. b. July 9, 1883, New York City. President of Asphalt Roofing Industry Bureau three terms. Served on War Industries Board, Washington, 1917-18. Mason.


            Allen Abrams Vice president of Marathon Corp. since 1940 and Director since 1943. Deputy Director of development and research for O.S.S. in 1943-44. b. Jan. 27, 1889. Mason.


            Benjamin Abrams President of Emerson Radio and Phonograph Corp. Came to this country from Romania at the age of 12. Left school at 13 to help support his fatherless family and by the age of 29 had acquired the name, assets and presidency of the Emerson Corp. His career is studded with "firsts"; the radio-phonograph, the smallest radio and commercial television. Famed for his philanthropy to national and international projects. He is a member of Farragut Lodge No. 976, New York City.


            Franz Abt (1819-1885) German composer. b. Eilenberg Saxony d. Wiesbaden. Composed a number of cantatas and songs for the lodge for use on St. John's Feast Days. Initiated in Brunswick Lodge in 1853.


            Sir Allan Adair British Major General created the 6th Baron in 1938 of baronetcy established in 1888. Served with Grenadier Guards in 1916-17 and was in command of the 3rd Bn. in 1940; the 30th Guards Brigade in 1941; and the 6th Brigade in 1942; when he was given command of the newly formed Armored Division of the Guards which he retained until the end of WW2 and led in the epic dash of 1944 from the Seine to the relief of Brussels. It was regarded as one of the most gallant achievements of the European liberation. His only son (a captain) was killed when the Guards attacked Mount Camino in Italy, Nov. 1943. Since 1951 he has been second in command of the Queen's Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard. Commander of the Bath; DSO; M.C. He entered Masonry in April, 1924 in Household Brigade Lodge No. 2614, serving as master. Appointed assistant grand master of the G.L. of England in 1953. A member of most of the Masonic rites in England.


            E. Ross Adair Congressman from 4th Indiana district to 82nd Congress. b. Dec. 15, 1907 at Albion, Ind. Admitted to bar in 1933 and since practiced at Fort Wayne. Served in army overseas in WW2. Raised in Albion Lodge No. 97, Albion, Ind. in 1929. 32° AASR in Fort Wayne, Ind. Shriner, National Sojourner, Tall Cedar member.


            Hugh R. Adair Justice, Supreme Court of Montana from 1943 and chief justice since 1947. b. Aug. 27, 1889 at Trego Co., Kansas. Served in both bodies of Montana state legislature and was lieutenant governor from 1937-41, addressing the Grand Lodge of Montana in this capacity in 1938. Past potentate of Algeria Shrine Temple.


            Jackson L. Adair Congressman, judge. b. Feb. 23, 1888 at Clayton, Ill. Graduated from Univ. of Michigan in 1911 and admitted to bar in Michigan, Okahoma and Illinois, first practicing in Muskogee, Okla. in 1911-13 and then in Quincy, Ill. Illinois state senator in 1928-32 and member of the 73rd and 74th Congresses (1933-37) from 15th district. Has been U.S. district judge, Southern Illinois district since 1937. Mason.


            Alva Adams (1850-1922) Governor of Colorado 1887-89; 1897-99. Candidate for governor in 1904 and was declared elected, being seated on Jan. 10, but on March 20, 1905 he was ousted by legislature which gave the office to James H. Peabody, who served one day and resigned. Member of first Colorado legislature in 1876. U.S. Commissioner-General to Australia, New Zealand, Java, Siam, and China. Knighted in Pueblo Commandery No. 3, K.T. Jan. 15, 1884; 32° January 29, 1890 in Denver. Active member of Supreme Council AASR (SJ). b. Iowa Co., Wis., May 14, 1850; d. Battle Creek, Mich., Nov. 1, 1922.


            Alva B. Adams (1875-1941) U.S. Senator from Colorado, 1923-45. b. Oct. 29, 1875 at Del Norte, Colo. Graduate of Yale and Columbia universities, and admitted to Colorado bar in 1899, practicing at Pueblo. d. Dec. 1, 1941. Mason.


            Andrew Adams (1736-1797) Signer of Articles of Confederation in 1777 and chief justice of Supreme Court of Connecticut. b. in January, 1736 in Stratford, Conn. Graduated from Yale in 1760 and practiced at Stamford and Litchfield. Member of state legislature in 1776-81; delegate to Congress in 1777-80 and again in 1781-82. Appointed judge of state supreme court in 1789, he was made chief justice in 1793. He was an adroit lawyer and an able judge. Member of St. Paul's Lodge No. 11, Litchfield, Conn. d. Nov. 26, 1797.


            Charles F. Adams (1876-1946) Business executive who pioneered and developed National League hockey in U.S., 1925. Governor of the league 1925-37; Director and chairman of board of Eastern Racing Association 1935-43. Director Boston National League Baseball Association 1927-35. Knight Templar and Shriner. b. Oct. 19, 1876, in Newport, Vt. d. Oct. 1, 1946.


            Claude M. Adams Brigadier General U.S. Army (1943). Executive officer and aide-de-camp to General G. C. Marshall, chief of staff; military attache to Brazil 1942-44. Served in WW1 as lieutenant. Vice president of O'Donnell Shoe Corp. Mason. b. Hum-bolt, Tenn., Oct 2, 1895.


            Frank R. Adams Author and playwright. Has written about 20 novels, a score of musical comedies, several motion pictures and a book of lyrics of musical comedy. b. July 7, 1883 at Morrison, Ill. Graduate of Univ. of Chicago in 1904. Mason.


            Jasper Adams (1793-1841) Clergyman and educator. b. Aug. 27, 1793 in Medway, Mass. Graduate of Brown Univ. and studied theology at Andover. Math professor at Brown and at same time ordained in Episcopal church. Became president of the college of Charleston in 1824, and Hobart College (Geneva, N.Y.) in 1826. Served as professor at West Point from 1838-40. Raised in Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 4, Providence, R.I. in Sept., 1821. d. Oct. 25, 1841.


            John Adams American Revolution (naval). Purser on ship Raleigh during Revolution. Member St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, N.H.


            John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) Sixth President of the United States 1825-29. An anti-Mason who a year before his death published a book of his letters against the Masonic fraternity which amounted to an expose.


            John T. Adams (1873-1942) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Colorado,1931-34. b. Dec. 25, 1873 at La Porte, Ind. Admitted to bar in 1900. Named to Supreme Court of Colorado as justice in 1925, serving last part of term as chief justice. Resumed law practice in 1935. Mason. d. May 13, 1942.


            Karl L. Adams (1888-1948) President of Northern Illinois State Teachers College at DeKalb, Ill. from 1929. b. Sept. 5, 1888 at Lexington, Ohio. Mason. d. Dec. 6, 1948.


            Kenneth S. Adams Chairman of board of Phillips Petroleum Co. since 1951. President of Phillips from 193851. b. Aug. 31, 1899 at Horton, Kans. Began with Phillips as a warehouse clerk in 1920. Member of Bartlesville Lodge No. 284, Bartlesville Chapter No. 55, R.A.M.; Calvary Commandery No. 26, K.T. all of Bartlesville, Okla. 33° AASR (SJ) at Guthrie, Okla.; Kara Grotto, Bartlesville; Tulsa Court No. 47, Royal Order of Jesters, Tulsa; Akdar Shrine Temple at Tulsa; Wasono Shrine Club, Bartlesville, Bartlesville Scottish Rite Club. Member, Legion of Honor, Order of DeMolay and Trustee, Masonic Foundation of Oklahoma, Inc.


            Myron E. Adams (1876-1930) Social Worker. D.D. Syracuse University 1898. Ordained Baptist minister 1905. Social worker in Rochester, N.Y.; Cleveland, Ohio; Buffalo and New York City. Organized and became first director of Department of Morale (under Chief of Staff U.S. Army) during WW1. Executive secretary of National Rehabilitation Comm. 1922; associated with Marshall Field and Albert A. Sprague in the Public Service Associates, Inc., 1922-26. Mason. b. Feb. 19, 1876. d. Jan. 17, 1930.


            Richard Adams Privateer and Captain during Revolution. Member of St. Peter's Lodge, Newburyport, Mass.


            Samuel Adams Signer, Declaration of Independence. No record of his Masonic affiliation although purported to have been made a Mason in St. John's Lodge, Boston, Mass.


            Samuel Adams Governor of Arkansas in 1844. Member of Clarksville Lodge No. 5 (Ark.) and junior grand warden pro-tem of the G.L. of Arkansas in 1844.


            Samuel E. Adams Active member of Supreme Council AASR (SJ). d. March 29, 1912. Raised in Vermont Lodge No. 18, Hartland, Vt. Exalted in Burlington (Vt.) Chapter No. 3, Feb. 14, 1855. Knighted in Burlington Commandery No. 2, Sept. 19, 1855. Received 33° from G.C. Albert Pike at Minneapolis, Minn. Aug. 23, 1885.


            Sherman Adams Governor of New Hampshire; advisor to President Eisenhower. Elected governor of New Hampshire in 1949 and was the 40th Freemason to serve as governor out of a total of 67 since 1785. As advisor to Eisenhower he was often called "Assistant President," and was chief of the White House staff. Described as "tough-minded, aloof, knowing all the policies, aims, purposes and background." Makes many decisions on his own and is sometimes called "The Rock of Gibraltar." Knight Templar, 32° and member of Bektash Shrine Temple of N.H. Served in WW1 and traces kinship back to two presidents of the U.S. Speaker of N.H. House of Representatives 1943-44 and member of the 79th Congress. b. East Dover, Vt., Jan. 8, 1899.


            Wilbur L. Adams (1884-1937) Congressman from Delaware 73rd Congress. Lawyer. Democratic candidate for U.S. Senate, 1934. b. Oct. 23, 1884. d. Dec. 4, 1937. Mason.


            Henry Adamson Wrote the first printed reference yet discovered showing the Master's Word to be connected with the Rosy Cross. It occurs in his The Muses Threnodie—"For weare brethren of the Rosy Cross we have the Mason's Word.”


            Sir Michael Adeane  Private secretary to Queen Elizabeth of England and to her father, King George VI, to whom he acted, in a sense, as a Masonic aide-de-camp on many occasions. Represented George VI at installation of the Earl of Scarbrough as GM in 1951. A Knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, he served as senior grand deacon of the Grand Lodge of England in 1946.


            Charles Adkins (1863-1941) Congressman from Illinois 69th to 72nd Congresses (1925-33). Mason. Home, Decatur, Ill.


            Jesse C. Adkins (1879-1955) Judge. Special assistant to the Attorney General from 1908 to 1916. Appointed Associate Justice, Supreme Court of District of Columbia in 1930. Chairman jud. sect. American Bar Assn., 1935. Mason. 32°. b. April 13, 1879. d. Mar. 29, 1955.


            Julius Ochs Adler (1892-1955) Major General; vice-president and general manager of the New York Times. Fought in both WW1 and WW2 and was called a "Soldier's Soldier" by President Eisenhower. Was active in many Jewish, civic and patriotic endeavors throughout his life. The rank of general—which Adler carried proudly—was not honorary. He had been a civilian soldier for forty years. Since WW1, he had served the 77th infantry division. He left it during WW2 to lead other combat troops. After the war he rejoined the 77th and became the commanding general of this New York reserve unit. He started with the New York Times in 1914, and in directing its business management as well as that of the Chattanooga (Tenn.) Times, he helped maintain the high standards that have been a credit to the world of journalism. He was a member of Justice Lodge No. 753 of New York City. Adler died on October 3, 1955 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery on October 6.


            Adolph Friedrich IV Duke of Mecklemburg-Strelitz (1738-1794) Initiated in 1772 by deputation of the lodge Irene zu den drei Sternen in Rostock, Germany. In 1774 he entered the lodge at New-Brandeburg remaining a member until his death.


            Adolph Fredrik (1710-1771) King of Sweden 1751-1771. Was master of a Stockholm lodge and received the title of Protector of Swedish Freemasonry in 1762.


            Baron van Aersen-Beyeren Grand Master of the Netherlands 1756-1758.


            John S. Africa (1839-1900) Banker and grand master of Pennsylvania 1891-1892. Member Pennyslvania legislature, 1860. Secretary Internal Affairs of Pa. 1883-87. President Union Trust Co. of Philadelphia 1887-1900.


            Gregorio Aglipay Chaplain General of the Philippine Army 1899-1901. Scottish Rite member. Later headed the Philippine Independent Church.


            Andrew D. Agnew (1867-1951) Grand Master of the Grand Encampment, K.T. 1932-37. Native of Ireland. Lawyer. Active member of the Supreme Council (NJ), 1920. 33* in 1911.


            Ignacio Agramonte (1841-1873) Cuban patriot and Freemason who participated in war which followed Cuba's declaration of independence in 1868. b. in Puerto Principe, he was commissioned under Cespedes and became leader of the revolts of 1868-69 against Spain. He was killed in battle.


            Camillo Mora Aguilar Governor of province of San Jose, Costa Rica. Son of President Juan Rafa el Mora. An agriculturist. Member of Union Fraternal No. 10.


            Joaquin Aguilar Magistrate of Supreme Court of Costa Rica. Member of the College of Lawyers. Esperanza Lodge.


            Emilio Aguinaldo Philippine patriot and general. b. March 22, 1869, at Old Cavite, Luzon of Chinese and Tagalog parentage. Was educated in the home of a Jesuit priest and later in the University of St. Thomas, conducted by the Dominican friars in Manila. Was initiated Jan. 1, 1895 in Pilar Lodge under the Grand Orient of Spain, becoming master of the lodge. At the outbreak of the insurrection in August, 1896, he was mayor of Cavite Viejo. During this uprising, he took a prominent part, displaying a marked capacity for leadership. In 1898 Spain gave him a subsidy for remaining out of the country and he went to Hong Kong until the U.S. entered the war against Spain. Believing the time was ripe for a change in government, he returned immediately after the Battle of Manila, May 1, 1898, for the express purpose of assisting the American government. They gave him authority to set up a native government of which he became the head and organized an army. Having doubt as to the future freedom of his country under American rule, he began hostilities against the U.S. during the year 1899 and engaged in several pitched battles, but was driven from capital to capital until finally captured by General Frederick Funston at Palawan, Luzon on March 23, 1901. On April 19, 1901 he took an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and retired to a peaceful life. During the Spanish rebellion he organized the Triagle Magdalo, with other Freemasons and it later became Magdalo Lodge. The lodge held its meetings in Aguinaldo's residence. It was on the balcony of this residence that the proclamation of the First Republic and the unveiling of the original Philippine flag took place,




Charles T. Aikens June 12, 1898. Four months after his initiation into Freemasonry, he affiliated with the Katipunan, an organization patterned after Freemasonry with passwords and three degrees. Seeing this organization was the best means of gathering support for the revolutionary movement, he encouraged all able-bodied men to join it, and the success of the revolution, at least in Cavite, may be attributed to the Katipunan. When the Grand Orient of Spain fused with the G.L. of the Philippines in February 1917, Aguinaldo became a Scottish Rite Mason. He was coroneted a 33° on Feb. 13, 1955.


            Charles T. Aikens (1862-1927) University president and Lutheran minister. Ordained, 1888. President of Susquehanna University, Selinsgrove, Pa. from 1905. President of Lutheran Synod of Central Pa. 1897-1901. 32° AASR.


            Marquess of Ailsa (1872-1943) Archibald Kennedy, 15th Earl of Cassillis, created Marquess of Ailsa in 1938. b. May 22, 1872. d. Feb. 27, 1943. The Kennedys are a famous and powerful Scottish family long settled in Ayrshire. Ancester John Kennedy of Dunure obtained Cassillis and other lands in Ayrshire about 1350. John's descendant Sir James Kennedy married Mary, a daughter of King Robert III and their son Sir Gilbert Kennedy was created Lord Kennedy before 1458. Gilbert's grandson David, third Lord Kennedy, was created Earl of Cassillis before 1530. In 1831 the 12th Earl of Cassillis became the first Marquess of Ailsa, taking the title from the craig which was his property. Archibald was educated at Eton College, Trinity College, Cambridge and Edinburgh universities. Served as major in the South African War (19001902) and was with the British Expeditionary Forces from Dec., 1914 to May, 1919. Later became a memberof the Royal Company of Archers and as such constituted a member of His Majesty's Bodyguard for Scotland. His services were called for in every large civic or national enterprise. He had held many high offices in Freemasonry, and was head of the Grand Chapter of Scotland for 30 years, being 1st Grand Principal from 1913 until his death in 1943. He made three Masonic visits to the United States, 1924, 1927 and 1933 for the purpose of settling jurisdictional differences with the General Grand Chapter over the chapters in the Philippines. On his death his titles passed to his brother Charles q.v. Initiated in Holy-rood House Lodge No. 44, Edinburgh, Nov. 17, 1896.


            Marquess of Ailsa Charles Kennedy, 16th Earl of Cassillis and 5th Marquess of Ailsa upon the death of his brother, Archibald q.v., in 1943. b. April 10, 1875, he was educated at Eton and Royal Agriculture College Cirencester. Formerly captain Ayrshire Yeomanry and lieutenant 3rd Bn. Royal Scotts Fusilliers; served in South Africa 1900-1901 as captain, Prince of Wales Light Horse. As Lord Kennedy, he received most of his Masonic light in the United States, where he came after the African War. He was initiated in Acacia Lodge No. 11, A.F. & A.M. of Cheyenne, Wyoming April 4, 1905; passed May 25, 1905 and raised June 8, 1905. His petition for the capitular degrees was received by Lebanon Chapter No. 3 of Laramie, Wyo. on June 9, 1909 and was elected July 14. He received the MM and PM degrees Aug. 11, 1909. The MEM and RAM degrees were conferred by Nevada Chapter No. 56, of Nevada, Mo. by request of Lebanon chapter on March 14 and 22, 1910. About 1914 he was in Davenport, Iowa. He de-milted from the lodge in Nov. 15, 1921 and the chapter Nov. 9, 1921. In a letter to the chapter dated Dec. 10, 1919 he thanked them for remitting a year's dues because of his war service, stating that he left the U.S. in Nov., 1914 and joined the Ayrshire Yeomanry, Jan., 1915. He stated he "was passed as unfit for overseas service and at the end of 1916 was appointed an area gas officer. . . . I was attached to the 18th Division for a short time in France in 1918 on a tour of instruction. Until quite recently have been engaged in training in gas defensive measures and am now trying to get the bally stuff out of my system.”


            William D. B. Ainey (1864-1933) Chairman Public Service Commission of Pa. and Congressman. Member of 62nd and 63rd Congresses (1911-15). Chairman of Public Service Comm. of Pa. 1915. Delegate to Interparliamentary Conference, Geneva, 1912 and to the Hague in 1913. Delegate to Interparliamentary Union, Paris, 1927. Mason.


            James Ainslie Scottish clergyman, who in 1652 was the subject of an ecclesiastical investigation because he was a Mason and "possessed the Mason Word." On appeal to the Presbytery at Kelso, he was cleared "because in the purest tymes of this kirke, maisons haveing that word have been ministers.”


            John C. Ainsworth (1870-1943) Financier. President of States Steamship Co.; president of Ainsworth National Bank, Portland, Oregon and its successor, the U.S. National Bank. Director of many corporations and the Federal Reserve Bank in Portland. 33° John C. Ainsworth (1822-1893) Transportation pioneer of the Pacific Northwest. Went West with the 1850 gold rush and soon settled in Oregon where he pioneered in transportation. He was the guiding genius of river steamboat transportation and his Oregon Steam Navigation Co. grew tothe Pacific Northwest division of the Union Pacific Railroad. His Portland bank was the largest in Oregon. Was an incorporator and promoter of the Northern Pacific Railway. Was raised in Farmington Lodge No. 9, Ohio and became the first master of Multnomah Lodge No. 86 (Mo. register), now Oregon No. 1. He helped organize the G.L. of Oregon and served as grand master 1854-55. In 1865 he was grand high priest of the Grand Chapter. Inspector general 33° AASR (SJ).


            Milburn P. Akers Editor, political and editorial writer. b. May 4, 1900. Assistant to Secretary of Interior 1939-41. Executive secretary of Illinois Development Council 1937-39. Editor of Chicago Sun, 1941-42. Mason.


            George E. Akerson (1889-1937) Secretary to President Hoover 192931; Hoover's assistant when Secretary of Commerce 1925-28. Washington correspondent and asst. managing editor of Minneapolis Tribune 1912-25. 32° at Minneapolis Feb. 27, 1929. Received Shrine at Washington, D.C. Apr. 29, 1929 as courtesy to Zurah Temple in Minneapolis.


            Spencer B. Akin Major General U.S. Army. b. Feb. 13, 1889. B.S. Virginia Military Institute 1910. 2nd lt. U.S. Army, 1910 advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1941 and major general in 1943. Chief signal officer on staff of General MacArthur and later chief signal officer, Department of Army. Cited by Poor Richard Club for his reorganization of Army's system of communication to needs of atomic warfare. Mason.


            Sir Adeyemo Alakija (1884-1952) Nigeria spiritual and political leader. Headed the Executive Council of the Colony and Protectorate in Nigeria, also a spiritual leader among the natives and respected public figure. Member Star of Nigeria Chapter No. 255, R.A.M. 23° AASR. Appointed grand superintendent over Royal Arch in the district both English and Scottish constitutions as well as head of the District Grand Lodge. Died April 9, 1952.


            Miguel Ricardo de Alava (17711843) Spanish general and statesman. He participated in the Peninsular War under Wellington in 1811 and in 1815 was in the service of Ferdinand VII. He was a liberal leader and president of the Cortes in 1822, in which year he aided in the deposition of Ferdinand. In 1814 he was imprisoned for being a Freemason. Upon Ferdinand's restoration by the French in 1823, Alava fled to England. He was later in' the service of Maria Christina against Don Carlos. Named ambassador to London in 1834 and Paris in 1835, retiring to France after the La Granja insurrection.


            Leopold, Duke of Albany Youngest son of Queen Victoria was initiated in Apollo University Lodge No. 357, Oxford, England May 1, 1874 and in May, 1875 became a member of Lodge of Antiquity. No. 2. Served as master of Apollo Lodge, 1876.


            Juan Bautista Alberdi (1810-1884) Distinguished Argentine statesman, jurist and publisher. He was noted principally for his Bases, a treatise on American public right. Hostile to Rosas, he exiled himself to Uruguay where he studied law, later practicing in Chile. On the overthrow of Rosas by Urquiza q.v. he was successively named by the latter as minister to Paris, Madrid, Washington and London. Mason.


            Albert Victor Christian Edward (see Duke of Clarence) Carl Albert Congressman from Oklahoma, 80th Congress (1947-49) Lawyer. b. May 10, 1908. Member of South McAlester Lodge No. 96, Mc- Alester, Okla. (1946), 32° Indian Consistory, AASR (SJ) and DeMolay Legion of Honor.


            Casimir August Albert Duke of Saxony-Teschen (1738-1822) Last governor of the Austrian Netherlands. Brother of King Karl Christian Joseph. Initiated in Dresden, Germany, in lodge Zu den drei Schwestern, 1764.


            Prince Albert Duke of York. b. December 14, 1895, in London. Provincial G.M. of Middlesex.


            Albert-Edward, Prince of Wales (1841-1910) (see Edward VII of England) Eldest son of Queen Victoria. Initiated in Stockholm in 1868 by King Charles XV and made past grand master in 1870. In 1875 he received the AASR degrees. In 1875 he succeeded the Marquis de Ripon as grand master of England, an office which he held until his death in 1910.


            Manuel Masimino Alberti (17631811) Catholic priest and Argentine patriot. Although a Catholic priest he joined Freemasonry and was active in events that led to the "open forum" on May 24, 1810 and the revolution of that year. He was one of the "junta," or council, then formed to rule the country.


            Henri Christophe Albrecht (17631800) German Masonic writer. Initiated 1785. In 1792 he published at Hamburg a work entitled Materialen zu einer kritischen Geschichte der Freimaurerei (Collections towards a critical history of Freemasonry).


            Ralph G. Albrecht Specialist in international law. Prosecuted Herman Goering and others before International Military Tribunal, 1945-46. b. Aug. 11, 1896 at Jersey City, N.J. Graduate of Univ. of Pennsylvania and Harvard. Admitted to bar in 1924. Associate counsel for American claimants against Germany in "Black Tom" and "Kingsland" explosions, 1924-39. Commander, U.S. Navy, 1941-45. Naval observer with American Embassy London, England and with Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor and Australia. Assistant Director O.S.S. (War Crimes) and assistant to attorney general, 1945. Raised in Dalhousie Lodge, Newtonville, Mass. on Nov. 16, 1921.


            Horace M. Albright Conservationist. b. Jan. 6, 1890. Director National Park Service 1917-18; asst. director and superintendent Yellowstone National Park 1919-29. In charge of Yosemite National Park, 1927-28. Director National Park Service Jan. 12, 1929 to Aug. 10, 1933. Advisor, director and official of many national conservation projects. Member of Livingston Lodge No. 32, Livingston, Montana, being raised in June, 1923. He was given his degrees in a period of five weeks while in charge of Yellowstone National Park so that he would be a member in time to entertain President Harding in Yellowstone on June 30 and July 1, 1923.


            James L. Alcorn Former Governor and Senator from Mississippi. Member Coahoma Lodge No. 104, Friar's Point, Miss. and Jackson Chapter No. 6, Jackson, Miss.


            Alvin B. Alden (1818-1882) Did much for laying foundation of Freemasonry in Wisconsin. Grand master 1861-63; grand high priest 1863; grand commander 1866-68; sovereign grand inspector general, AASR.


            Chester H. Aldrich (1862-1924) Governor of Nebraska and jurist. Admitted to Nebraska bar, 1891. Member Nebraska Senate, 1907. Governor of Nebraska 1911-13. Justice, Supreme Court of Nebraska 1919-25. Mason and Knight Templar.


            Kildroy P. Aldrich 1st Assistant Postmaster General, 1943-45. b. Feb. 16, 1877. With postal department from 1897 to 1945, serving in various ca-pacities from postal clerk to assistant postmaster general. Raised in Siloam Lodge No. 276, Oklahoma City, Okla. in 1913 and a life member. Member of Missouri Consistory No. 1, St. Louis, Mo. (SJ).


            Nelson W. Aldrich (1841-1915) U.S. Senator from Rhode Island from 1881 to 1911. b. Nov. 6, 1841 at Foster, R.I.; Graduate of Brown Univ. Member of R.I. House of Representatives from 1875-77, serving as speaker of same. Elected five times to U.S. Senate and declined nomination for reelection in 1910. A member of What Cheer Lodge No. 21, (past master) Providence and Providence Chapter No. 1 as well as Cavalry Commandery No. 13 which he served as commander in 1871. In 1879 he was grand commander of the Grand Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. d. Apr. 16, 1915.


            Elizabeth Aldworth Said to be the only woman ever regularly initiated into Freemasonry. See "Elizabeth St. Leger.”


            J. Frank Alee Former U.S. Senator from Delaware. Member Union Lodge No. 7, Dover, Del.


            Miguel Aleman President of Mexico 1947-52. Petitioned Antiquities Lodge No. 9 of Grand Lodge Valle de Mexico on Sept. 25, 1930 as a young man of 26. Initiated Oct. 20, 1930; passed April 27, 1931 and raised July 31, 1931. He later demitted to City of Mexico Lodge No. 35. Received AASR degrees 4th through 32nd Nov. 24, 1942 by Grand Commander Antonio Arceo. Made a noble of the Mystic Shrine in Anezeh Temple of Mexico City on Nov. 27, 1945. Son of General Miguel Aleman, who as a revolutionist against Porfirio Diaz, fled to the mountains as an open rebel for three years before the general revolution of 1910, leaving 8-year-old Miguel as head of the house. By sellingpapers he worked his way through the law school of the National University and on graduation set up a thriving law business principally with labor unions and individual workers. His public life began as magistrate of the Veracruz Supreme Court. Was elected to the Senate and in 1936 was appointed Governor of Veracruz, serving until 1940. He resigned as governor to manage the election of his friend, General Avila Camacho, who, when he won, appointed Aleman as Minister of Interior. At 37, he was the youngest cabinet member and Camacho's principal trouble shooter between the federal government and the 28 states. In this capacity he won international recognition for tracking down some 2,000 German and Japanese nationals in deference to the U.S. He was nominated as president by the head of the Latin-American Federation of Labor and his campaign manager was the editor of the labor newspaper, El Popular. Industrialists backed him because he understood the technical necessities of Mexican industry. Scholars and professional men cheered him for his ability and brains. The old revolutionary generals liked his background and political philosophy, and the masses voted for him because he had given them more in the way of social reform than anyone within their memory. He was particularly interested in public education and transportation.


            Alexander I (1777-1825) Czar of Russia from 1801-1825. b. Dec. 23, 1777 and succeeded Paul I q.v. on the throne in 1801. While he prohibited all secret societies in 1801, in 1803 he rescinded this prohibition. It is said that he was convinced by Johann Boeber q.v., later grand master of Russia, of the benefits of Masonry and he not only lifted the ban, but became a member himself. Some sources claim he was initiated in Canongate Kilwinning Lodge of Edinburgh, Scotland and in 1814 acted as master at the conferring of the degrees in a military lodge in Paris on William III, Emperor of Germany. He was, for certain, a member of the Polish Grand Orient. In November, 1815 the Polish Masons gave a banquet in his honor after which he left generous gifts for the Grand Orient. He has been accused of using Freemasonry for political purposes. d. Dec. 1, 1825 under mysterious circumstances. In 1822 he became suspicious of the political dangers inherent in some of the Russian lodges, and on the advice of Grand Master Kushelev of the Grand Lodge "Astra," banned Freemasonry on August 1, 1822. This date marks the destruction of Russian Freemasonry, for his successor, Nicholas I, confirmed the edict on April 21, 1826.


            Alexander III (1241-1286) King of Scotland from 1349. Legend states he favored Freemasons and that Kilwinning Abbey was built under his guidance. Married Margaret, daughter of Henry III, in 1251. Defeated Norwegian invasion in 1263. United Hebrides and Isle of Man to the kingdom.


            Abraham Alexander (?-1816) One of the founders of the Mother Supreme Council, Scottish Rite at Charleston, S. Car. He was born in London and emigrated to this country before 1764, settling in Charleston, where he became secretary to the collector of customs and later auditor. He became first secretary general of the Mother Supreme Council and seems to have been a member of Lodge La Candeur as his signature appears on the minutes of March 18, 1798. Of Jewish religion, he was chazan, or reader for Bayh Elohim congregation. He served as reader for 20 years, resigning in 1784. He died Feb. 21, 1816 and is buried in the Jewish cemetery at Charleston.


              Prince Alexander of Wurtemberg Ben Alexander (1894-1944) President of Masonite Corp. Started as a laborer in the wood pulp industry in 1919 and by 1926 was president of the Masonite Corp. Director or officer of many corporations. Mason.


            George F. Alexander (1882-?) Jurist. U.S. Marshal of Oregon 1917-21. Judge, 1st Division of Alaska since 1933. b. Apr. 20 1882. Mason. 32°, Shriner, president of Juneau Shrine Club 1934-39. Deceased.


            Grover C. Alexander (1887-1950) Early member of Baseball Hall of Fame (1938). A great National League pitcher for two decades with the Phil-lies, Cubs and Cardinals starting in 1911. In 1926 he won the world championship for the Cardinals by striking out Lazzeri with bases full in final crisis at Yankee Stadium. He was raised in St. Paul Lodge No. 82, St. Paul, Nebraska on Feb. 8, 1923 expelled for un-Masonic conduct March 20, 1930.


            Sir Harold R. L. G. Alexander 1st Viscount of Tunis. b. 1891. Served in France, 1914-18 and northwest frontier of India in 1935. Was commander of the 1st Division from 1938-40 and was in charge of the evacuation of the British army from Dunkirk. Assigned to the Burma front in March, 1942, he became commander-in-chief of the Middle East in August. As deputy allied commander-in-chief in North Africa (1943), Alexander, with General Montgomery, who mapped the successful British campaign in Egypt. He commanded Sicilian (July 1943) and Italian (Sept. 1943) invasions. He was made field marshal in November, 1944 and was allied commander-in-chief of Italy in 1944-45. Since 1946 he has been Governor-General of Canada. Alexander is a member of Athlumney Lodge No. 3245 of London, serving as its master in 193839. He is a past grand steward andpast grand warden of the G.L. of England and a member of the house committee of the Royal Masonic Institution for Girls. He is active in Royal Arch Masonry. Born in New Zealand, he was a well known athlete and Olympic games record holder in his youth.


            Hubbard F. Alexander Steamship executive. b. Aug. 14, 1879. Began as wharf agent in Tacoma, Wash. 1894. Later president of the following: Commercial Dock Co. 1901-27; Alaska Pacific S.S. Co. 1907-08; Alaska Coast Co. 1908-11; Pacific Alaska Navigation Co. 1908-26; Pacific Steamship Co. (Admiral Line), 1916-30. Mason, 32°.


            James P. Alexander Judge. (18831948) Chief Justice Supreme Court of Texas (1941-48). Texas lawyer since admittance to bar in 1908. District judge, 19th district of Texas 1920-24; associate justice Court of Civil Appeals, Waco, 1931 to 1940; Mason and Shriner.


            John L. Alexander (1878-1932) Executive Director of American Youth Foundation 1924-32. Served in executive or secretarial capacity for many religious and youth movements including Boy Scouts, Y.M.C.A. Mason.


            Lord Alexander Scottish records show him to be one of the earliest of the speculatives (July 3, 1634) Lodge of Edinburgh. He was Right Honorable Master of the Work to His Majesty.


            Nathaniel Alexander (1756-1808) Governor of North Carolina, 1805-07. Surgeon in the Revolutionary War. Served as an officer of the G.L. of North Carolina in 1802, '03, '06, '07 and was senior grand deacon at his death in 1808.


            Prince Alexander of Orange (Netherlands) Grand Master 1832-84.


            Prince Alexander of Wurtemberg Initiated in 1808 in the Phoenix Lodge in Paris. Was uncle of Emperor Alexander of Russia.


            Robert Alexander (1863-1941) Major General U.S. Army. Advanced in rank from a private in 1886 through grades to Brig. General N.A., 1918 and Maj. General 1918-19 (temp.); Brig. General 1921 and retired as Maj. General 1927. Served in Indian campaign of 1890-91, Philippines, Cuba and Mexico as well as WW1. Mason.


            Algert D. Alexis Rear Admiral U.S. Navy. b. June 25, 1897. Appointed lieutenant (jg) in 1921 and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1950. His speciality in the service was naval construction and he commanded many naval installations both at home and abroad, including staff commander of the service force for the invasion of Japan. He retired in 1954 and is now a consulting civil engineer. Raised in Peter Williamson Lodge No. 323, Scranton, Pa. in 1920. Royal Arch membership in Norfolk, Va. Past president of Charleston, S.C. chapter of the National Sojourners.


            Bernard Soto Alfaro Former president of Costa Rica. He developed a national spirit in the country and is one of the most eminent men produced by the Republic. He entered the lodge Esperanza when a young man and was made "Protector of the Order" in the Supreme Council, AASR.


            Colon Eloy Alfaro Ambassador from Ecuador. b. Jan. 1, 1891, son of Eloy Alfaro, Ecuadorian patriot and president. Educated in Ecuador, U.S. Military Academy, German Cavalry School, and George Washington University. Served as consul general to Canal Zone, Panama, Mexico, Nicaragua, Guatamala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Colombia, Dominican Republic and United States. Was ambassador to U.S. 1936-44. He has also served his country on many special diplomatic missions. Has been a member of the Board of Governors of the Pan American Union at Washington, D.C., since 1947. Mason and 33° AASR. Shriner. Member of Canal Zone Consistory as are his three sons, Eloy, Jaime and Olmedo.


            Eloy Alfaro (1842-1912) Ecuadorian liberator and president. b. June 25, 1842 in Montecristi. He led an uprising against President Cordero (1893-95) and declared himself anticlerical dictator and president of Ecuador from 1897-1901 and 1907-11. He led the revolt of 1906 that deposed President Lisardo Garcia and became constitutional president in 1907. As president he reduced the power of the Roman Catholic church. More laws for the betterment of public schools and social reforms for the people were enacted during his presidency than there had been in the 120 years since the Republic was established. Most of his life was spent in exile. As a disciple of Bolivar he advocated Pan-Americanism and convened the second Pan American Congress in Mexico City in 1896. Alfaro was responsible for the introduction of the "Panama hat" to the world. While in exile in Panama, he imported the Ecuador-made toquilla hats which he sold in great numbers to travelers passing through the Isthmus. Having been purchased in Panama, the hats were presumed to be products of the country and thus became known as "Panamas." Alfaro attempted to aid Cuba in securing its independence from Spain and in 1895 sent an impassioned letter to Queen Marie Cristina of Spain, pleading for Cuban independence. He resigned as president Aug. 12, 1911 hoping to prevent a revolt and continue the liberal regime. When a new revolt broke out, he returned from his exile in Panama hoping to effect a conciliation between the factions. He was seized in Guayaquil and sent over the railway which he had built to Quito where he was thrown into jail and a few hours later (Jan. 28, 1912) was murdered. Affectionately called "Citizen of the Americas," he has been honored with monuments and statues in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico and the United States. Busts of Alfaro in the U.S. are found in St. Augustine, Florida; Lincoln, Nebraska; House of the Temple, Washington, D.C.; Washington National Memorial at Alexandria, and Gainesville, Florida. Even Spain named a street in his ancestral town of Cervera del Rio Alhambra for him.


            Bruce R. Alger Congressman, 84th Congress from 5th Texas district. b. June 12, 1918. Owner of Alger Development Co., Bruce Alger Realtor, Modernair Construction Co., all of Dallas. 32° AASR and Shriner.


            Russell A. Alger (1836-1907) Major General in Civil War, working his way from the ranks. Served as governor of Michigan from 1885-87 and was Secretary of War under McKinley from 1897-99, resigning at McKinley's request because of criticism directed against the War Department for inefficiency. Member of Corinthian Lodge No. 241 of Detroit, being raised Dec. 9, 1895.


            Francois D' Alincourt French gentleman, who, in the year 1776 was sent with Don Gyres de Ornellas Pracao, q.v. a Portuguese nobleman, to prison, by the governor of the island of Madeira, for being Freemasons.


            Sir Archibald Alison (1792-1867) English author. b. Dec. 29, 1792 at Kenley, Shropshire, England and d. May 23, 1867 at Glasgow, Scotland. Received his degrees at Glasgow Kilwinning Lodge in 1837. An historian; and as sheriff of Lanarkshire suppressed the riots of 1837. Author of History of Europe during the French Revolution (1833-42) in ten volumes and a nine volume continuation in 1852-59.


            John S. Allard Brigadier General and corporation executive. b. Jan. 16, 1897. Served overseas with Air Force, 1942-45, and promoted from colonel to brigadier general in 1944. President of Curtis-Wright Export Corp. since 1929; vice pres. of Curtis-Wright Corp. since 1929 and director of Wright Aeronautical Corp., Curtis-Wright Airplane Co., and Curtis-Wright Airports Co. Mason.


            Herbert J. Allemang Vice president of Philco Corp. since 1951. b. May 3, 1902. Raised in South Bend Lodge No. 294, South Bend, Ind. in 1923. Member of AASR (NJ) in South Bend and Medinah Shrine Temple.


            Alfred G. Allen (1867-1932) Congressman from Ohio to 62nd, 63rd, and 64th Congresses (1911-17). Lawyer. Mason.


            Charles H. Allen (1848-1934) First governor of Puerto Rico. b. April 15, 1848 at Lowell, Mass. He was a member of the Massachusetts house of representatives in 1881 and '82 and in the state senate in 1883. He was a member of the 49th and 50th Congresses (1885-89), and assistant secretary of the Navy from 1898-1900. After the United States freed the island of Puerto Rico from a 400-year despotic rule of Spain he became its first governor (1900-02). He was a member of William North Lodge of Lowell, Mass.


            Ethan Allen (1738-1789) Major General in Revolution. Gained fame as a colonel commanding the "Green Mountain Boys," who with Benedict Arnold, q.v., seized Fort Ticonderoga on May 10, 1775. He was captured at Montreal and held prisoner from 177578, exchanged and returned to Vermont. Although he has been described as one "who seems to have been a Master Mason" it is thought that he only received one degree at Windsor, Vt. on July 7, 1777. His brother Ira, q.v., was a member of Vermont Lodge No. 1. Probably not a Mason. Was a prisoner in England on date given for his first degree in Windsor, Vt.


            Ethan N. Allen Baseball coach. b. Jan. 1, 1904. An outfielder with various National League teams 1926-36 and with Browns of American League since 1938; motion picture director of National League public relations dept. 1938-42; head coach at Yale in 1946. Has done sports announcing and written several books on baseball. Member of Yeatman Lodge No. 162, Cincinnati, Ohio, 32° Ohio Consistory at Cincinnati and Shriner.


            Ezra G. Allen (1885-1952) Rear Admiral U.S. Navy. b. March 11, 1885 at Scranton, Pa. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy, 1907. Ensign. U.S. Navy in 1907, advancing to rear admiral. Mason. d. January, 1952.


            Frank G. Allen Former governor of Massachusetts. b. Lynn, Mass. Oct. 6, 1874. Was raised in Orient Lodge, Norwood, Mass. June 23, 1920, receiving 33° in Northern Jurisdiction, Sept. 16, 1930.


            George W. Allen (?-1928) Chief Justice Supreme Court of Colorado, 1926-28. Member Pennsylvania House of Representatives 1874-76 moving to Colorado in 1880. Judge district court, Denver 1888-1910. Republican nominee for governor 1896 and defeated for U.S. Senator 1896. Justice of Supreme Court 1916-26. Died Jan. 29, 1928. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.


            Henry J. Allen (1868-1950) U.S. Senator and former governor of Kansas. b. Sept. 11, 1868 in Warren Co., Pa. Began as editor of Manhattan Nationalist in 1894 and later owned and operated several daily newspapers in Kansas; chairman of board of Wichita Daily Beacon Publishing Co. Governor of Kansas from 1919-23 and appointed U.S. Senator to succeed Vice-president Curtis in 1929. Assistant to Charles G. Dawes, pres. of Reconstruction Finance Corp. in 1932. Editor of the Topeka Journal from 1935 until death. Director of publicity for the Hoover-Curtis campaign in 1928 and as president of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Tidewater Assn., helped prepare treaty between U.S. and Canada on that project. Active abroad in WW1 in Red Cross work. Mason. d. Jan. 17, 1950.


            Hervey Allen Author, who although not a Freemason, is one of the few writers of historical novels to give credit for the part Freemasonry played in our Revolutionary period. Among his writings are Anthony Adverse, 1933; The Forest and the Fort, 1943; and Bedford Village, 1944. b. Dec. 8, 1889. Mr. Allen wrote on May 23, 1944 as follows: "Several members of the fraternity have written in asking if I hold membership. I do not and never have. My father and grandfather and a great many other relatives have been Masons for many generations back, but for various reasons I have never joined. My interest in the theme of Masonry in American life is purely historical, and I think that my not being a member is at this time perhaps a help in my stressing the theme, as I can do so without any suspicion of being a special pleader from the inside. There is no doubt that for some reason or other American historians have overlooked one of the prime and deep-running influences in American life. As you know, there are many reasons for that.”


            Hubert A. Allen (1872-1942) Brigadier General U.S. Army. Actively identified with Iowa national guard for 25 years. Served as captain in Spanish-American war and appointed brigadier general in 1917. Mason.


            Ira Allen (1751-1814) Brother of Ethan Allen q.v. and politically active in the Revolutionary period. b. Cornwall, Conn., he with two other fellow members of Vermont Lodge No. 1 (now 18), led the fight for statehood of Vermont. The others were Thomas Chittenden q.v. and Dr. Jonas Fay q.v. Between 1780 and 1791 he was in negotiation with the British which was thought to force Congress to recognize Vermont's claims—which they did on March 4, 1791. He assisted in the founding of the Univ. of Vermont in 1789. He was initiated in Vermont Lodge No. 1 of Charleston, N.H. in 1782.


            Ivan E. Allen Business executive who gave Fort Mountain to state of Georgia; it is now one of the state parks. b. Mar. 1, 1877 at Dalton, Ga. Chairman of Ivan Allen-Marshall Co.; Ivan Allen Bldg., Atlanta Blank Book Mfg. Co., and has served on many state political and civic boards including term as state senator 1919-21. A Knight Templar and Shriner.


            James M. Allen General in the Civil War. A Mason.


            J. Edward Allen Educator and writer. Instructor in public school system of Warrenton, N.C. since 1907 and served as superintendent of public instruction for Warren Co. since 1919. Member board of trustees Wake Forest College since 1922; board of trustees, state school for blind and deaf; on board of Oxford Orphanage. Grand Master G.L. of North Carolina 1939-40. Also headed state York Rite bodies and Shrine. Writer of many Masonic books and articles including revision of Goulds History of Freemasonry published by Scribners in 1936. b. March 21, 1887 at Warrenton, N.C.


            John Allen 3rd Viscount Grand Master, G.L. of Ireland, 1744.


            John E. Allen (1873-1945) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New Hampshire, 1934-43. Educated at Dartmouth and Harvard, he was admitted to N.H. bar in 1897, serving as probate judge from 1899 to 1906. He was associate justice of Superior Court of N.H. 1917-24 and 1924-34 before becoming chief justice. Mason.


            John M. Allen Major in Texas-Mexican War. He came to Texas attracted by the rumors of impending conflict between Americans and Mexicans. As commander of the armed ship Terrible, he had been ordered to New Orleans for the purpose of recruiting soldiers for the impending conflict. While in New Orleans he received a charter from the grand secretary of the G.L. of Louisiana for Holland Lodge No. 36 to be delivered to Anson Jones q.v. General Sam Houston q.v. sent an orderly to Allen advising him of the impending clash and urging speed to the reinforcements he had. Allen joined Houston's forces, carrying with him the charter and other communications from the G.L. of Louisiana. He met Anson Jones (to be first Grand Master of Texas) on the prairie between Croce's and San Jacinto, while Houston's army was on the march just before the battle of San Jacinto. Jones placed it in his saddlebags and carried it through the battle of San Jacinto.


            Lee E. Allen Congressman from 16th district of Illinois to 73rd to 80th Congresses inclusive (1933-49). b. Oct. 5, 1898 at Elizabeth, Ill. Taught school, served as circuit court clerk and has practiced law since 1930. Mason.


            Oscar K. Allen Former governor of Louisiana. Member of Eastern Star Lodge No. 151, Winnfield, La.


            Peter B. Allen General U.S. Army. First master of Terre Haute Lodge No. 19, Terre Haute, Indiana.


            William Allen Purchased the ground for the State House (Independence Hall) at Philadelphia in 1729 and gave a grand banquet in 1736 at the inauguration of the building. It was here that the Declaration of Independence was signed.


            Roger Allin Former governor of North Dakota. Member of Golden Valley Lodge No. 6, Park River, N.D.


            James B. Allison Major General, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 15, 1873 at York, S. Car. Appointed 2nd lieutenant in 1898 advancing through grades to major general in 1935 when he became chief signal officer. Retired in 1937. Served in Mexican War and WW1. Mason.


            William B. Allison (1829-1908) U.S. Senator from Iowa 1873-1909. b. March 2, 1829 at Perry, 0. Admitted to bar in 1850, he practiced in Ohio until 1858 when he moved to Dubuque, Iowa. Raised troops for Civil War and was U.S. Representative in Congress from 1863-71. In 1888 and 1896 he was a candidate for Republican presidential nomination. A charter member of Mosaic Lodge No. 125 of Dubuque, Iowa, he was honorary senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1889.


            James V. Allred Governor of Texas 1935-39. b. Mar. 29, 1899 at Bowie, Texas. Admitted to Texas bar in 1924. Served as district attorney 1923-25 and attorney general of Texas 193135. U.S. District Judge, southern district of Texas 1939-42. Practicing attorney since 1942. Raised in Bowie Lodge No. 578 July 6, 1920. Received Scottish Rite degrees in 1926. K.C.C.H.


            Avery Allyn Anti-Masonic writer. Once a member of lodge, chapter and commandery in Connecticut.


            Edward B. Almon (1860-1933) Congressman from Alabama to 64th to 72nd Congresses (1915-33). b. April 18, 1860 at Moulton, Ala. Admitted to bar 1883. Member Alabama state senate 1892-96 and speaker of house of representatives in 1911. Judge of 11th circuit 1898-1906. Mason.


            James L. Almond, Jr. Congressman and attorney-general of Virginia. b. June 15, 1898 at Charlottesville, Va. Served as prosecuting attorney and judge at Roanoke and in the 79th and 80th Congresses from Virginia. Has been attorney-general of Virginia since 1948. Past potentate of Shrine.


            Alfred S. Alschuler (1876-1940) Architect. b. Chicago, Nov. 2, 1876. Graduate of Armour Institute of Technology and studied at Art Institute of Chicago. Designed the following Chicago buildings: London Guarantee and Accident, Westminster, Cunard, John R. Thompson, John Sexton, Utilities, Lake Michigan, Mercantile Exchange, Adams Franklin and Garment Center buildings; plans of E. J. Brach & Son, Chicago Mail Order, Sinai Temple and Isaiah Temple. Mason.


            Richard Alsop (1761-1815) American author and poet. b. Middletown, Conn. Was one of the Hartford wits, collaborating in the writing of The Echo, a verse satire which appeared in the American Mercury and published in book form in 1807. Among other works is A Poem, Sacred to the Memory of George Washington (1800). A member of St. John's Lodge No. 2, Middletown, Conn. There was a Richard Alsop who became a member of Hiram Lodge No. 1 at New Haven, Conn. in 1752 and may have been his father.


            Wilbur M. Alter Chief justice, Supreme Court of Colorado since 1955. b. Dec. 17, 1879 at Allegheny, Pa. Admitted to Colorado bar in 1906. Judge of Supreme Court of Colorado from 1928-33; 1944-46; 1946 to present. Past state commander of American Legion. Served in WW1 as an enlisted man. Raised in Victor Lodge No. 99, Victor, Colo. in 1909. Demitted from chapter and commandery at Cripple Creek and shrine in Denver.


            Paul S. Althouse (1889-1954) American opera tenor. b. 1889 at Reading, Pa., made his debut with Metropolitan Opera Co., N.Y. in 1913. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 435, Reading, Pa. 32° AASR (SJ) at Reading, Pa. and member of Rajah Shrine Temple, Reading. d. Feb. 6, 1954 and service was conducted by Grand Lodge of New York at Rutgers Presbyterian Church on Feb. 8.


            Francisco E. Alvarado Former secretary of state of Costa Rica. He also served as president of the chamber of representatives and administrator-general of railways. A member of Caridad Lodge No. 26.


            Francisco P. Alvarado Costa Rican banker. He was one of the founders of the Scottish Rite of Central America. A banker and teacher, he was benefactor of San Juan de Dios Hospital. A member of Caridad No. 26.


            Carlos Maria de Alvear (1789-1853) Argentine patriot, general and coworker with San Martin, q.v. He took a prominent part in the liberation wars of Argentine both politically and militarily. In 1814 he was the victorious besieger of Montevideo, Uruguay, and a year later was named "supreme administrator." In 1839 he was appointed minister to the United States, where he died. He was a founder of the Lau-taro Lodge in 1812 together with San Martin, liberator of the country.


            Claude B. Alverson (1878-1922) Judge, Supreme Court of New York, 1921-22. Knight Templar, 32° AASR and Shriner.


            Count Goblet d' Alviella (1846-1925) Belgian writer on religious history, and politician. Also known as Comte Eugene. Was grand commander of the Supreme Council 33° of Belgium.


            Richard IL Amberg Publisher of St. Louis Globe-Democrat from Sept., 1955. b. June 5, 1912 in New York City. Graduated from Harvard in 1933. Editor and publisher of newspapers in Oil City and Knox, Pa. from 1937-41 and also Sportsman's Hunting & Fishing Digest same years. He was director of publicity for the American Transit Assn. from 1945-47 and general manager of Newsday in 1947-49. In 1949-50 he was administrative assistant on the New York Herald Tribune and general manager and director of The Post Standard, Syracuse, N.Y. from 1950-52. Raised in Oil City Lodge No. 710, Oil City, Pa. in 1938. Member of Oil City Chapter No. 236, R.A.M. and Talbot Cornmandery No. 43, K.T. both of Oil City. 32° AASR, Valley of St. Louis (SJ). Member of St. Leo Conclave No. 71, Red Cross of Constantine, Syracuse, N.Y. and Moolah Shrine Temple, St. Louis, Mo.


            John Frederick Amelung Early American glass manufacturer. In March, 1789 he visited George Washington at Mt. Vernon and presented him with two engraved gobets with Washington's coat of arms. A zealous Mason, he established a lodge in Frederick Co., Maryland sometime between 1790 and 1799.


            James E. Ament (?-1936) College president and educator. b. Woodburn, Ill. Graduated from Illinois Normal, Transylvania Univ. and a Ph.D. from Oskaloosa College. Served as president of state teachers colleges in Oklahoma, Missouri, Indiana and Pennsylvania. Inspected educational facilities in England, Scotland, France, Germany and Switzerland. Ament became president of the ultra National Park Seminary for Women at Washington, D.C. in 1916 and was president and owner until his death in 1936. He was a 32° AASR (SJ).


            19 Leopold S. Amery

            Leopold S. Amery (1873-1955) English publicist, statesman and mountaineer. b. Nov. 22, 1873 in India. Friend of Winston Churchill q.v. at school days in Harrow and later when he was correspondent of the Times in the South African War when Churchill was correspondent of Daily Telegraph. He served with the army in Flanders and Near East (1914-16). He became first lord of admiralty in 1922, serving until 1924 when he became secretary of state for colonies 1924-29 and secretary for dominion affairs from 1925-29. In 1945-49 he was secretary for India and Burma. Endowed with a strong physique, he was an avid mountaineer and three peaks have been named for him—one in South Africa Drakenberg, one in the Canadian Rockies and the third on Kerguelen Island on the edge of the Antarctic. Member of Canada Lodge No. 3527, London and 10th master of that lodge in 1920.


            Ezra Ames (1768-1836) Portrait painter. b. Framingham, Mass. May 5, 1768. Painted portraits of Washington, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Martin Van Buren, George Clinton, DeWitt Clinton. Served as grand high priest of the G.C. of New York for 24 years, and was general grand scribe of the General Grand Chapter for ten years (1806-16). From 1816-20 he served as grand captain general of the Grand Encampment, Knights Templar. Died Feb. 23, 1836.


            Oliver Ames Former governor of Massachusetts. Although his membership is not known, he was made an honorary member of Columbian Lodge of Boston; was present at a meeting of Washington Lodge in Roxbury March 15, 1866; delivered a Masonic oration before Meridian Lodge, Natick, Mass., June, 1888.


            Louis Amiable (1837-1897) French Masonic historian.


            Arthur Oliver Villiers, Lord Ampthill (1869-1935) English nobleman of the Russell family, holding the earldom of Bedford (from 1550), dukedom of Bedford (from 1694) and barony of Ampthill (from 1881). b. Feb. 19, 1869 at Rome, Italy where his father was British ambassador. Linguist and rowing man, he saw service in WW1, being twice mentioned in dispatches and attaining the rank of brevet colonel. He served as private secretary to Joseph Chamberlain (1895-99) and was governor of Madras from 1899 to 1906. In 1904 he was appointed acting Viceroy of India. Ampthill was appointed by King Edward VII (then grand master) as provincial grand master for Bedfordshire on Nov. 17, 1891, and later served 27 years as pro grand master (1908-35) under H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught. He was one of the founders of the National Party in 1918. Member of Apollo Lodge, Oxford, England.


            Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) Discoverer of South Pole. A Norwegian polar explorer. b. Borge, Norway. He discovered the South Pole in December, 1911. In 1903-06 he navigated the northwest passage and fixed the position of the North magnetic pole, and in 1926 he flew across the North pole with Lincoln Ellsworth. He disappeared in June, 1928 on flight to rescue Nobile who was lost returning from North Pole. Said by several sources to be a Freemason but no lodge ever specified.


            Charles L. Anceney (1863-?) Pioneer cattle rancher of the West. b. April 17, 1863 at Denver, Colo., he was in charge of a cattle outfit at the age of 14. Anceney was with the first herd of cattle going into lower Yellowstone ranges in 1879 and was on the first drive to Bismarck, N. Dak. in 1881. At one time he swam the Missouri river and loaded a shipment of cattle to Buffalo, N.Y. Fought with Sioux, Blackfeet and Cheyenne Indians. Was an associate of Child & Anceney (Harry W. Child), 1910 in the Flying D. Cattle Ranges, covering 500,000 acres and furnishing support to 15,000 to 25,000 head of cattle. President of Gallatin Gateway State Bank, promoted Camp Creek Branch of Northern Pacific Railway which terminated at townsite of Anceney, Mont. Mason. Deceased.


            William, Earl of Ancrum Fortieth Grand Master of Scotland, 1794-95 and later the 6th Marquis of Lothian.


            Clinton P. Anderson U.S. Secretary of Agriculture and senator. b. Oct. 23, 1895 at Centerville, S. Dak. Was state treasurer of New Mexico 1933-34; member of 77th to 79th Congresses from New Mexico (1941-47); secretary of agriculture in Truman's cabinet (1945-48) and elected U.S. Senator from N. Mexico in Nov., 1948. Was raised in Albuquerque Lodge No. 60 in 1917. Member of Rio Grande Chapter No. 4, R.A.M. and Pilgrim Commandery No. 3, K.T. 32° AASR in Orient of New Mexico; KCCH in 1937 and 33° in 1945. He is past potentate of Ballut Abyad Shrine Temple (1937), member of Tall Cedars of Lebanon, Santa Fe Conclave No. 55, Red Cross of Constantine, National Sojourners and Royal Order of Jesters.


            Edward Anderson (1833-1916) Clergyman and Civil War soldier. b. Nov. 19, 1833. Studied theology and was ordained pastor in the Congregational ministry in 1858. Served pastorates in Michigan, Ill., Ohio, and Conn. In the Civil War he served with John Brown in Kansas; was chaplain of the 37th Illinois Volunteers until after the Missouri Campaign in 1862 and was colonel with the 12th Indian Volunteer Cavalry until close of war. Mason.


            George T. Anderson General in Confederate army. Said to have been a Freemason.

 George W. Anderson (1861-1938) Judge. b. Sept. 1, 1861 at Acworth, N.H. Attended Boston Law School and Boston University, opening practice in 1890. U.S. District Attorney of Mass. 1914-17; member interstate commerce commission 1917-18; became judge U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, Boston, 1918. Retired. Trustee World Peace Foundation and Cushing Academy. Mason. Died Feb. 14, 1938.


            Heartley W. "Hunk" Anderson Notre Dame football coach. Member of Calumet Lodge No. 271, Calumet, Michigan.


            Jack Z. Anderson Congressman to 76th to 80th Congresses from California (1939-49). b. March 22, 1904. An orchardist at San Juan Bautista, Calif. since 1923. Raised in Texas Lodge No. 46, San Juan Bautista, Calif. on Dec. 20, 1946.


            James Anderson (1680?-1739) Compiler of the famous Anderson's Constitutions of 1723 and 1738 which are recognized as being the first printed volumes dealing officially with Freemasonry. The records of the United Grand Lodge of England show that Bro. James Anderson was ordered to "digest the old Gothic Constitution in a new and better method," on Sept. 29, 1721. Only three months later Dr. Anderson presented his finished production to the grand lodge (Dec. 27, 1721), which has come down to us as the basis for all Freemasonry. The historical part, however, which traces the history from the Garden of Eden to 1721 is quite fanciful, unreliable and pretentious. No one today would quote that part as an authority. It was not until the following March (1722) that a committee was appointed to examine the character of the revision, and it was not until 1723 that the volume came from the printer. The first edition was followed by a second in 1738, the latter being more valuable because it contains some history about the grand lodge covering the period 1717-1738. James Anderson, M.A., D.D., was born about 1780 at Aberdeen, Scotland, and was educated at Marischal College where he received his M.A. degree and it is thought he earned his D.D. degree about 1731 from the same college. There are no records of his life from the time of his receiving his college training until after his arrival in London. It is recorded in state records that he and his church (Scotch Presbyterian) purchased a lease of the French Protestant Chapel in Swallow St., Piccadilly on Feb. 15, 1709-10 from Rev. Jean Desaguliers, minister of the church and father of Dr. J. T. Desaguliers q.v. Anderson came from a Masonic family; his father serving as secretary of the well known Scottish Lodge Aberdeen and as master in 1688-89. It is highly possible that the son may have entered Freemasonry during the period the father served as master. Little can be learned of his Masonic connections previous to 1721. He was not at the revival of Freemasonry in 1717, but he assumed the station of grand warden of the grand lodge, January 17, 1723, and was master of Lodge No. 17 in 1723 (Masonic students have not been able to identify this lodge.) He was, however, shown as a member of Lodge of the Horn in 1723, and later of other lodges meeting in London. In addition to the Constitutions, he was the author of some non-Masonic books including Royal Genealogies, or the Genealogical Tables of Emperors, Kings and Princes, from Adam to These Times (1732) and Unity in Trinity (1733). He attended grand lodge fifteen times between 1723 and 1728, acting as grand warden on four occasions. His death was May 28, 1739, shortly after he had issued the second edition of the Constitutions. He was buried in Bunhill Fields with Masonic services, and accounted for the ear- liest known account of a Masonic funeral which appeared in the London Daily Post of June 2, 1739: "Last night (June 1) was interr'd the corpse of Dr. Anderson, a Dissenting Teacher, in a very remarkable deep Grave. His pall was supported by five Dissenting Teachers, and the Rev. Dr. Desaguliers; it was followed by a dozen of Freemasons who encircled the Grave; and after Dr. Earle had harangued on the Uncertainty of Life &c, without one word of the Deceased, the Brethren, in the most solomn dismal Posture, lifted up their Hands, sigh'd, and struck their aprons three times in Honour to the Deceased.”


            Jesse T. Anderson State superintendent of education of South Carolina since 1946. b. Oct. 26, 1892 at Timmonsville, S.C. Member board of trustees of Univ. of South Carolina, The Citadel, Winthrop College and state school for the blind. Past master and member of all York Rite bodies serving as deputy grand commander in 1951.


            Joseph I. Anderson (1757-1837) Senator from Tennessee from 17951815 and first comptroller of U.S. Treasury, 1815-36. b. White Marsh, Pa. and served through Revolutionary War as captain and brevet major. He was a member of Military Lodge No. 19 of Pennsylvania. When serving as regimental paymaster of the 1st New Jersey he was a member of Lodge No. 36 in the New Jersey Brigade. After the war he became 1st senior warden of Princeton Lodge No. 38 (N.J.).


            Richard C. Anderson (1750-1826) Officer of the American Revolution. He was first master of Lexington Lodge No. 25 (now 1 of Kentucky) and was presumed to have been a member of Fredericksburg No. 4 of Va., as he was very close to General Washington. b. Jan. 12, 1750 in Hanover Co., Va. As a captain in the 5th Virginia Continentals, he led the advance of the Americans at the battle of Trenton in 1776, crossing the Delaware in the first boat; was wounded in this action; promoted to major of the 6th Virginia in 1778 and transferred to the 1st Virginia in Sept., 1778. Fought in battles of Brandywine and Germantown and was again wounded at Savannah May 12, 1779 and taken prisoner at Charleston in May, 1780. A daring leader he was at the death-bed of Count Pulaski q.v. and the dying Pole gave him his sword as a memento. After the war he removed to the wilderness of Kentucky near Louisville, and led the life of a pioneer and Indian fighter until advancing civilization pushed the frontier farther west. He obtained the charter for the Louisville lodge from the Grand Lodge of Virginia. d. Oct. 16, 1826.


            Robert Anderson (1805-1871) Major General U.S. Army who was in command of Fort Sumter at time of Confederate attack. Known as "hero of Fort Sumter." b. in Kentucky and graduated from West Point in 1825. Raised in Mercer Lodge No. 50, Trenton, N.J. May 27, 1858. He was also an honorary member of Pacific Lodge No. 233 of New York City. In 1859 he was senior warden of Mercer lodge, but was ordered to another station and withdrew at the end of the year. He received the Knight Templar orders in Columbian Commandery No. 1 of New York City in December, 1862 and January, 1863 and was made a life member Oct. 28, 1867. d. Nice, France Oct. 27, 1871.


            Robert B. Anderson Secretary of the Navy in Eisenhower cabinet (appointed in 1953) and deputy secretary of defense (which he resigned in 1955). b. June 4, 1910 at Burleson, Texas, he received his law degree from University of Texas in 1932.


            While still in law school he ran for the state legislature and won. He served as assistant attorney-general of Texas in 1933 and taught law at Texas University. Anderson has served as general manager of the Waggoner estate—and largest cattle ranch in Texas—since 1941. He has probably been director and president of more large corporations than any one man in Texas. He is a member of Vernon Lodge No. 655 of Vernon, Texas and while Secretary of the Navy returned from Washington to be installed as master on Oct. 17, 1953. In December, 1953 he was appointed grand senior steward of the G.L. of Texas and addressed the G.L. at the 1954 communication. He is a member of the Chapter, Council and Commandery at Vernon, the AASR (SJ) and Maskat Shrine Temple.


            Robert H. Anderson Brigadier General in Confederate Army. Served as commander of Palestine Commandery, K.T. No. 7 at Savannah, Georgia in 1886-87.


            Rudolph M. Anderson Zoologist, explorer, writer and government official. b. June 30, 1876 near Decorah, Iowa. Ph.D. from University of Iowa in 1906. Taught zoology and was associated with many schools and museums in U.S. and Canada. Was chief of division of biology of National Museum of Canada from 1920-46. Active in biological and anthropological explorations to Arctic Alaska, Yukon and Northwest Territories 1908-12; chief of southern party Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-16; naturalist on Canadian Arctic expedition to Greenland and Canadian Arctic Archipelago, 1928. Mason.


            Sigurd Anderson Governor of South Dakota (1951-55). b. Arendal, Norway, Jan. 22, 1904 and brought to U.S. in 1906, becoming a citizen upon his father's naturalization in 1912. Graduated in law from the University of South Dakota in 1931. Was assistant attorney general of South Dakota in 1941-43 and later attorney general. Served as an officer in the U.S. Navy in WW2. Now with the Federal Trade Commission in Washington. He was raised in Coteau Lodge No. 54 at Webster, S. Dak. in 1943; member of Rabboni Chapter No. 23, RA.M., Webster; Temple Council No. 7 R. & S.M. Pierre; and Damascus Commandery No. 10, K.T. Aberdeen; 32° AASR at Yankton; Yelduz Shrine Temple at Aberdeen; Order of Eastern Star, Webster; and National Sojourners in Washington, D.C. He served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of South Dakota.


            Thomas 0. Anderson Naval officer U.S. Navy. As a lieutenant, he assisted Commodore Decatur in destroying the ship Philadelphia in the harbor of Tripoli in 1804. Raised in Harmony Lodge No. 23 Newton, N.J. on Nov. 28, 1803.


            Victor Emanuel Anderson Governor of Nebraska since 1955. b. March 30, 1902 at Havelock, Nebr. Owner of Anderson Hardware & Plumbing Co. since 1924; Victor Anderson Bottle Gas Co. since 1946; president Havelock (Nebr.) National Bank; Nebraska state senator in 194950. Raised in George Washington Lodge No. 250, Lincoln, Nebr. in 1928. Member of AASR (SJ) at Lincoln, Nebraska. Also member of Shrine, Jesters and DeMolay.


            Wilhelm A. Anderson Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. July 22, 1894 at Hana-Maui, T.H. Served as 1st lieutenant in WW1. Called to active service in 1940 and made brigadier general (temp.) in 1942. Mason and National Sojourner.


            William F. Anderson (1860-1944) Bishop, Methodist Episcopal Church. b. April 22, 1860 at Morgantown, Va. (now W. Va.) Ordained in 1887 and elected bishop in 1908, retiring in 1932. During that time he was resident bishop of Chattanooga, Tenn., Cincinnati, Ohio, and Boston, Mass. He was acting president of Boston Univ. in 1925-26. Visited many foreign missions prior to WW1 and during that war made five trips abroad as member of Emergency and Reconstruction Committee of the church. Mason and 32° AASR.


            William H. Anderson Prohibitionist. b. Aug. 8, 1874 at Carlinville, Ill. Graduated from Univ. of Michigan and Illinois Wesleyan. His attorney-ship for the Anti-Saloon League of Illinois led him into a lifetime fight against alcohol. His successful fight for the Illinois local option law brought him to New York in 1906-07 as associate supt. of the New York Anti-Saloon League and state supt. of the Maryland League from 1907-14. He returned to New York in 1914 and was general state supt. of their League until 1924, securing enough congressional votes to submit the 18th Amendment. His defeat of the Tammany organization caused them to indict him in July, 1923 for an "alteration" of the League's books (which the auditors had officially approved). He was convicted in Feb., 1924 and sent to the state prison for nine months in spite of the League's denunciation of it as "a monstrous perversion of justice." He founded the American Christian Alliance of which he has been general secretary since 1926. Mason and 32° AASR.


            Gomez Freire d' Andrade (1685?-1763) Portuguese general and administrator. b. Coimbra. Governor and captain general of Rio de Janerio (1733-63.) Celebrated in de Gama's epic poem, Epicos Brasileiros. He was a Venerable of the Lodge Virtude at Lisbon and a member of the Lusitanio Grand Orient.


            General Ignacio Andrade President of the Republic of Venezuela from 1898 to 1899. A 32° Freemason.



            Thomas G. Andrews Count Gyula (Jules) Andrassy (1823-1890) Hungarian patriot and statesman. b. March 3, 1823. Allied himself with Louis Kossuth q.v. in the revolt of 1848 and was exiled until 1857 when he returned to Austria. During his exile he became a Freemason in 1851 in France. He was elected to the diet in 1861, becoming its vice-president in 1865. He was first constitutional prime minister in 1867, foreign minister in 1871, and plenipotentiary at Congress of Berlin in 1878. d. Feb. 18, 1890.


            Christopher Karl Andre Austrian cleric. An active Freemason who resided at Brunn, Moravia, where, in 1789, he was director of the Evangelical Academy.


            Johann Valentin Andrea (1586-1654) Protestant theologian, alchemist, satirical writer and early Rosicrucian. Said to have been a Mason. Grandson of Jakob Andrea, theologian active in organizing and uniting the Lutheran church in Germany.


            Adolphus Andrews ( 1879 - 1948 ) Vice admiral commanding the Eastern Sea Frontier of WW2 (1942-43). b. Oct. 7, 1879 at Galveston, Texas and graduated from Naval Academy in 1907. Promoted through grades to rear admiral, 1934. Naval aid to Theodore Roosevelt, Harding and Coolidge. Commanded several ships including Mayflower, Massachusetts and Texas. Commanded New London, Conn. submarine base 1927-29; chief of staff Naval War College, 1931-33; chief of staff, U.S. Fleet, 1934-35; chief of Bureau of Navigation, 1935-38; Raised in Temple Noyes Lodge No. 32, Washington, D.C. on July 13, 1911, d. June 19, 1948.


            Alexander B. Andrews (1873-1946) Lawyer, writer. b. Feb. 2, 1873 at Henderson, N.C. Admitted to N.C. bar in 1894. Prominent in Episcopal lay circles; delegate to American Council on Education 1932-37; member board of trustees Univ. of N.C. from 1927. Grand master of G.L. of N.C. 1917 and grand commander, grand commandery 1907. Wrote Digest of Masonic Law, 1841-1926. d. Oct. 21, 1946.


            Charles 0. Andrews (?-1946) Senator from Florida from 1936-46. b. Ponce de Leon, Fla. Admitted to bar in 1907 and served variously as judge of criminal court, assistant attorney general of Florida, circuit judge and member of Florida house of representatives. Member of Orlando Lodge No. 69, Orlando. d. Sept. 18, 1946.


            Frank Andrews (1864-1936) Judge, Supreme Court of Texas from 1918. b. Fayette Co., Texas, June 15, 1864. Assistant attorney general of Texas, 1891-95; judge court of civil appeals, 1899. d. Dec. 7, 1936. Mason.


            Isaac Andrews Private secretary to George Washington. A member of Dundee Lodge No. 123, Dundee, N.Y.


            Robert Andrews Revolutionary chaplain of the 2nd Virginia regiment in the Continental Army. This illustrious clergyman was the acting master of the meeting at which John Blair, Jr. was chosen as the first grand master of masons in Virginia on October 13, 1778, and later presided over the grand lodge when Blair was installed. He later became grand master himself. He was past master of Williamsburg lodge at the time he opened the October 13th meeting of the grand lodge.


            Thomas G. Andrews (1882-1942) Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma 1929-35. b. Aug. 29, 1882. Admitted to Oklahoma bar in 1911. Active in Oddfellows, serving as G.M. of Oklahoma and representative to the supreme grand lodge for 14 years. Member of the ritual revision committee and chairman of judiciary committee (natl.). Elected grand sire 1937. He was a Knight Templar, 33° AASR and Shriner. d. Sept. 1942.


            Harvey A. Andruss President of State Teachers College, Bloomsburg, Pa. since 1939. b. Feb. 19, 1902 at Fort Worth, Texas, he has had a long and distinguished career as teacher, lecturer and advisor to labor, business and government on business law, bookkeeping, accounting and civil service. Mason, 32° AASR.


            William R. Angell (1877-1950) President of Continental Aeronautic Corp. b. Feb. 10, 1877 at Jesup, Iowa. Admitted to Illinois bar in 1899, beginning with Continental Motors in 1916 and becoming president from 1930-39. In addition to the Aeronautic Corp., he has served as president of Continental Aircraft Engine Co., Continental Divco Co., Home Finance Co. and Midland Corp., as well as being a director of several other companies. Mason. d. Jan. 25, 1950.


            Frank M. Angellotti (1861-1932) Justice, Supreme Court of California, 1902-14. b. Sept. 4, 1861 at San Rafael, Calif. Raised in Marin Lodge No. 191, San Rafael Feb. 3, 1886, serving as master from 1888-90 and grand master of G.L. of California 1898-99. He was a member of the jurisprudence committee from 1899 until his death May 23, 1932.


            Albert H. Angstman Justice, Supreme Court of Montana. b. March 23, 1888 at Farmington, Minn. Admitted to Minn. and Mont. bar in 1912. Assist, attorney-general of Montana 1921-28; assoc. justice supreme court 1929-35; counsel Public Service Comm. of Montana 1935-37; assoc. justice supreme court 1945-51. Raised in Helena Lodge No. 3, Helena, Mont. in 1918 and served as its master. Member of Helena Chapter No. 2, R.A.M. and past high priest; Helena Council No. 1, R. & S.M. and Helena Commandery No. 2, K.T. 32° AASR in Helena Consistory and member of Shrine since 1925.


            Levi Ankeny (1844-1921) U.S. Senator from Washington 1903-09. b. Aug. 1, 1844 near St. Joseph, Mo., he crossed plains with parents to Oregon in 1850. Early in life he was a Wells Fargo agent and later in the mercantile business in Lewiston, Idaho, where he was the first mayor. He later moved to Walla Walla, Wash. where he was president of seven banks in Washington and Oregon. He became a member of Willamette Lodge No. 2 of Portland in 1866, affiliating with Walla Walla Lodge No. 7 in 1878, serving as master in 1881. He was past high priest of Walla Walla Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. and member of Washington Commandery, K.T. No. 1. He was a KCCH in Lawson Consistory, AASR and member of El Kalif Shrine at Spokane. d. March 29, 1921.


            Louis Annance (1794-1875) Chief of the St. Francis Indians, a vigorous and powerful tribe of the Quebec province. b. Aug. 25, 1794 at Saint Francis du Lac in the county of Yamaska, Quebec. He received his early education from the Jesuits who subsequently secured his admission to a school in Hanover, N.H., but as he was about to enter college the war of 1812 was declared and he was summoned back to his tribe to serve under the British. In 1817 he publicly renounced Catholicism and joined the Congregationalists. It was about this time that he became, by laws and rules of his tribe, successor to his father as chief and ruler, but having become a Protestant, was subjected to persecution and annoyance so he moved to Hanover, N.H. where he connected himself with the Methodists and was made a Freemason in North Star Lodge of Lancaster, N.H. in 1834. In 1835 or 1836 he removed


26 Matthew Arbuckle to Greenville, Maine where he lived near Moosehead Lake. He died Dec. 25, 1875. The G.L. of Maine issued dispensation to Doric Lodge which erected a tombstone over his grave in the Greenville cemetery.


            Martin F. Ansel Former governor of South Carolina. Mason.


            Martin C. Ansorge Congressman, lawyer and business executive. b. Jan. 1, 1882 at Corning, N.Y. Began law practice in New York City in 1906 after graduation from Columbia Univ. Member of the 67th Congress from N.Y. in 1921-23 and author of Edge-Ansorge Port of New York Authority bills for the comprehensive development of the Port of New York. Was one of the first to advocate construction of Tri-Borough Bridge and first chairman of its committee. Attorney for Henry Ford in SapiroBernstein libel cases. Director of United Air Lines. Raised in Mt. Nebo Lodge No. 257, New York City in 1907.


            Charles L. Anspach College president. b. March 5, 1895 at Fremont, Ohio. Received degrees from Ashland College, Univ. of Toledo and Ph.D. from Univ. of Michigan in 1923. Was president of Ashland College (Ohio) from 1935-39 and has been president of Central Michigan College of Education at Mt. Pleasant since 1939. Active in many civic and religious organizations on state and national scale. Member of Ashland Lodge No. 151, Ashland Chapter No. 67, RAM, Ashland Council No. 128 R. & SM., all of Ashland, Ohio, and Mansfield Commandery, K.T. No. 21 of Mansfield, Ohio. Received 32° AASR (NJ) in Bay City Consistory, Bay City, Mich., and is a member of Elf Khurafeh Shrine Temple, Saginaw, Mich.


            Jules Anspach (1826-1879) Lord mayor of Brussels, Belgium and master of the lodge Les Amis Philantropes.


            Duke d' Antin Elected "perpetual Grand Master" of the Freemasons of France on June 24, 1738, serving until 1743.


            Dr. Carl Gottlob von Anton German Masonic writer who wrote several books on Templarism. d. Gorlitz, Nov. 17, 1818.


            Earl of Antrim (see William Randal) Frank Appleby (1864-1924) Congressman from N.J., 67th Congress (1921-23). b. Oct. 10, 1864. In real estate and insurance business in Asbury Park, N.J. starting in 1885. Member N.J. State Board of Education from 1894-1902. Mason. d. Dec. 15, 1924.


            Troy W. Appleby (1874-1947) President of Ohio National Life Insurance Co. b. Oct. 2, 1874 at Morrisville, Mo. Started with the Ohio company as an actuary in 1905 and served as president from 1922. Active in many youth and social organizations and Methodist church. d. April 21, 1947. Mason and 32° AASR.


            Sylvanus Apps Ice hockey player. Captain of the Toronto Maple Leafs. Member of University Lodge No. 496, Toronto, Ont., Canada.


            Emmanuel Arago (181 2- 1896 ) French politician, senator and barrister. Mason.


            Matthew Arbuckle (1774-1851) Brigadier General in Mexican War. b. Greenbrier, Va. in 1774, he entered the U.S. Army as an ensign in 1800. Was sent to the Oklahoma territory to supervise the newly removed Indian tribes in 1821, establishing Fort Gibson and Fort Towson near the Kiamichi for this purpose. Fort Arbuckle was named for him. d. June 11, 1851 at Fort Smith and buried with military and Masonic honors. The remains were afterwards reinterred at his birthplace.


            John Arbuthnot (1667-1735) Scottish physician and writer. Was physician in ordinary to Queen Anne (1709). A close friend of Swift, he authored witty political pamphlets including The History of John Bull, a satire against the Duke of Marlborough, which popularized and fixed the modern conception of John Bull as the typical Englishman. He was also the author of a number of medical and scientific papers. Reported to be member of a London lodge.


            Branch T. Archer (1790-1856) Texas patriot. b. in Virginia and came to Texas in 1831 where he was active in measures for Texas independence. He served as secretary of war of Texas under President Lamar. He was raised in Harmony Lodge No. 62 at Pridewell, Amelia Co., Va. in 1808 and later became a member of Manchester Lodge No. 14 at Manchester becoming its master in 1821. He signed the petition for St. John's Lodge No. 5 of Texas.


            P. C. Archer General in Confederate Army. Member of Paris Cornmandery, K.T. No. 9 of Texas.


            Leslie C. Arends Congressman from Illinois to 74th to 81st Congresses (1935-51). b. Sept. 27, 1895. Mason.


            James C. Argetsinger (1883-1955) Vice president of Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. b. Dec. 12, 1883 at Burdet, N.Y. Lawyer. Secretary of the above firm from 1932-49. Vice president since 1935. Mason. d. June 16, 1955.


            7th Duke of Argyle (George William) 54th Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1822-23.


            Richard Arlen Movie actor. Member Utopia Lodge No. 537, Los Angeles, Calif.


            Modeste Armijo Former Nicaraguan minister of education and chief justice of the Supreme Court. A Masonic guest in Connecticut in June 1945.


            Lewis A. Armistead (1817-1863) American army officer. b. New Bern, N.C., he served in the U.S. army from 1839-61 and in the Confederate army 1861-63, receiving the rank of brigadier general in 1862. He was killed in Pickett's charge at Gettysburg. Member of Alexandria Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Va. Also charter member of Union Lodge No. 7, Ft. Riley, Kans.


            David H. Armstrong(1812-1893)U.S. Senator from Missouri 1877-79. b. Oct. 21, 1812 in Nova Scotia, Canada. He received an academic education at the Maine Wesleyan seminary and moved to St. Louis in 1837 where he opened and taught the first public school in the state on April 1, 1838. He was comptroller of St. Louis from 1847 to 1850 and a member of the board of police commissioners from 1873-75 and again in 1877. Armstrong was a member of Washington Lodge No. 9 of St. Louis.


            Donald Armstrong Brigadier General, U.S. Army and business executive. b. April 15, 1889. Served in the two world wars. Promoted to general rank in 1942 and was chief of the Tank Automotive Center at Detroit in 1942; commanding general of Ordnance Replacement Training Center, Aberdeen, Md. 1943; commandant of Army Industrial College, Washington, D.C. 1944. President of U.S. Pipe and Foundry Co. since 1948. Mason.


            George E. Armstrong Brigadier General U.S. Army, surgeon. b. Lawrence Co., Ind. Aug. 4, 1900. Served in Army Medical Corps since 1925. Theater surgeon of C.B.I. and later surgeon China Theater 1944-46. Deputy surgeon-general with rank of general since June 1947. Raised in Bedford Lodge No. 14, Bedford, Ind. on March 12, 1922. AASR membership in Valley of Indianapolis; 33°, honorary. Member of Murat Shrine Temple, Indianapolis.


            Harry L. Armstrong President of Castle Heights Military Academy, Lebanon, Tenn. since 1929. b. July 19, 1888 at Logan, Ohio. President of Association of Military Colleges and Schools of the U.S. in 1942. Raised in Mingo Lodge No. 171, Logan, Ohio in 1909.


            Harry W. Armstrong (1879-1951) American composer famous for the all-time favorite Sweet Adeline which he wrote in 1903 with words by Richard H. Gerard. b. Somerville, Mass. He was raised Feb. 20, 1922 in Montgomery Lodge No. 68, New York City and affiliated with John Stewart Lodge No. 871 in 1932.


            John Armstrong ( 1758 - 1843 ) American revolutionary officer; general in War of 1812, secretary of war, U.S. senator and minister to France. b. Carlisle, Pa. Was deputy adjutant general in the American Revolution and wounded at Germantown. In 1783 he wrote a series of anonymous letters in effort to force Congress to pay arrears to army officers. He was U.S. senator from New York from 180004 and U.S. minister to France 180410. As secretary of war 1813-14, he was held responsible by many for the military failures in the War of 1812. Raised in Army Lodge No. 19 on register of G.L. of Pennsylvania and later seems to have become a member of Old Cone Lodge No. 9 at Salisbury, N.C. He may have affiliated later in New York as there is such a name listed as a member of Hibernia Lodge No. 339.


            J. P. Taylor Armstrong Business executive. b. New London, Conn. July 1, 1882. President of Belding Heminway Co. since 1937; president Corti-cell Silk Co. 1920-32, working hisway up from mill clerk. Director of La France Industries, United States Testing Co., Stowell Silk Spool Co. Active in local government and charities. Mason and 32° AASR (N.J.).


            Lebbeus Armstrong Anti-Mason. A clergyman who became a Scottish Rite Mason and later an anti-Mason.


            Sir Richard Armstrong (?-1823) British lieutenant general commanding forces in West Canada. He entered the Queen's Rangers as a captain and afterward became major. He showed great efficiency as a partisan officer on the Royalist side during the Revolution. In 1783 he was appointed with Capt. Saunders to prepare a parting address for Col. John G. Simcoe q.v., the intrepid leader of the rangers. He was advanced to colonel in 1797; to major general in 1803 and to lieutenant general in 1809. A Mason.


            Thomas Armstrong, Jr. (1857-1937) Lawyer, public benefactor. b. July 18, 1857. Admitted to Wisconsin bar in 1880 and practiced in Portage. President of 1st National Bank of Portage 1891-92, moving to Phoenix, Arizona in 1892 where he engaged in law practice and was president of the 1st National Bank of Arizona 1924-29. He was the donor of the Pueblo Grande Ancient Ruins to the city of Phoenix. d. Nov. 1937. Mason.


            Edward F. Arn Governor of Kansas 1952-55. b. Kansas City, Kansas May 19, 1906. Began law practice in Wichita in 1936; attorney general of Kansas 1947-49; associate justice Supreme Court of Kansas 1949-51. Raised in Wyandotte Lodge No. 3, Kansas City, Kansas in 1927. 32° AASR (SJ), Orient of Kansas at Wichita, National Sojourners Chapter No. 24 at Wichita, DeMolay Legion of Honor and Senior member, International Supreme Council, Order of DeMolay. Member of Midian Shrine of Wichita and member of patrol from 1937-47; honorary life member of Korein Temple at Rawlins, Wyo. and deputy to imperial potentate of the Shrine in 1954-55.


            Elmer R. Am (1886-1951) Surgeon. b. July 8, 1886 at Arnhelm, Ohio. Received M.D. from Univ. of Cincinnati in 1911 and did post graduate work in Berlin and Vienna Universities. Specialist in goiter. Dr. Arn became a Mason in 1908. As grand master of the G.L. of Ohio (1935-36) he devoted much of his time to the Ohio Masonic Home—a service which he continued until his death. In 1930 he received the 33° and two years later was crowned an active member of the Supreme Council being elected deputy for Ohio in 1946 and continuing until he retired in 1950. His most distinctive service to Freemasonry was his leadership of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association from 1938 until his death. In those 13 years he visited grand lodges throughout the country presenting this cause which meant most to him. He died December 24, 1951 and, in compliance with Arn's request, his ashes were dropped by airplane on the Washington memorial.


            Ellis G. Arna11 Governor of Georgia, 1943-47. b. March 20, 1907 at Newnan, Ga. Admitted to Georgia bar in 1931. Served as member of state house of representatives and speaker pro tern from 1933-37; attorney general of Georgia 1939-43. Since 1947 he has been president of the Dixie Life Insurance Co.; president of the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers since 1948. From 1947-51 he was a member of the National Comm. for UNESCO. Member of Cowetta Lodge No. 60 at Newnan, Ga., since 1931.


            Albert F. Arnason State commissioner of higher education, North Dakota since 1943. b. Hensel, N.D., March 12, 1908. Taught in public schools and became president of N.D. School of Forestry, 1938-43. Mason.


            Thomas A. Arne (1710-1778) English musical composer. He wrote music for Joseph Addison's Rosamund (1733); Fielding's Tom Thumb, or the Opera of Operas (1733); Milton's Comus (1738); Thomson and Mallet's Masque of Alfred (1740 which included the song Rule Britannia). In addition to the oratorios Abel (1755) and Judith (1764), he composed many songs, as those for the Tempest (1746) and light operas. Mason.


            Ben Arnold Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma 1941-53. b. Newark, Ark., Oct. 24, 1892. LL.B. from Univ. of Oklahoma in 1925 and admitted to bar same year. Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner.


            Benedict Arnold (1741-1801) America's most notorious traitor. b. Norwich, Conn., Jan. 14, 1741. His early life was spent in trade with the West Indies, but volunteered for service at the outbreak of the Revolution and with Ethan Allen q.v. captured Fort Ticonderoga on May 10, 1775. He was the leader of an unsuccessful campaign to capture Quebec in 1775, but, as a brigadier general in 1776, stopped a British thrust from Canada down Lake Champlain. In 1777 as a major general he repulsed a British force in the Mohawk Valley and aided in forcing Burgoyne's surrender. While in Philadelphia (1778-79) as commander, he was court-martialed for irregularities and reprimanded by Washington (in kind words). It was here that he began treasonable correspondence with the British and while in command at West Point (1780), he arranged to surrender that key position to the British. The plot was discovered by the capture of Major Andre on Sept. 23, and Arnold fled to the British. He was commissioned a brigadier general in the British army and received £6,315 in compensation for his property losses. He then led an expedition into Virginia which burned Richmond and made an attack on New London, Conn. in Sept. 1781, returning to London in December of that year. Disappointed at the failure of his plans and embittered by the neglect and scorn which he met in England, he gradually sank into a melancholia and died in London June 14, 1801. His last words were reported as: "Let me die in the old uniform in which I fought my battles for freedom. May God forgive me for putting on any other." There is no question that Arnold was a Freemason. Wallace in his Traitorous Hero says he was admitted a member in a lodge "in the West Indies" which may well be true as he was there in his early days before the Revolution. The first record in Book II of Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven, Conn. (April 10, 1765) record that "Br. Benedict Arnold is by R.W. (Nathan Whiting) proposed to be made a member (i.e. an affiliate) of this R.W. Lodge, and is accordingly made a member in this Lodge." This was ten years before his first action in the Revolution. His name appears frequently on the records of Hiram lodge until about 1772. After his defection the lodge erased his name from membership and he was abandoned as a Mason. On June 12, 1771 he visited Solomons Lodge No. 1 at Poughkeepsie, N.Y. and on May 16, 1781 the lodge by vote "ordered that the name of Benedict Arnold be considered as obliterated from the minutes of this Lodge; a Traitor" (with figure of a hand pointing to word "traitor.") This was done and the old records show his name partially obliterated by pen marks.


            Henry H. "Hap" Arnold (1886-1950) Commanding general of the U.S. Air Force. b. June 25, 1886 at Gladwyne, Pa. Graduated from West Point in 1907 and a pioneer in military aviation, who in 1912 was awarded a trophy for "a 30-mile flight." From a 2nd lieutenant in 1907 he advanced to the highest American rank in 1944—that of a 5-star general. He was flight commander of the U.S. Alaska Flight of 1934; assistant chief Air Corps, 1936-38; chief of Army Air Corps, 1938; commanding general Army Air Forces, 1942. He was raised in Union Lodge No. 7, Junction City, Kansas on Nov. 3, 1927, received the 32° AASR on April 11, 1929 at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas and 33° on Oct. 19, 1945. d. Jan. 15, 1950. On Nov. 21, 1958 the lodge at Edwards A.F.B., Calif. was constituted as General Henry H. Arnold Lodge No. 791.


            John C. Arnold Justice, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. b. March 10, 1887 at Durwensville, Pa. Admitted to Pennsylvania bar in 1910. Judge of superior court (appellate) 1945-53. Justice of supreme court since 1953. Raised in Garfield Lodge No. 559, DuBois, Pa. on Nov. 7, 1912. Member of AASR, Valley of Williamsport, Pa. and received 33° in 1952. Member of Jaffa Shrine Temple at Altoona, Pa.


            Remmie LeRoy Arnold Pen manufacturer and Imperial Potentate of Shrine (1953-54). b. Jan. 25, 1894 at Petersburg, Va. Started the R. L. Arnold Pen Co. in 1935 which has grown to the second largest pen company in the world. Served as president of the American War Dads during WW2, making a trip to England as guest of Lord Halifax, British Ambassador, visiting camps, hospitals and front lines. On his return he toured the United States at his own expense to report directly to the American people and wrote over 5,000 letters to parents of men with whom he had talked. Served as president of the Southern States Industrial Council. Ran for governor of Virginia in 1949. Raised in Powhatan Starke Lodge No. 124, Petersburg, Va. on Feb. 24, 1928. Royal Arch Mason and Knight Templar in 1930 and 32° AASR in 1928. Received Royal Arch in Petersburg Chapter No. 7, R.A.M. and knighted in Appomattox Commandery No. 6, both of Petersburg, Va. in 1930. AASR (ST) in Richmond, Va., receiving 33°. Member of Acca Temple, Royal Order of Scotland, Royal Order of Jesters in Richmond, Order of Quetzacoatle in Mexico City, National Sojourners and Heroes of '76 at Fort Lee, Va., chairman of board of Shriners Hospitals, and Legion of Honor, DeMolay.


            Samuel W. "Wat" Arnold Congressman from Missouri 78th to 80th Congresses (1943-49). b. Sept. 21, 1879 near Downing, Mo. Taught school and served as superintendent from 1896 to 1903. Owner of lumber business and radio stations. Member of the following Masonic bodies of Kirksville, Mo. Adair Lodge No. 366; Caldwell Chapter No. 53, R.A.M; Ely Commandery No. 22.


            William W. Arnold Congressman from Illinois to 68th to 74th Congresses (1923-37), resigning to become member of U.S. Board of Tax Appeals (now The Tax Court of the U.S.) on which he has served since 1937. Knight Templar and 32° AASR. Died Nov. 23, 1957.


            Sir Lauriston J. Arnott Managing Director of the Irish Times, Dublin, Ireland. Served as master of Meridian Lodge XII in Dublin in 1952. Also member of Lodge of Erin No. 2895, London, England.


            Jacob Aronson (1887-1951) Vice president and general counsel of New York Central Railroad since 1947. b. Jan. 2, 1887 at Brooklyn, N.Y. Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1908. Associated with New York Central since 1906 as attorney, general attorney and counsel. Director of several other corporations. Mason. d. Jan. 13, 1951.


            J. Hugo Aronson Governor of Montana since 1952. b. Sept. 1, 1891, Gallstad, Sweden. Came to U.S. in 1911. Director of Toole Co. Bank, Shelby, Mont. since 1927 and president since 1940. Member state house of representatives 1939-45; senator 1945-53. Mason. King Gustav VI Adolf q.v. of Sweden appointed him as representative of the G.L. of Sweden to the G.L. of Montana. His appointment was in Swedish, accompanied by an English translation, but Aronson could read the original. Received degrees in Shelby Lodge No. 143, in 1924 and later demitted to Cut Bank Lodge No. 82, Cut Bank, Mont. Member of Tyrean Chapter 34, R.A.M. and Cut Bank Council R. & S.M. No. 11 at Cut Bank and Golden West Commandery 24, K.T. at Shelby, Mont. 32° AASR in Valley of Helena. Was senior steward of Shelby Lodge at time of his transfer. Member of Algeria Shrine Temple and Shelby Chapter No. 113, O.E.S. Received "Hats Off" award from Edward C. Day Chapter, DeMolay in Helena.


            Chester A. Arthur (1830-66) President of the United States, 1881-85 on death of Garfield. Was not a Mason. Although often referred to as a "Mason, brother, and worthy member of the Craft" by early publications, there is not one shred of evidence that points to his membership.


            Harold J. Arthur Governor of Vermont. b. Feb. 9, 1904 at Whitehall, N.Y. Admitted to bar in 1932 and has been in civil and criminal practice since that date. Clerk of Vermont lower house 1939-43, lieut. governor of Vermont 1949-50 and elected governor in 1950. Served as an officer, U.S. Army WW2, 1941-46. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° AASR (NJ) and Shriner.


            John M. Arthur Brigadier general U.S. Marine Corps. b. April 12, 1893. Graduate of Infantry School, Fort Benning, Command and General Staff School, Ft. Leavenworth, Naval War College. From 2nd lieutenant Marine Corps in 1917 he advanced to brigadier general in 1946. Served in Cuba 1917-19. Aide to White House during Harding and Coolidge administrations. Subsequently served in Nicaragua, China. Legislative liaison officer of Marine Corps to Congress, 1934-37. Chief-of-staff, Fleet Marine Force 1940-41; commander of combined forces during Guadalcanal campaign 1942-43. Mason.


            Thomas Arthur (1860-1925) Chief justice, Supreme Court of Iowa (192325). b. July 12, 1860. LL.B. University of Iowa. Judge of district court of Iowa, 1911-20; justice Supreme Court of Iowa, 1920-23. Mason. d. Sept. 15, 1925.


            Gotthardus Arthusius Wrote many works on Rosicrucianism under the assumed name of Irenaeus Agnostus. Was rector of the gymnasium of Frankfort-on-the-Main.


            Earl of Arundel (Thomas Howard) (1585?-1646) Tradition places him as grand master of English Freemasons from 1633 to 1635 and the claim is in accordance with the accounts of Anderson and Preston. He was the 14th Earl, and became a Protestant in 1615; president of the committee of peers on Bacon's case in 1621; general of the army against the Scots in 1639. He was one of the first large scale collectors of art in England, and his collection of statues, pictures, guns, coins, manuscripts and marbles was presented to Oxford in 1667 by his grandson.


            William Arundel (?-1816) Early American merchant and fur trader. He was first secretary of Western Star Lodge No. 107 at Kaskaskia, the first capital of Illinois. Arundel was raised in St. Andrews Lodge, Quebec, Canada. When No. 107 at Kaskaskia was formed on Sept. 27, 1805, he was a charter member. He was located at Kahokia (Ill.) as early as 1783, but had resided near Peoria at an earlier date. He had emigrated from Ireland to Canada and possessed a good education for that time.


            Jacob M. Arvey Political boss of Chicago and prominent national Democratic political figure. b. Chicago, Nov. 3, 1895. Served as state's attorney in 1918-20; master in chancery, circuit court of Cook Co. 1930-34; alderman 24th ward, Chicago, 192341; chairman Cook Co. Central Committee, Democratic party. Mason.


            Charles G. Ashbrook President of North American Life Insurance Co. of Chicago. b. Nov. 1899 at Granville, Ohio. Graduated from Denver Univ. in 1921 and started as a clerk with North American, working his way successively up to president in 1955. Raised in Nunda Lodge No. 169, Crystal Lake, Ill. on May 7, 1938. Member of Woodstock Chapter No. 36, R.A.M. and Woodstock Council, R. & S.M. and Calvary Commandery No. 25, K.T. all of Woodstock, Illinois. Served as master of Nunda Lodge No. 169 in 1942. Joined Medinah Shrine Temple in 1943.


            Frank G. Ashbrook Fur animal expert. b. York, Pa., Oct. 20, 1892. B.S. in agriculture, Pa. State College, 1914; with Bureau of Animal Industry, Dept. of Agriculture 1914-18 and on leave from dept. to French High Commission, 1919-20. In charge of fur-bearing animal work, Div. of Fur Resources, Biological Surveys, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture since 1921. Traveled in Japan and China in 1937 for Treasury Dept. to obtain information on methods of dressing dog, lamb and kid skins imported to U.S. Author of many books in field. Mason.


            William A. Ashbrook (1867-1940) Congressman from Ohio to 60th to 65th Congresses (1907-21) and 74th and 75th Congresses (1935-39) from 17th Ohio district. b. July 1, 1867 at Johnstown, Ohio. Publisher and editor of Johnstown Independent from 1885-1940. Mason. d. Jan. 1, 1940.


            George F. Ashby Railroad president b. Sept 3, 1885 at Mt. Airy, N.C. Started with railroad industry as a clerk with the Atlantic Coast Line in 1906. With Union Pacific RR Co. since 1921, serving as president and director 1946-49. Also president and director of Oregon Short Line, Oregon-Washington RR and Navigation Co.; Los Angeles and Salt Lake RR; St. Joseph and Grand Island; Laramie North Park and Western; Saratoga and Encampment Valley and Des Chutes RR. Mason and Shriner.


            Turner Ashby (1824-1862) Confederate Brigadier General in Civil War. b. Rose Hill, Va. He was a grain dealer in Markham, Va., and afterward a planter and politician. At the outbreak of the Civil War he raised a regiment of cavalry. Being a fine horseman and daring by nature, he soon distinguished himself. He met his death in a skirmish preceding the battle of Cross Keys, Va. on June 6, 1862. He was a member of Equality Lodge No. 44, Martinsburg, W. Va. and was buried Ma-sonically.


            Bowman F. Ashe ( 1 88 5 - 1 95 2 ) President of University of Miami from 1926. b. Scottdale, Pa., April 3, 1885. Regional director Social Security Board for Southeastern States, 1936-38 and regional director War Manpower Committee for Southeastern States, 1942. Mason. d. Dec. 16, 1952.


            Rev. Jonathan Ashe Author of Masonic Manual, 1814 which he copies from Hutchinson without giving credit.


            Dr. Carl Wilhelm Asher First translator into German of the Halliwell or Regius Manuscript, which he published at Hamburg in 1842 under the title of Alteste Urkunde der Freimaurerei.


            Edward Ashley (1854-1931) Clergyman, missionary to Dakota Indians. b. Road Hill, England Dec. 12, 1854, came to U.S. in 1873 and naturalized in 1889. Became Episcopalian deacon in 1877 and priest in 1881. Served as general missionary among Sioux Indians for 57 years. Mason and 33° deputy in South Dakota for Supreme Council (SJ). d. March 30, 1931.


            James M. Ashley (1824-?) Governor of Montana. b. Nov. 14, 1824 near Pittsburgh, Pa. Clerked on boats of Ohio and Mississippi rivers, became editor of the Dispatch and later the Democrat at Portsmouth, 0. Admitted to bar, but never practiced. Elected five times to U.S. Congress from Ohio, serving from 1859-1869. Four times chairman of the committee on territories, it was under his supervision that the territories of Arizona, Idaho and Montana were organized. Appointed governor of Montana in 1869. Raised March 2, 1853 in Toledo Lodge No. 144, Toledo, Ohio.


            Elias Ashmole (1617-1692) Most learned English antiquarian of his day. A Royalist in the Civil War. In 1672 he published an exhaustive history of the Order of the Garter which is now an exceedingly rare volume. In 1677 he presented a collection of rarities to Oxford University which became the Ashmolean Museum. His importance to Freemasonry stems from the diary which he kept with great care. Masonic historians have generally set the date of speculative Masonry as 1717 when the G.L. of England was formed. His diary entry of Oct. 16, 1646 stated that he had been made a Freemason at 4:30 p.m. at Warrington, Lancashire with Col. Henry Mainwaring of Karincham, Cheshire. At this time Ashmole was a captain in Lord Ashley's regiment and also Comptroller of the Ordnance on the King's side. Mainwaring, of whom there is frequent mention in the bulletins of the civil war, was a staunch Parliamentarian. The diary also gives the names of those that were then members of the lodge which seems to justify the conclusion that they were in the habit of associating in Masonic fellowship for some time. It is noteworthy that not a single operative Mason was present on this date. His diary therefore earned him the name of "first speculative English Freemason." d. May 18, 1692.


            Henry F. Ashurst Former U.S. Senator from Arizona. Married as Catholic and afterwards withdrew from the fraternity.


            John W. Askew Comptroller of Post Office Department, Washington, D.C. since 1949. b. Nov. 1, 1901. With postal service since 1920. Now regional comptroller at Atlanta, Ga. Raised Oct. 6, 1925 in Corinthian Lodge No. 266 at Norfolk, Va.


            William D. Askren Justice Supreme Court State of Washington 1924-28. b. Oct. 1, 1885 Mount Ayr, Iowa. Admitted to bar 1908. Judge of Superior Court, 1920-04. Mason and past potentate Ai Shrine Temple, 1926-27.


            Richard Aspinall Educator. b. Dec. 1, 1881 at Bolton, England. President Western State College, Gunnison, Colo., 1927-30. Director of student affairs and assistant to president of West Virginia University 1930-48. Superintendent of Moosehart Home and School, Moosehart, Ill. (Loyal Order of Moose) since 1948. Received his degrees in Terra Alta Lodge No. 106, W. Va. about 1922 and later member of Morgantown Union Lodge No. 4, Morgantown, W. Va. 32° AASR(SJ) at Wheeling, W. Va. and KCCH. Member of Osiris Shrine Temple at Wheeling. Served as grand prelate, Grand Lodge of West Virginia circa 1932-44. Has served many times as orator for Masonic events. Grand chaplain G.L. of W.V. 1936-43.


            Wayne N. Aspinall Congressman from Colorado to 81st Congress (194951). b. April 3, 1896 at Middleburg, Ohio. Graduate of Univ. of Denver and Denver Law School. Admitted to bar 1925. Member of state legislature of Colorado from 1931-38 and speaker of house 1937-38. State senator 1939-48. Participated in Normandy drive WW1 as American officer with British forces. Raised in Palisade Lodge No. 125, Palisade, Colo. in 1926. Member of Grand Junction Chapter No. 24, R.A.M.; Grand Junction Council No. 16 R. & S.M. and Temple Commandery No. 23, K.T., all of Grand Junction, Colo. 32° AASR (SJ) in Valley of Grand Junction, receiving KCCH. Served as master of Palisade lodge and also as secretary. Member of El Jebel Shrine Temple.


            Rupert F. Asplund (1875-1952) Tax and budget expert. b. June 26, 1875 at Little Indian, Ill. M.A. and LL.D., Illinois College, Jacksonville, Ill. Instructor of Latin and Greek at Univ. of New Mexico 1902-09. Secretary State Tax Commission (N.M.) 1917-18; director Taxpayers' Assn. of N.M. since 1918; editor and manager of N.M. Journal of Education, 190719; director of N.M. State Budget, 1919-41; comptroller State of N.M. 1930. Grand Master of G.L. of N.M. 1947-48. Deputy of Supreme Council AASR (SJ) for N.M. from 1935. d. Dec. 7, 1952.


            John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) German-American financier and czar of the fur trade. b. Duchy of Baden, Germany, July 17, 1763, corning to U.S. in 1784 and entering the fur trade. He incorporated the American Fur Co. in 1808 and the Pacific Fur Co. in 1810. He founded the city of Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River as a trading post but lost it to the British in 1813. During the War of 1812 he made large and profitable loans to the government. Astor invested heavily in New York real estate and by 1817 had monopolized the Mississippi valley fur trade and that of the upper Missouri from 182234. He sold his fur interests in 1834 and retired to administer one of the largest fortunes made in America. He was one of the first members of Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City and served as master in 1788. He was grand treasurer of the G.L. of New York from 1798 to 1801; was junior grand warden pro tern on two occasions, 1798 and 1801. For a time he was secretary of a commandery (then called encampment) that met in Holland lodge room at 66 Liberty street, New York City. d. March 29, 1848.


            David R. Atchison (1807-1886) Ex-officio President of the United States for one day (March 4, 1849) because President Taylor was not sworn in until March 5. b. Aug. 11, 1807 at Frogtown, Ky. Lawyer, politician and congressman, 1843-55. Member of Platte Lodge No. 56, Platte City, Mo. (now extinct). d. June 26, 1886.


            King Athelstan (895-940) King of England; son of King Edward the Elder and grandson of King Alfred the Great. His connection with Masonry is purely legendary, resting on the Old Charges. The Regius Poem states that: "Thys craft corn yn to englond as y yow say yn tyme of good kynge adelsonus day." It is further stated that he summoned an assembly of Masons for the purpose of drawing up a charter. A later manuscript refers to a charter he gave to the Masons on the intercession of his son, Edwin, but Athelstan died unmarried.


            John 3rd Duke of Atholl (17291774) Heir to Scottish title held by Murray family. Sold the sovereignty of Isle of Man to the British Crown in 1765. Grand master, G.L. of England (Antients) 1771-74. Also G.M. of Scotland in 1773. (Scots spell it "Athole.") John, 4th Duke of Atholl (17551830) Created Earl Strange in peerage of Great Britain in 1786. He succeeded his father as grand master of G.L. of England in 1775, serving until 1781 and again from 1791-1813. Was grand master of G.L. of Scotland from 1778 to 1779.


            George Augustis, 6th Duke of Atholl Served as 66th Grand Master Mason of Scotland 1843-63 while Lord Glenlyon. He was grand master of England from 1843 until his death in January, 1864. The three craft degrees were confered upon him at the same time and he was installed as master at the same meeting in Grand Master Lodge No. 1.


            John George, 8th Duke of Atholl Served as 79th Grand Master Mason of Scotland 1909-13 while Marquis of Tullibardine. He later became the 8th Duke of Atholl.


            Harry W. Atkins Poultry industry executive. b. May 16, 1883 at Streator, Ill. Judged 800 poultry shows and fairs in 38 years. Supt. poultry department lowana Farms, 1910-16. Owner of Atkins Farm Hatchery and Atkins Poultry Sales until 1943. President of American Poultry Association 1938-40 and secretary since 1940. Former concert work with Atkins Family Band and Orchestra. Organized and directed Kaaba Shrine band 1915-25. Raised in Amity Lodge No. 483, Huntington, Ind. on June 3, 1912. 32° at Davenport, Iowa in 1915. Member of Mohassan Grotto.


            Smith D. Atkins General, Union Army, Civil War. Mason and Knight Templar at Galena, Ill. Member Illinois Masonic Veterans Association.


            Arthur K. Atkinson President of the Wabash Railroad since 1947. b. Denver, Colo., Oct. 19, 1891. Started as office boy with the D. & R.G. Railroad in 1909. Has been with Wabash since 1922. He is also an officer and director of the following railroads: Ann Arbor Boat Co., Ann Arbor Ry. Co., Detroit & Western, Lake Erie & Fort Wayne; Manistique & Lake Superior, Menominee & St. Paul, N.J., Indiana & Illinois, Wabash Motor Transit Co., Wabash Radio Corp., American Refrigerator Transit Co., Belt Ry. of Chicago, Chicago & Western Indiana, Kansas City Terminal. A Freemason since 1924, he is a member of University City Lodge No. 649 (Mo.), exalted in Cabany Chapter No. 140, R.A.M. Nov. 26, 1948 and knighted in St. Aldemar Commandery No. 18, K.T. March 18, 1949. Council degrees in Hiram Council No. 1, St. Louis, Sept. 3, 1952. AASR (SJ) in Valley of St. Louis in 1948; KCCH on Oct. 20, 1953, he is president of the Scottish Rite Endowment, Philanthropic and Educational Foundation and junior warden in St. Louis Lodge of Perfection. He is viceroy of St. Louis Conclave No. 42, Red Cross of Constantine and president of KCCH in 1956. Member of Moolah Shrine Temple. Member of board of governors of St. Louis Shrine Hospital. Member of board of governors of DeMolay Foundation, Inc. Active member-at-large for life of the International Supreme Council, Order of DeMolay and member of Royal Order of Jesters, St. Louis Court No. 81, since 1950.


            George W. Atkinson (1845-1925) Governor of West Virginia 1897-1901. b. June 29, 1845 at Charleston, Va. (now W.Va.). Served as internal revenue agent, postmaster and U.S. Marshal. Member of 51st Congress (1889-91). Judge U.S. Court of Claims 1905-16. Raised in Kanawha Lodge No. 20, Charleston Oct. 12, 1866. Wasgrand master of W.Va. in 1876 and grand secretary of the G.L. of W. Va. from 1897 to 1901. Knight Templar. d. April 4, 1925.


            Harry H. Atkinson Lawyer and U.S. Attorney for Nevada from 192634. b. Salt Lake City, Utah, May 22, 1881. Law degree from Stanford in 1903. Admitted to California and Nevada bar in 1906. Served with 1st Troop, Utah, U.S. Vol. Cay. in Spanish American War. Grand master of the G.L. of Nevada 1920-21.


            Theodore Atkinson Secretary of the Province of New Hampshire (before statehood) and chief justice of New Hampshire in 1754. Admitted December 22 (St. John's Day) to St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, N.H.


            William Y. Atkinson (1855-1899) Governor of Georgia, 1894-96. b. Oakland, Ga. and graduated from state university in 1877. Admitted to Georgia bar in 1878. Member of state legislature 1886-94, being speaker the last three years. In 1889 he founded the Georgia Normal and Industrial College and was president of the board of trustees. Buried Masonically.


            William W. Atterbury (1866-1935) President of the Pennsylvania Railroad from 1925. b. Jan. 31, 1866 at New Albany, Ind. Graduated from Yale and started as an apprentice in the Altoona shops of the Pennsylvania R.R. in 1886. While vice president in charge of operations, he was granted a leave of absence in 1917 to direct the construction and operation of U.S. military railways in France, and was commissioned brigadier general. Was officer and trustee of many corporations. He was raised in Colonial Lodge No. 631, Philadelphia, Pa. in 1895. d. Sept. 20, 1935.


            Frank E. Atwood (1878-1943) Judge, Supreme Court of Missouri 1925-35. b. Carrollton, Mo., Oct. 5, 1878. Attended Missouri University and William Jewell College. Admitted to Missouri bar in 1904. Member of Missouri Constitutional Convention of 1922. Mason. d. March 5, 1943. Belonged to Wakanda Lodge No. 52 at Carrollton and exalted in George Washington Chapter No. 24, R.A.M. Nov. 21, 1913, demitting from latter in 1938.


            Henry C. Atwood (?-1860) Masonic writer. b. Connecticut and settled in New York in 1825. Raised in York Lodge No. 197, New York in 1835. Published The Master Workman; or True Masonic Guide in 1850. Organized a lodge and introduced ritual of Jeremy L. Cross. Was a leader in establishing St. John's G.L. and was grand master at the union in 1851. d. 1860.


            W. K. Au One of the leaders in the establishment of the Grand Lodge of China, and foremost Chinese Freemason of the present day. He served for several years as an officer in his lodge and grand lodge.


            Lord Auckland (see William Eden) Lord John Touchet Audley Anderson states he was Grand Master of England from 15404548. He was a patron of the building art in Magdalene College, Cambridge.


            John James Audubon (1785-1851) American ornithologist and artist known for his imposing works in full color of Birds of America (1827-38). b. April 26, 1785 in Haiti. d. Jan. 27, 1851. Although Audubon referred to himself as a "Mason" and "Brother" in his diary, no proof has been found of his membership.


            Berthold Auerbach (1812-1882) German patriot and writer. Known for his pictures of life in the Black Forest. His fiction includes Spinoza (1837); Schwarzwalder Dorfgeschichten (1843); Edelweiss (1861); Auf der Hohe (1865). He translated Spinoza's works in 5 volumes in 1841. Initiated in 1838.


            Pierre Francois C. Augereau (17571816?) nee Due de Castiglione. French soldier created Marshal of France by Napoleon. Distinguished himself at Lodi and Castiglione (1796) and carried through the coup d'etat of Sept. 4, 1797. He served through the Napoleonic wars throughout the empire period. Was premier grand surveillant of the Grand Lodge Symbolique of France in 1805.


            Edward Augustus, Duke of York b. March 14, 1738. Brother of King George III. Was initiated in the Lodge of Friendship (later known as Royal York Lodge of Friendship) Berlin, Germany on July 27, 1765.


            Frederick Augustus, Prince of Brunswick (1740-?) b. 1740 the second son of Duke Charles I. Affiliated with the Rite of Strict Observance in 1769 and declared grand master of Prussia in 1772, serving until 1799. Rendered distinguished service in the Seven Years' War and is said to have written extensively on Rosicrucianism, alchemy and magic.


            Stanislas H Augustus King of Poland. (See Stanislas).


            William Augustus, Crown Prince of Prussia (1722-1758) Member of the Hohenzollern line and brother of Frederick the Great. Not successful as a military leader and deprived of command in 1757 by Frederick. Father of Frederick William II, who succeeded Frederick the Great as king of Prussia. Member of Three Globes Lodge, Berlin. (Lodge Drei Weltkugein) William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland b. April 26, 1721 in London. Initiated in 1743.


            Dr. Isaac Auld (1769-1827) Physician and 3rd grand commander, Supreme Council (SJ) (1822-26). b. Pennsylvania. Received the 33°, January 19, 1802. Died at his home "Edingsville" on Edisto Island, south of Charleston, S.C., Oct. 17, 1827.



            Henry S. Aurand Lieut. General U.S. Army. b. April 21, 1894 at Tamaqua, Pa. Graduate of West Point, 1915. Promoted through grades to lieutenant general in 1948. Major in Ord. dept. during WW1. Comdg. general 6th Service Command 1942-44; comdg. officer Normandy base section, 1944; comdg. general Service of Supplies, China Theater, 1945; 6th Service Command, 1946; Africa-Middle East Theater, 1946; director of research and development War Dept. General Staff 1946-48; director of logistics General Staff from 1948. Retired. Member of Shamokin Lodge No. 255, Shamokin, Pa.; Hawaiian Chapter No. 9, National Sojourners and president of latter in 1952.


            John C. W. Austin Architect. b. Feb. 13, 1870 at Bodicote, England. An architect in Los Angeles, Calif. since 1894. Designed and supervised construction of following Los Angeles buildings: Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, California State Building, St. Vincent's Hospital, Griffith Observatory, and Saint Paul's Church. Collaborated in design and construction of Los Angeles City Hall. Past president of Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce. 32° AASR (SJ) and member Al Malaikah Shrine Temple, Los Angeles.


            Moses Austin (1765-1821) Secured a grant of 200,000 acres in the province of Texas (under New Spain) on Jan. 17, 1821, but died on his return trip to home in Missouri. His son Stephen F. Austin q.v. carried out the colonization by his father's dying request the following year. Although his Masonic membership has never been established, a biographer (Adel-la Breckenridge Moore) states in the Congressional Record, March 21, 1949 that "From things read in his printed letters I believe Moses Austin to have been a Mason, and it might have beenthat on some of his trips abroad he was made a Mason in London." It is noted that in his statements to the Spanish authorities in December of 1820 he answered he was 53 years old, a Catholic, and former subject of the King of Spain. This is not unusual, however, for Sam Houston q.v. the first president of the Republic, who founded the G.L. of Texas was also a Catholic. Only Catholics could hold land under the Spanish rule.


            Stephen F. Austin (1793-1836) American colonizer of Texas sometimes called "The Father of Texas." b. Nov. 8, 1793 in Wythe Co., Va., son of Moses (1761-1821) Austin, settling in Missouri in 1798. He became a member of the Missouri Territorial Legislature in 1814 and served until 1820. It was in this year that his father gained a tract of land in what is now Texas. The father died before he could start his colonization efforts and Stephen took over the project, becoming a leader in the first colony of U.S. settlers in Texas. In Missouri he was initiated in Louisiana Lodge No. 109 (first lodge West of the Mississippi) at Ste. Genevieve, on June 23, 1815 at the age of 22. The lodge was then under Pennsylvania charter. In Texas he headed the first attempt to establish a lodge when in 1828 several Masons petitioned the Yorkino G.L. of Mexico for a charter. He was named to be the first master, but the petition was lost and the lodge never founded. From 1822-32 he directed the government in the colony, encouraging immigration from the U.S. and maintaining peace and order. He was imprisoned in Mexico City (183334) for urging Texas statehood and separation from Coahuila. Although he was defeated for the presidency (first) of Texas in 1836 by General Sam Houston q.v., he became first secretary of state of the Republic of Texas and was commander-in-chief of the Army of Texas. Austin, Texas is named for him, as is a Masonic lodge in that state. d. Dec. 27, 1836.


            Warren R. Austin United States Representative to United Nations (1947-50). b. Nov. 12, 1877 at Highgate, Vt. Admitted to Vt. bar in 1902. Served as mayor of St. Albans in 1909 and U.S. Senator being elected in 1931, 1934 and 1940. As a special ambassador of the president, he served as U.S. advisor to the United Nations in 1946, and in 1947 was named as the United States first ambassador to the U.N. with rank of ambassador E. and P. While with the U.N. he served as our representative on the Security Council, made a goodwill mission to Cuba in 1950 and was official guest of Dominican Republic, Haiti, Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. He was chairman of Committee for Permanent Headquarters. In 1951 he was recipient of the Distinguished Achievement medal of the G.L. of New York. He was raised in Brattleboro Lodge No. 102 at Burlington, Vt. and later affiliated with Franklin Lodge No. 4, St. Albans. A Knight Templar and Shriner he received 33° AASR in September, 1944.


            Gene Autry Singer, actor, producer, writer of screen, stage, radio and TV. b. Sept. 29, 1907 at Tioga, Texas. Graduated from Tioga high school in 1925. Began as a railroad telegraph operator in Sapulpa, Okla. in 1925. Autry made first phonograph record of cowboy songs in 1929; radio artist WLS, Chicago, 1930-34; motion picture director since 1934; actor since 1934. His first picture was In Old Santa Fe and since that time he has starred in 55 musical Western feature pictures. Joined Army Air Force in 1942 as technical sergeant and discharged in 1945 as flight officer. With the advent of TV after WW2 he produced and starred in many productions. He has written over 250 songs including Silver-Haired Daddy of Mine (1931); You're the Only Star in My Blue Heaven (1938); Dust (1938); Tears on My Pillow (1941); Be Honest With Me (1941); Tweedle O'Twill (1942). Raised in Catoosa Lodge No. 185, Catoosa, Okla. in 1927. Life member of Long Beach, Calif. AASR (32°) and life member of Al Malaika Shrine Temple, Los Angeles, Calif.


            George W. Auxier Writer, political analyst, government official. b. Nov. 27, 1905 Paintsville, Ky. A.B. and M.A. Miami Univ., Ph.D. Ohio State Univ. Served as supt. Federal archives, Ohio; research asst. in Library of Congress; asst. editor Territorial Papers of U.S., Dept. of State; liaison officer Office of Censorship; historical officer, War Department, General Staff 1942-44; principal policy analyst, Office of Executive Sec. W.P.R., 1944-45; chief policy analysis staff, bureau of demobilization, 194546; asst. general managers office U.S. Atomic Energy Commission 1947; principal policy analyst U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1947. General director research and reports National Security Resources Board since 1947. Member of Takoma Park Lodge No. 29, Takoma Park, Md. Author of many books and articles, historical and current.


            Henry G. Avers (1886-1947) Mathematician. Chief mathematician of Geodetic Survey since 1924. Member of National Geographic Society Committee of experts which determined that Commdr. Byrd q.v. reached the North Pole by airplane in 1926 and the South Pole in 1929. Mason 32° AASR, Shriner. d. Jan. 19, 1947.


            Christopher L. Avery Justice, Supreme Court of Connecticut, 1929-42 (retired). b. Sept. 4, 1872. Graduate of Yale, A.B. 1893, LL.B. 1897. Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1897 and moved to Connecticut in 1903. Judge, Superior Court of Conn. 1920-29. Served as quartermaster, U.S. Navy in Spanish American War. Member of House of Representatives, 1913. Mason.


            Ray L. Avery Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. July 15, 1884, Manchester, N.H. Graduate West Point, 1908. Advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1940. Commanding general, Edgewood Arsenal, Md. 1940-46. Retired, 1946. Mason.


            William H. Avery Congressman from Kansas, 84th Congress. b. Aug. 11, 1911, Wakefield, Kansas. Farmer, stockman, 1935-55; member Kansas state legislature, 1951-55. Received degrees in Wakefield Lodge No. 396, Wakefield, Kansas in 1954-55-56.


            S. B. Axtell Former governor of New Mexico and Utah. Member of Amador Lodge No. 65, Jackson, Calif.


            John Thomas Axton ( 1870 - ? ) Chief of chaplains, U.S.A. b. July 28, 1870, Salt Lake City, Utah. General secretary to YMCA 1893-1902. Chaplain U.S. Army, 1902 and in 1920 appointed colonel and chief of chaplains; retired in 1928. Served in P.I. twice, Mexican border 5 years and duty at Port of Embarkation, Hoboken, N.J., WW1. He officiated at the interment of America's unknown soldier at Arlington National Cemetery Nov. 11, 1921. Mason. deceased.


            Charles B. Aycock (1859-1912) Governor of North Carolina, 1901-05. b. Nov. 1, 1859 at Fremont, N.C. Degrees from Univ. of North Carolina and Univ. of Maine. Practiced law at Goldsboro, N.C. Served as county superintendent of schools, U.S. district attorney. His bust is in Statuary Hall, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. He served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina in 1897. d. April 4, 1912.


            Atlee B. Ayers Architect. b. July 12, 1874, Hillsboro, Ohio. Architect in San Antonio since 1899. Architect of Smith-Young Plaza Hotel, Federal Reserve Bank Building and Municipal Auditorium, all of San Antonio, Texas. Collaborated in Blind Institute, Austin, and Administration Building, Randolph Field, Texas. Mason, 32° AASR (SJ).


            George F. Ayers (1865-1913) President of Lindenwood Female College, St. Charles, Mo., 1902-13. b. May 17, 1865 at Hannibal, Mo. Active Presbyterian, author and Mason. d. Oct. 23, 1913.


            William A. Ayers Congressman from Kansas 64th to 66th Congresses (1915-21) and 68th to 73rd Congresses (1923-35), resigning upon appointment as Federal Trade Commissioner in 1934, reappointed in 1940 and again in 1947. Mason 33° AASR, Shriner. d. Feb. 17, 1952.


            Sir George Aylwen Lord Mayor of London (circa 1949-51) Junior grand warden of the G.L. of Mark Masters of England and Wales, installed Sept. 6, 1949.


            William Edmonstoune Aytoun (1812-65) Scottish poet and parodist. Educated at Univ. of Edinburgh and at Aschaffenburg, Germany. He began contributions to Blackwood's in 1836; professor of rhetoric and belles letters, Univ. of Edinburgh, 1845. Author of Poland, Homer, and Other Poems (1832); Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers (1848); Firmilian a Spasmodic Tragedy (1854) and Poems and Ballads of Goethe (1858). Annotated collection of Ballads of Scotland, (1858). Active member the Scottish grand lodge and representative there of the Grand Lodge Royal York of Germany.


            Miguel de Azcuenaga (1754-1833) Argentine patriot. Helped defend the city of Buenos Aires against the first British attack. Was active in the May 1810 revolution and was part of the first "junta" or governing council. Later appointed chief of the general staff.



              Irving B. Babcock President of General Motors Truck Corp. since 1935. b. June 25, 1891 at Milwaukee, Wis. LL.B. DePaul Univ. in 1916. Also president and director of Yellow Truck & Coach Mfg. Co., vice president of General Motors Corp. since 1943 and director of several large corporations. 32° AASR.


            Catherine Sweet Babington (18151886) A woman, who was said to have received the first three degrees of Freemasonry. Although the statement has been seriously questioned, there are several strong arguments in its favor. Her death notice which appeared in the Shelby Aurora, Shelby, N.C. which was edited by a Freemason stated: "At her death she was the only female Mason in the United States, and was well versed in the mysterious workings of the Blue Lodge. Having overheard the secrets of Masonry when she was a girl of 16 years, it was thought best to initiate her as a member and thus prevent any disclosure." Sometime after her death, her son, J. P. Babington, a member of Cleveland Lodge 202, Shelby, N.C., (later Lee Lodge No. 253 at Taylorsville, N.C.) wrote a biography of his mother entitled Biography of Mrs. Catherine Baling-ton, the Only Woman Mason in the World, and How She Became a Blue Lodge Mason. It is said she hid herself in a pulpit of a lodge room in Princess Furnace, Kentucky and watched each meeting for a year and a half before being discovered by an uncle. After much discussion, the lodge obligated her but did not admit her to membership. It was claimed that she kept herself posted on Freemasonry until a short time before her death but never attempted to visit a lodge. It has been pointed out that there was never a regular lodge situated at or near Princess Furness (now Princess), Ky.


            John Christian Bach (1735-1782) Musician, composer. One of the four sons of composer John Sebastian Bach—all of whom were musicians of importance. Known as "the Milan or London Bach," he was cathedral organist at Milan in 1760 and music master to Queen Charlotte Sophia, London in 1762. He was co-founder of Bach-Abel concerts in 1765 and composed operas, arias, cantatas, chamber music, symphonies and overtures. He was an early member of the Lodge of the Nine Muses No. 235 in London.


            Nahum J. Bachelder (1854-1934) Governor of New Hampshire, 1903-05. b. Sept. 3, 1854 at Andover, N.H. He was a farmer. Mason. d. April 22, 1934.


            Irving A. Bacheller (1859-1950) American novelist. b. Sept. 26, 1859 at Pierpont, N.Y. He was actively connected with the New York press for years and was an editor of the New York World from 1898-1900. When presented with the medal for distinguished achievement in the field of art by the Grand Lodge of New York in 1937 he said: "My brothers, it seems very long ago—exactly, I think it was in 1898 (raised Dec. 5, 1899)—when I was a member of the editorial staff of the New York World —that my friend Jules Chambers proposed me for membership in Kane Lodge (No. 454) with a membership of distinguished and illustrious names. That relationship has been one of the dearest of my life, one which I have been denied the pleasure of enjoying very much, for some 20 years ago I became a citizen of Florida. . . ." Commenting on his award in 1943 he said, "I never felt so highly honored as when I got a medal from the grand lodge some years ago. I'm in my 84th year. It was my ambition to set up a woodworking shop at the Masonic Home for children." Bacheller wrote more than 30 novels during his life including The Master of Silence (1890); Eben Holden (1900); D'ri and I (1901); Silas Strong (1906) ; Keeping Up With Lizzie (1911); A Man for the Ages (1919); A Candle in the Wilderness (1930); The Oxen of the Sun (1945) and A Boy for the Ages (1937).


            Clifford J. Backstrand Vice president and director of Armstrong Cork Products Co. since 1935. b. July 21, 1897 at Los Angeles, Calif. Graduate of Pomona College (Calif.) and University of Pennsylvania, beginning as a student salesman with the Armstrong Co. in 1921. Director of Hamilton Watch Co. Served in WW1 and was head of the linoleum unit, floor covering and upholstery section of War Production Board in 1942. Mason.


            Rudolph J. L. Backstrom Heraldist. b. June 16, 1894 at Philadelphia, Pa. Established portrait business, Union of S. Africa, 1926-28. Chief heraldic designer and consultant Office of Quartermaster General, U.S. War Dept. 1942-43. Engaged in heraldic business since 1928 and director International Heraldic Institute, Ltd. Active in Shrine crippled children's hospitals. 32° AASR.


            Augustus 0. Bacon (1839-1914) U. S. Senator from Georgia three terms, 1894, 1900, 1907. b. Oct. 20,1839 at Bryan Co., Ga. Graduate of Univ. of Georgia in 1860 and practiced law at Macon. Mason. d. Feb. 14, 1914.


            Francis Bacon (1561-1626) English philosopher and author. Raised to peerage as 1st Baron of Verulam after serving as solicitor general (1609) attorney general (1613) and Lord chancellor (1618). Famous for his Essays; History of Henry VII; Advancement of Learning and other important works. Thought by some to be a Rosecrucian whose New Atlantis was an early influence on the development of the craft.


            Frank Bacon (1864-1922) Actor and writer. b. Jan. 16, 1864 at Marysville, Calif. Wrote Lightnin' in collaboration with Winchell Smith, which had long Broadway run. Appeared in stage hits such as Alabama; Pudd'n Head Wilson; Me and Grant; Cinderella Man; Fortune Hunter and many others. Mason. d. Nov. 19, 1922.


            Robert L. Bacon (1884-1938) Congressman from N.Y., 68th to 75th Congresses. b. July 23, 1884 at Boston, Mass. Served with field artillery in WW1. Mason. d. Sept. 12, 1938.


            Walter W. Bacon Governor of Delaware 1941-49. b. Jan. 20, 1880 at Newcastle, Del. Served as treasurer of Buick Motor Co., Flint, Mich., 1918-30 when he retired from business. Served as mayor of Wilmington, Del. 1935-41, resigning to accept office of governor. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 2, New Castle, Del., being raised July 2, 1902. In 1915 he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Delaware. Member of St. John's Chapter, No. 4, R.A.M. of Wilmington and past high priest. Member of St. John's Commandery, No. 1, K.T., Wilmington and past commander. Member of Delaware Consistory, AASR (NJ) and 33°. Also member of Shrine, Tall Cedars, National Sojourners.


            Robert Baddeley Comedian of Drury Lane Theatre (London). A member of St. Alban's Lodge No. 29, London.


            Jesse M. Bader General secretary, World Convention of Churches of Christ (president in 1930). b. April 15, 1886. A pastor in Christian Church since 1905. Member of Washington Lodge No. 5, Atchison, Kansas.


            Harry A. Badt Commodore U.S. Navy. b. Sept. 22, 1884 at Tyler, Texas. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy, 1908 and advanced through grades to commodore in 1944. Commanding officer U.S.S. Simpson 1923-24; commanding officer Aleutian Islands survey expedition in 1933; director of recruiting for U.S. Navy 1935-37; commanding officer U.S.S. Tuscaloosa 1938-40; director of enlisted personnel U.S. Navy 1940-42. Retired in 1947. Mason.


            Milton B. Badt Justice, Supreme Court of Nevada since 1947. b. July 8, 1884 at San Francisco, Calif. Admitted to California bar in 1909. Raised in Elko Lodge No. 15, Elko, Nev. on Feb. 12, 1918, serving as its master in 1924. Member of Valley of Reno AASR (SJ), Elko Chapter No. 17 O.E.S. and Kerak Shrine Temple, Reno, Nev.


            William A. Baehr (1873-1943) Utilities corporations president. b. Sept. 15, 1873 at Oshkosh, Wis. Graduated University of Wisconsin in 1894. President of the following: North Continent Utilities Corp., Great Falls Gas Co., Great Northern Utilities Co., Elk River Power & Light Co., Denver Ice & Cold Storage Co., Western Railways Ice Co., North Shore Coke & Chemical Co., North Shore Gas Co., the S. W. Shattuck Chemical Co., and North Continent Mines, Inc. He was director of many other corporations. Mason. d. Feb. 18, 1943.


            Arthur P. Bagby (1794-1858) Governor of Alabama, U.S. Senator, MM-ister to Russia. b. 1794 in Virginia. Settled in Alabama in 1818 and gained a reputation as a lawyer. Member of state legislature and speaker of the house in 1820-22. Governor of Alabama from 1837-41. Member of the U.S. Senate from 1841-48 and in 1848-49 was minister to Russia. Served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Alabama. d. Sept. 21, 1858.


            Charles L. Bagley Vice president American Federation of Musicians since 1931. b. April 24, 1873 at Tipton, Iowa. Was formerly a professional musician. Graduated University of Southern California in 1910 and admitted to California bar in 1909 and has practiced in California since 1911. He was raised in Hollenbeck Lodge No. 319, Los Angeles on Aug. 31, 1897 and demitted about 1911 to Silver Trowel Lodge No. 415 of Los Angeles, serving as master in 1918. Member of Signet Chapter No. 57, R.AM., Los Angeles Council, No. 11, R. & S.M. and Los Angeles Commandery No. 9, K.T. all of Los Angeles. 32° AASR in Valley of Los Angeles. Served as patron of Daylight Chapter No. 265, O.E.S. in 1915, 1925, 1929 and member of Al Malaikah Shrine Temple.


            John J. Bagley (1832-1881) Governor of Michigan. b. July 24, 1832 at Medina, N.Y. Emigrated in early life to Michigan and at age of 15 was employed in a tobacco factory in Detroit. He later began a tobacco business of his own and operated it with financial success until his death. He was elected governor in 1872 and again in 1874. His administration was marked by benefits to educational and charitable institutions. Member of Charity Lodge No. 94, Detroit, Mich. d. July 27, 1881.


            William E. Bahl Vice president of The National Cash Register Co. since 1947 (in charge of manufacturing). b. Feb. 8, 1889 at Zimmerman, Ohio, he started with the above company as an apprentice in 1906. Past master of his lodge.


            Karl Friederich Bahrdt (1741-1792) German doctor of theology. A Freemason, who with other Freemasons founded the "German Union" or the "Two and Twenty" society at Halle. It was not Masonic but its object was the enlightenment of mankind. It was dissolved in 1790 by the imprisonment of Bahrdt for libel of Prussian Minister Woeliner. Bahrdt was described by one of his biographers as being "notorious alike for his bold infidelity and for his evil life.”


            Philip Milo Bail President Municipal University, Omaha, Nebr. since 1948. b. June 26, 1898. Attended Missouri Valley College and University of Iowa, receiving Ph.D. in 1931. Member of George W. Lininger Lodge No. 268, Omaha, Nebr.; 32° AASR (SJ) at Omaha and Tangier Shrine Temple, Omaha.


            Carl E. Bailey (1894-1948) Governor of Arkansas 1937-41. b. Oct. 8, 1894 at Bernie, Mo. Worked as a laborer, farmer, school teacher, accountant and began law practice in 1924. Served as attorney general of Arkansas 1935-37. Mason. d. Oct. 23, 1948. Received 32° at Little Rock, May 25, 1928.


            Cassius M. Bailey (1876-1935) President of Lydia Cotton Mills, Clinton, S.C. b. Nov. 22, 1876 at Clinton, S.C. Mason. d. July 5, 1935.


            Francis L. Bailey President of Gorham State Teachers College, Gorham, Maine since 1940. b. Nov. 18, 1894 at Wyman, Mich. Graduate of Univ. of Michigan and Columbia Univ. 32° AASR and Shriner.


            Frank M. Bailey Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma, 1919-21. b. Sept. 27, 1876 at Winona, Miss. Began law practice at Chickasha, Okla. in 1901. Retired to private law practice in 1921. Trustee of Southern Methodist Univ. Active representative of M.E. church in jurisdictional and general conferences. Received certificate from Oklahoma Memorial Assn. in 1933 "for distinguished services to the State of Oklahoma." 32° AASR (SJ).


            George W. Bailey (1856-1909) Justice of Supreme court of Colorado, 1905-09. b. March 8, 1856 at St. Louis, Mo. Admitted to bar 1885. d. 1909.


            Guy W. Bailey (1876-1940) President of University of Vermont from 1920. b. May 7, 1876 at Hardwick, Vt. Admitted to bar in 1904 but never practiced. Secretary of state of Vermont, 1908-17. Mason. d. Oct. 22, 1940.


            James E. Bailey (1822-?) U.S. Senator from Tennessee. b. Montgomery Co., Tenn., Aug. 15, 1822. Educated at Clarksville (Tenn.) Academy and Univ. of Nashville. Was admitted to bar and began practice at Clarksville in 1843. Elected to Tennessee lower house in 1853. Served in the Confederate army and was elected U.S. Senator from Tennessee in place of Andrew Johnson in 1876. Member of Clarksville Lodge No. 89, Clarksville, Tenn.


            John 0. Bailey Judge, Supreme Court of Oregon from 1933. b. Sept. 26, 1880 at Grinnell, Iowa. Graduate Harvard School, 1906. Assistant atty. general of Oregon, 1915-20. Member house of representatives, 1925-29 and state senate 1929-33. Raised in Doric Lodge No. 132, Portland, Oregon about 1920. Member of Mt. Hood Chapter No. 50, R.A.M., Portland and Oregon Commandery No. 1.


            Joseph E. Bailey Union General in Civil War. Member of Columbia Lodge No. 124, Wisconsin Dells, Wis.


            Leonard H. Bailey Architect. b. London, Eng., Aug. 12, 1880, coming to U.S. in 1903 and naturalized in 1917. President of Allied Architects who designed the city hall, Civic Center, Rogers Courts, Masonic Temple, Wesley M.E. Church and Liberty Theatre—all of Oklahoma City and many military buildings. Raised in Oklahoma City Lodge No. 36 in 1904. He was the last master of Oklahoma 3, which was changed to No. 36 when Indian Territory became the state of Oklahoma and was charter master of No. 36. Served as district deputy grand master in 1907-09. Member of Cyrus Chapter No. 7, R.A.M. and Bethlehem Commandery, K.T., of Oklahoma City. A Shriner and past patron of Eastern Star chapter No. 10.


            Theodorus Bailey (1805-1877) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. April 12, 1805 in Chateaugay, N.Y. Appointed midshipman in 1818 and remained with American Navy until retired in 1866 as a rear admiral. In early years served on the Cyane, Franklin, Vincennes, Constellation, and Lexington. Took part in the Mexican War. At start of Civil war he commanded the frigate Colorado off Pensacola. Second in command of Farragut's squadron at New Orleans, he led the attack in the gunboat Cayuga. He ran the fire of five forts and was sent by Farragut to demand the surrender of New Orleans, at which time he coined the phrase "Iron Hearts and Wooden Ships." He later commanded the eastern Gulf blockading squadron. After war he was commander of the Portsmouth navy yard. He was raised in Washington Lodge No. 21, New York City on March 3, 1829. d. Feb. 10, 1877.


            Thomas L. Bailey (1888-1946) Governor of Mississippi, term of 1944-48. b. Jan. 6, 1888 at Maben, Miss. Admitted to bar in 1913. Member of Mississippi legislature from 1916-40 and speaker from 1924-36. Mason and Shriner. d. Nov. 2, 1946.


            Walter C. Bain Aircraft executive. Vice president, general manager and director of the Republic Aviation Corporation, Farmingdale, L.I., N.Y.b. June 20, 1910 at Springfield, Ill. Started as a metallurgist with Allis Chalmers Mfg. Co. in 1936. Entered service USAAF as a cadet in 1932 and rose in rank to major general. Released from service in 1953. A Mason.


            George W. Baird (1843-1930) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. April 22, 1843 at Washington, D.C. Appointed 3rd assistant engineer, U.S. Navy, Sept 19, 1862 and promoted through grades retiring with rank of rear admiral, April 22, 1905. He superintended the construction and designed the special machinery of the Albatross, famous deep sea exploring vessel. He was initiated in the French lodge Tolerancia (Tolerence) at Lisbon, Portugal on July 23, 1867 and received his FC and MM degrees one week later. In 1879 he affiliated with Naval Lodge No. 87 at Vallejo, Calif., withdrawing in 1872 to Hope Lodge No. 20, Washington, D.C. where he served as master and in 1896 was grand master of the G.L. of the District of Columbia. Baird wrote a widely published series of articles entitled Great Men Who Were Masons. He received his 32° AASR (SJ) at Washington on Aug. 21, 1897, KCCH on Oct. 19, 1899 and 33° on Oct. 25, 1901. d. Oct. 4, 1930 at Washington.


            Sir Robert Baird Former owner and publisher of the Belfast Telegraph (Ireland) and grand treasurer of the G.L. of Ireland. Also was a member of several London lodges. In 1929 a portrait bust of Baird was presented to the Belfast Museum and Art Gallery.


            Albert Z. Baker President of Rotary International (1955), president of the American Stockyards Assn. and chairman of board of Cleveland Union Stockyards Co. A member of Lakewood Lodge No. 601, Cleveland Chapter No. 148 R.A.M., Forest City Council No. 111, Forest City Commandery No. 40, K.T. and AI Koran Temple, all of Cleveland. In the AASR (N.J.) he received his 33° in 1945.


            Bryant Baker Sculptor. b. July 8, 1881 in London, England. Graduated from Royal Academy of Arts, London in 1910. His portrait bust of Edward VII was Queen Alexandra's favorite. He did busts of many English notables and of Prince Olav of Norway before coming to America in 1916. Here he has made busts from life of President Coolidge, Col. John Coolidge, Senators H. C. Lodge, W. A. Clark, J. H. Bankhead, generals Pershing, March and Gorgas, Chief Justices White, Taft and Hughes; John Hays Hammond, Herbert Hoover, Newton Baker, Josephus Daniels, Percival Lowell, George Harvey, Cordell Hull and heroic bronze statue of Chief Justice Edward D. White, New Orleans. He has done heroic bronze statues of Grover Cleveland, Millard Fillmore and Young Lincoln at Buffalo, N.Y. For Delaware's Statuary Hall he executed marble statues of patriots Caesar Rodney and John M. Clayton. His Gov. Reuben Fenton statue is at Jamestown, N.Y. and the Bishop Freeman memorial is in the National Cathedral in Washington. His heroic 17-ft. bronze of George Washington at the Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria was unveiled by President Truman, Feb. 22, 1950. His ideal works in permanent collections include Eros at Manchester City Art Gallery, Memory at Hull City Art Gallery in England and Pioneer Woman statue in Ponca City, Oklahoma, the latter winning him the Marland competition in a field of 12 top sculptors. Baker is a member of Constitutional Lodge No. 294 at Beverly, Yorkshire, England. He has been instrumental in keeping very much alive the communications between his home lodge in Beverly, England and Beverly Lodge in Massachusetts, as well asthe Alexandria-Washington Lodge in Virginia. Died March 29, 1957. Masonic Services.


            Earl D. Baker Newspaperman and publisher. b. Apr. 14, 1898, Spencer Co., Ind. Associated with Scripps-Howard Newspapers since 1918 in Evansville, Ind., Terre Haute, Ind., Washington, D.C. and San Francisco. President of the Washington Daily News from 1938-1947 and assistant general business manager of Scripps-Howard papers since 1937. Business manager of The San Francisco News since 1947. Raised in Humboldt Lodge No. 42, Terre Haute, Ind. about 1927. 32° AASR at Evansville, Ind. Member Almas Shrine Temple, Wash., D.C.


            Howard H. Baker Congressman from Tennessee to 82nd Congress (1951-53). b. Jan. 12, 1902 at Somerset, Ky. Admitted to bar in 1924. Member of Tennessee legislature, 1929-30. Nominee for governor of Tenn. in 1938 and U.S. Senator in 1940. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.


            James C. Baker Bishop, Methodist Church. b. June 2, 1879 at Sheldon, Ill. Received degrees from Illinois Wesleyan, Boston University and attended Cornell, College of the Pacific and Univ. of Southern Calif. Entered M.E. ministry in 1900 and was organizer and head of the Wesley Foundation Univ. of Ill. (the first Wesley Foundation in the country). Elected bishop of Methodist Episcopal Church in 1928 and assigned to supervision work in Japan, Korea and Manchuria. Later assigned to California area, and a delegate to General Conference in 1916, '20, '28 and Oxford Conference in 1947. President of Council of Methodist Bishops, 1948-49. Member of Acacia Fraternity at Univ. of Illinois. Raised in McLean Lodge No. 469, McLean, Ill. in 1906. 32° AASR at Bloomington, 111.


            James M. Baker (1861-1940) Diplomat and government official. b. Aug. 18, 1861 at Lowndesville, S.C. Assistant librarian U.S. Senate, 1893-1913. Elected secretary of U.S. Senate in 1913. Deputy commissioner Internal Revenue Bureau, U.S. Treasury 191921. Private law practice 1921-31. American minister to Siam by appointment of Franklin Roosevelt in 1933, resigning in 1937 due to ill health. Mason. d. Nov. 21, 1940.


            John F. "Home Run" Baker Member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame. b. March 13, 1886 at Trappe, Maryland. Elected to the Cooperstown Hall of Fame in 1955. Member Coats Lodge No. 102 at Easton, Md.


            Leonard T. Baker ( 1868 -1 955 ) President of University of South Carolina, 1944, and president emeritus from 1946. b. Jan. 22, 1868, serving the University of South Carolina as professor, administrator, acting president, vice president and dean. Mason. d. Jan. 5, 1955.


            Milton G. Baker President of Valley Forge Military Academy since 1928. Commanding general of Pennsylvania National Guard, 1943-46; major general U.S. director civilian defense, Philadelphia 1941-42. b. Aug. 24, 1896 at Philadelphia. Served in WW1 1917-21 and Pennsylvania National Guard 1921-46. Mason and 32° AASR.


            Nathaniel B. Baker (1818-1876) Governor of New Hampshire. b. Sept. 29, 1818 in Henniker, N.H. Graduate of Harvard in 1839 and admitted to bar in 1842. Joint owner and editor of the New Hampshire Patriot for three years. Served two terms in state legislature starting in 1851 and was speaker of the house. Presidential elector in 1852, and in 1854 was elected governor of New Hampshire, serving until 1855. In 1856 he moved to Clinton, Iowa where he practiced law. Served in the Iowa legislature in 1859-61 when he was appointedadjutant general of Iowa, a position he held until his death on Sept. 11, 1876. A member of Western Star Lodge No. 100, Clinton, Iowa.


            Phil Baker Comedian of radio and stage since the early 1930's. Raised in Keystone Lodge No. 235, New York City. Baker once said "I belong to various organizations, but I have always felt that my membership in Masonry has been nearest my heart. One of the grandest compliments ever paid me was my acceptance into the fraternity.”


            Samuel A. Baker (1874-1933) Governor of Missouri 1925-28. b. Patterson, Mo., Nov. 7, 1874. LL.D. Missouri Valley College. Teacher, principal and superintendent of schools in various Missouri cities from 1895 to 1919. State superintendent of schools of Missouri from 1919 to 1923. d. Sept. 16, 1933. Member of Jefferson Lodge No. 43, Jefferson City Chapter No. 34 and Prince of Peace Commandery No. 29, all of Jefferson City, Mo. He was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Missouri in 1926 and delivered an oration on the support of the public school system and religious institutions.


            Simon S. Baker (1866-1932) President of Washington and Jefferson College, 1921-22. b. July 11, 1866 in Washington Co., Pa. Graduated Washington and Jefferson B.S. and M.S., LL.D. University of Pittsburgh 1923. Served in public school system of Pittsburgh for 25 years. Mason. d. Oct. 11, 1932.


            Walter C. Baker Major General U.S. Army. b. Sept. 22, 1877 at Chester, Pa. Graduate of Coast Artillery School, Army War College, Command and General Staff School, Army Industrial College and Chemical Warfare School. Served as enlisted man in Spanish American War with 6th Penn. Vol. Infantry, advancing


48 Alexander Dmitrievich Balashov through grades in U.S. Army to major general in 1937. Served as an officer in WW1 and recalled to active duty in WW2 serving from 1941-44. Mason.


            Walter R. G. Baker Vice president of General Electric Co. b. Nov. 30, 1892 at Lockport, N.Y. Began as electrical engineer with General Electric in 1916; managing engineer of radio dept. 1928-30; vice president in charge of engineering and manufacturing R.C.A. Mfg. Co. 1930-36; head of radio engineering manufacturing and sales General Electric 1936-39; manager radio and television department, 1939-41. Since 1941 he has been director of many banks and corporations including General Electric (International); G. E. Supply Corp. and G. E. Credit Corp. Mason.


            William C. Baker Vice president of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad since 1948 in charge of maintenance and operation. b. Feb. 18, at Baltimore, Md. Began with the B. & 0. in 1906 as a clerk, advancing through assistant train master, train master, assistant superintendent, superintendent, general superintendent and general manager. Mason.


            William E. Baker (1873-?) Judge, U.S. District Court, Northern District of West Virginia since 1921. b. Feb. 25, 1873 at Beverly, W. Va. A.B. and LL.B. at Western Virginia University, 1896. Knight Templar, 32° AASR and Shriner. Deceased.


            William E. Baker Vice president of Servel, Inc. b. Dec. 11, 1887 at Rushton, Ill. Graduate of Rose Poly. Institute. Started as an apprentice of Westinghouse Electric in 1911, serving as production engineer of several companies from 1912-16. Superintendent of Delco Products Corp., 1916-24; vice president The Day Fan Electric Co. 1924-29. Mason, Shriner.


            H. Sheridan Baketel (1872-1955) Physician, co-founder and editor of Medical Economics. b. Nov. 15, 1872. M.D. Boston College and post graduate work at Harvard Medical. Practiced in New York since 1910. Writer and editor for many medical publications. Urology was his specialty. He was vice president and chairman of the board of Columbia University College of Pharmacy from 1938-1942. Wrote several medical books. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. July 7, 1955.


            Norris C. Bakke Chief justice, Supreme Court of Colorado, 1945 and general counsel F.D.I.C. since March, 1947. b. April 19, 1894. Degrees from University of Chicago and graduate work at Harvard. Admitted to Colorado bar, 1920. Attorney general of Colorado, 1933-36; associate justice, Supreme Court of Colorado 1936-45 and chief justice in 1945. Named associate general counsel F.D.I.C. Washington, March, 1947. Active in Salvation Army and many church and religious organizations. Raised in Sterling Lodge No. 54 in October, 1920. Member of Denver Consistory No. 2 AASR (SJ) and El Jebel Shrine Temple, Denver.


            Alexander Dmitrievich Balashov (1770-1837) Governor general of several Russian provinces and Minister of Police from 1810-1816 under Alexander I. He was an aide-de-camp to Emperor Alexander I q.v. It is thought that he was directed by the government to join Freemasonry so that it could be brought under control of the ruling circle. He was appointed Minister of Police on March 28, 1810 and in August of that year wrote the masters of all lodges that the government was going to examine their records and rules of the society inasmuch as some of the members had through their imprudence given cause for ignorant and malicious forms of misjudgments. He then called in the four masters of the Petersburg lodges and asked them if they wanted official government protection—or toleration. Rather than become a governmental agency they chose toleration. It was not until 12 years later that Freemasonry was forever banned by Alexander I.


            Antonio Gonzalez Balcarce (17771819) Argentine patriot and general. Participated in the 1807 defense of Montevideo, Uruguay against the British. Taken prisoner, he was sent to Europe. In 1810 he returned to his native Argentina to take command of inland troops. He became Supreme Administrator in 1816. Balcarce was a member of Lautaro Lodge.


            Alexander, 6th Earl of Balcarres (1752-1825) Member of the Scottish family of Lindsay whose titles date from 1365 with Sir David, 1st Earl of Crawford. Was 33rd Grand Master Mason of Scotland from 1780-1781. He was forced to surrender at Ticonderoga in 1777, became governor of Jamaica 1794-1801; a general in 1803; representative Scottish peer from 1784-1825. In 1848 the House of Lords adjudged the earldom of Crawford (dormant since 1808) to his son James, 7th Earl of Balcarres.


            Bernt Balchen Explorer, air pioneer, army officer, OSS operator, and one of the most colorful characters of the 20th century. b. Oct. 23, 1899 at Tveit, Topdal, Norway. Educated Norway air force and artillery line; War Academy at Oslo and Horton 1918-21. Came to U.S. in 1926 and naturalized in 1931. Pilot engineer with Roald Amundsen q.v. 1925-26. Piloted The America for Admiral Byrd q.v. across the Atlantic in 1927. Pilot of the Bremen relief expedition to Greenly Island, Labrador, 1928. Chief pilot Admiral Byrd's Antarctic Expedition (piloted first fight over south pole, Nov. 29, 1929) 1928-30;pilot Viking Rescue Expedition to Newfoundland, 1931; chief pilot, Ellsworth Antarctic Expedition, 1933-35; chief inspector of Norwegian Airlines 1935-40 and managing director, 194648. Served with R.A.F. Ferry Command as pilot-navigator 1940-41; Transferred to U.S. Air Force, 1941, building base at Bluie West 8 on Greenland and commanding officer of this station until 1943. Chief of A.T.C. for Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and U.S.S.R. in Stockholm, 1943-45 and during this time supported Norwegian underground resistance against German occupation forces, 1944-45. Balchen was in charge of evacuating 70,000 Russians from slave labor camps in northern Norway. Entered U.S. Air Force in 1941 and advanced to captain in 1941, then to colonel in 1942, working with the Air Force and OSS in Greenland and Scandinavia from 1943-45. Stationed in Alaska since 1948. As a U.S. colonel on the OSS he made 166 flights to Norway (Operation Carpetbagger) where his B-24 dropped allied agents and 700 tons of sabotage material. Project "Sonnie" required 270 trips between his base at Prestwyck, Scotland and the neutral airfields of Sweden. In these trips he evacuated 1,000 Americans who had crossed the border and 5,000 others, including Trygve Lie q.v. He is a member of Norseman Lodge No. 878 of Brooklyn, N.Y. With Admiral Byrd they dropped Masonic flags over the two poles, and Balchen dropped his Kismet Temple Shrine fez over the South Pole. He is a member of the AASR (N.J.) of New York. He helped in the staggering achievement of establishing the new air base at Thule, Greenland, 900 miles from the North Pole and was one of the organizers of the "Top of the World" Masonic Square Club at that base which 500 airmen and construction workers joined. In reference to this he stated "Men needed the fellowship and warmth of Masonry at 20° below zero." In 1954 he was awarded the G.L. of New York's distinguished achievement medal.


            Loomis Baldrey (1882-1954) Lawyer and grand master of Washington and Alaska, 1934-35. b. May 19, 1882 at Camden, N.J. Educated in Minnesota and New York schools, attending law school at Syracuse University. Settled in Bellingham, Wash. after his marriage in 1906 and became master of Whatcom Lodge No. 151 in 1920. He served as the Masonic reviewer for Washington for many years. Was past president of Washington State Prosecuting Attorney Assn. and past district governor of Kiwanis International. d. Aug. 8, 1954.


            H. Clarence Baldridge (1868-1947) Governor of Idaho two terms (192731). b. Nov. 24, 1868 at Carlock, Ill. Student at Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, Ill. 1890-93 and settled at Parma, Idaho in 1904 where he engaged in mercantile business and farming. He was a member of the Idaho house of representatives 1911-13 and the state senate 1913-15. He served as lieut. governor of Idaho 1923-27 and retired from mercantile business in 1942. Baldridge was raised in Parma Lodge No. 49, Parma, Idaho in 1923 and received 32° at Boise Nov. 21, 1929. d. June 7, 1947.


            Kenneth F. Baldridge President of Central Newspaper Co., consisting of seven southern Iowa newspapers since 1930. Publisher of Bloomfield Democrat since 1909. b. May 25, 1886 at Bloomfield, Iowa. Started as a reporter in Bloomfield in 1903. President of National Editorial Assn. in 1934; president Iowa Press Assn. 1925. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.


            Abraham Baldwin ( 1754 - 1807 ) Chaplain in Revolution, member of Congress of the Confederation and Constitution, signer of 1787. b. North Guilford, Conn., he moved to Georgia(1783-84) where he was a founder of the University of Georgia, originally Franklin College. He served in the Congress from Georgia 1790-99 and was U.S. Senator 1799-1807. It is not known where his original membership was, but he affiliated with American Union Lodge during the Revolution. Not a Mason. The "visiting Baldwin" was Col. Jeduthan Baldwin (1732-1788) of Mass. whose diary contains Masonic references.


            Evelyn B. Baldwin (1862-1933) Arctic explorer. b. July 22, 1862 at Springfield, Mo. Graduated Northwestern College, Naperville, Ill. in 1885. Accompanied Robert E. Peary q.v. on North Greenland expedition 1893-94 as meteorologist and was meteorologist and 2nd in command of Walter Wellman's polar expedition to Franz-Josef Land 1898-99. Built and named Fort McKinley, discovered and explored Graham Bell Land, 1889. Organized and commanded Baldwin-Ziegler polar expedition 1901-02. He was a member of Adams Lodge No. 63, Oswego, Kansas and Lake Ontario Commandery, K.T. No. 32 at Oswego, N.Y. Member of New York AASR. Baldwin reportedly carried Masonic flags with him on his expeditions. d. Oct. 25, 1933.


            Henry Baldwin (1780-1844) Associate justice U.S. Supreme Court 1830-44. b. New Haven, Conn. Congressman from Pennsylvania 1817-22.


            Howard C. Baldwin Corporation director. b. March 15, 1891 at Deerfield, Mich. Admitted to Michigan bar in 1912. Vice president and trustee The Kresge Foundation since 1937. Director S. S. Kresge Co. since 1931. Director of several corporations. Raised in Corinthian Lodge No. 241, Detroit, in 1916 and served as master. Member of King Cyrus Chapter No. 133, R.A.M. and Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T. being past commander. 33° AASR (N.J.) in Valley of Detroit and past master of Lodge of Perfection. Shriner and member of Red Cross of Constantine.


            F. W. Baldwin Brigadier General, U. S. Army. Mason and member of National Sojourners.


            Joseph C. Baldwin Congressman from New York 77th to 79th Congresses (1941-47). b. Jan. 11, 1897, New York City. A reporter and associate editor on several New York papers. President and director of United Dyewood Corp. Member New York City board of alderman 1928-34 and minority leader 1929-34. Member of New York state senate 1934-36 and Constitutional Convention of 1937. On New York City Council, 1941-47. Mason.


            Raymond E. Baldwin Governor of Connecticut 1939-41 and 1943-46. b. Aug. 31, 1893 at Rye, N.Y. Admitted to Conn. bar in 1921. Member Connecticut general assembly 1931-33. U.S. Senator from Connecticut 194649, resigning to become justice Supreme Court of Errors of Conn. since 1949. Member St. John's Lodge No. 8, Stratford, Conn. since June 6, 1929.


            Lloyd G. Balfour Jewelry manufacturer; president and treasurer of L. G. Balfour Co. since 1913. b. Jan. 6, 1887 at Wauseon, Ohio. LL.B. University of Indiana in 1907 and A.B. University of Louisville. Past grand consul of Sigma Chi social fraternity and former chairman of the National Interfraternity Conference. 32° AASR and Shriner.


            Robert Arthur Lytton, 3rd Earl of Balfour Initiated Lodge Tyneside No. 714 in 1928, serving as master in 1932 and Grand Master Mason of Scotland from 1939-41.


            A. P. Ball Showman. Predecessor, of P. T. Barnum as the greatest showman of his day. Member of Western Star Lodge No. 15, Bridgewater, N.Y.


            Edmund F. Ball President of Ball Bros. Co. of Muncie, Ind. since 1948. b. Jan. 8, 1905 at Muncie, Ind. Grad-uated from Yale in 1928. With Ball Bros. Co. since 1928 as assistant secretary, vice president. Raised in Muncie Lodge No. 433, Muncie, Ind. Sept. 9, 1927. Member of Muncie Chapter No. 30, R.A.M. Muncie Council No. 16, R. & S.M., Muncie Commandery No. 18, 32° AASR at Indianapolis. Murat Shrine Temple and St. James Conclave, Red Cross of Constantine, both of Indianapolis. Commander of Muncie Commandery in 1938, grand commander of Grand Commandery, K.T. of Indiana in 1946-47; grand treasurer of Grand Encampment, K.T. U.S.A. in 1955.


            Frank C. Ball (1857-1943) President of Ball Brothers, Muncie, Ind. b. Nov. 24, 1857 at Greensburg, Ohio. Ball Brothers donated seven million to educational and welfare work including buildings for Y.M.C.A., Ball Memorial Hospital and Masonic Auditorium in Muncie and James Whitcomb Riley Children's Hospital at Indianapolis. Raised Nov. 15, 1891 in Muncie Lodge No. 433, Muncie, Ind. Member of Muncie Chapter No. 30 R.A.M.; Muncie Council No. 16, R. & S.M. and Muncie Commandery No. 18, K.T. all of Muncie, Ind. 32° AASR at Indianapolis, Ind.


            George A. Ball (1862-1955) Glass manufacturer. Chairman of board of Ball Bros. Co. at Muncie, Ind. b. Nov. 5, 1862 at Green, Ohio. Began manufacture of glass in partnership with four brothers at Buffalo, N.Y. in 1888, moving to Muncie the same year. Raised Dec. 15, 1898 in Muncie Lodge No. 433, Muncie, Ind. Member of Muncie Chapter No. 30, R.A.M.; Muncie Council No. 16, R. & S.M.; Muncie Commandery No. 18, K.T. all of Muncie, Ind. and 32° AASR in Indianapolis. Member of Murat Shrine and St. James Conclave, Red Cross of Constantine, both of Indianapolis.


            John Ball Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Aug. 31, 1893 at Artesia, Calif. Enlisted in Navy, 1912 and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1944. Served on U.S.S. Aroosook with North Sea Mine Force in WW1. In naval supply branch in California, Washington, Puerto Rico, Utah, and commanding officer Naval Supply Depot, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 1948-50. Retired in June, 1950. Member of Annapolis Lodge No. 89, Annapolis, Md. (EA 11 Dec. 1920; FC 3 Aug. 1922; MM 22 Aug. 1922). Received his Royal Arch degree in Borinquin Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. and knighted in Puerto Rico Commandery No. 1, K.T., both in San Juan, P.R. in 1943, demitting in 1953 to Palo Alto Chapter No. 93 and Palo Alto Commandery No. 47 in Palo Alto, Calif. Member of Islam Shrine Temple, San Francisco and El Camino Real Chapter No. 413 of National Sojourners being past president and regional representative for northern California.


            L. Heisler Ball (1861-1933) U.S. Senator from Delaware. b. Sept. 21, 1861 near Stanton, Del. Received Ph.B. from Delaware College in 1882 and M.D. from Univ. of Pennsylvania in 1885, beginning practice of medicine that same year. Served as state treasurer of Delaware 1898-1900. Delegate at large to 57th Congress, 190103. Served two terms in U.S. Senate, 1903-05, 1919-25. d. Oct. 18, 1933.


            Thomas R. Ball (1896-1943) Architect and ex-congressman. b. Feb. 12, 1896 at New York City. Architect and designer of many residences and buildings in eastern Connecticut. Member of 76th Congress (1939-41) from Connecticut. Mason, 32° AASR. d. June 16, 1943.


            James Ballantine (1808-1877) Scottish poet and reviver of art of glass painting and maker of stained-glass windows. Author of The Gaberlunzie's Wallet. Mason.


            James Ballantyne (1772-1833) Scottish printer, who with his brother John q.v. was an intimate friend of Sir Walter Scott and published his work from 1802-08 until ruined by bankruptcy of Constable and Co. in 1826. After that he was editor of the Weekly Journal. A member and past master of Kelso Lodge No. 58.


            John Ballantyne (1774-1821) Scottish printer who with his brother James q.v. was a friend and business associate of Sir Walter Scott, publishing his works from 1808. He was initiated in Lodge Edinburgh St. Davids, No. 36 and afterwards master of Lodge Ayr Kilwinning, known originally as Squareman's Kilwinning Lodge No. 65, Ayr, Scotland.


            William S. Ballenger Treasurer of Chevrolet Motor Co., Flint, Mich., 1911-25. b. Dec. 5, 1866 at Cambridge City, Ind. Secretary and treasurer of Flint Wagon Works 1888-1916. Director of Industrial Rayon Corp., Cleveland since 1930. Mason, 32° AASR.


            George W. Balloch Union general in Civil War. Member of Stansbury Lodge No. 24, Washington, D.C.


            Hosea Ballou (1771-1852) Baptist clergyman and founder of the Universalist Church. b. April 20, 1771 at Richmond, N.H. He was editor of the Universalist Magazine (1819-28) and Universalist Expositor from 1830. It is not established where he first joined the fraternity, but was a member of Warren Lodge No. 23 at Woodstock, Vt. and served as master in 1807. There is also record of a "Hosea Ballou" as belonging to Mount Lebanon Lodge, Boston, Mass. (Oct. 27, 1817). Ballou died in Boston, June 7, 1852. Was grand warden of G.L. of N.H. between 1811-15.


            Lord Baltimore (see Charles Calvert) Joseph Balsam° (see Cagliostro) Robert C. Baltzell (1879-1950) U.S. district judge, Indiana since 1925. b. Aug. 15, 1879 at Lawrence Co., Ill. Admitted to Indiana bar in 1904. Appointed district judge by President Coolidge. Major of infantry in WW1. Mason. d. Oct. 18, 1950.


            Louis Charles Balzac French architect and sometimes poet who wrote many Masonic cantieles in French among which is the well known hymn Taisons nous, plus de bruit with music by M. Riguel. He founded the Lodge of the Great Sphinx at Paris. Died March 31, 1820.


            Fredrick B. Balzar (1880-1934) Governor of Nevada two terms, 192734. b. June 15, 1880 at Virginia City, Nev. Engaged in mining from 1899. Served in house of representatives (Nev.), 1905 and state senate 1909-17. Chairman state board of education from 1927. Raised Aug. 28, 1908 in Inyo Lodge No. 221 at Independence, Calif. and later affiliated with Carson Lodge No. 1, Carson City, Nevada. Received 32° AASR at Reno, Dec. 17, 1920. d. March 21, 1934.


            Simon Bamberger ( 1847 -1926 ) Governor of Utah, 1917-21. b. Feb. 27, 1847 at Darmstadt, Germany coming to U.S. in 1861 and a resident of Utah from 1869. President of Barnberger Coal Co.; director Salt Lake Valley Loan & Trust Co. and Bamberger Electric Railway. Member Utah state senate 1903-07 and member Salt Lake City school board 18981903. Mason. d. Oct. 6, 1926.


            Desire Bancel (1822-1871) French politician, publicist and orator. Mason.


            Frederick Bancroft Magician, Mason.


            George H. Bancroft Motion picture actor. Member Hollenbeck Lodge No. 319, Los Angeles, Calif. and Al Malaikah Temple of Los Angeles.


            Jonathan Bancroft Revolutionary War soldier who witnessed the execution of Major Andre. Member St. Paul's Lodge, Groton, Mass.


            Harry H. Bandholtz (1864-1925) Major General U.S. Army. b. Dec. 18, 1864 at Constantine, Mich. Graduate U.S. Military Academy 1890, advanceing through grades to major general, 1923. Served with 7th Infantry during Santiago campaign and with 2nd Infantry in Philippine insurrection; governor of Tayabas Province, 1902-03; in command of district of Southern Luzon, 1903; conducted campaign against Simeon Ola in Albay, resulting in destruction of Ola's forces; transferred to District of Central Luzon in 1905 and forced surrender of outlaws Montalan, Sakay and others. Brig. general and chief of Philippine Constabulary 1907-13. In Mexican Border campaign, 1916 and provost marshal general of A.E.F. in WW1 1918-19. Suppressed Miners' Insurrection in West Virginia in 1921, Mason, member Washington Chapter No. 3, National Sojourners. d. May 7, 1925.


            Baldwin B. Bane Chief of Securities Division, Federal Trade Commission since 1933. He organized the division. b. Aug. 2, 1891 at Standards-vine, Va. Degrees from Randolph-Macon (1911) and Washington and Lee (1917). Practiced law in Virginia until 1922. Served as officer in WW1 (France). Mason.


            John Hollis Bankhead (1842-1920) U.S. Senator from Alabama 1906-1920, b. Sept. 13, 1842 at Moscow, Ala. Captain in 16th Alabama Volunteers (Confederate) in Civil War, 1861-65. Wounded three times. Member Alabama bama house of representatives 186567 and 1880-81 and of the state senate from 1876-77. Warden of Alabama penitentiary 1881-85. In congress was conspicuous as a leader in the work of the Commission on Public Buildings and Rivers and Harbors. Grand master of G.L. of Alabama in 1883-84. d. March 1, 1920.



            Frank A. Banks Supervising engineer of Grand Coulee Dam (193343) and other large engineering projects. b. Dec. 4, 1883 at Saco, Maine. Began as engineer U.S. Reclamation Service, Lower Yellowstone Project in 1906. Construction engineer, Jackson Lake Dam, Wyo., 1913-16; Minidoka Project, 1916-20; American Falls Dam, 1920-26; Owyhee Dam & Project, 1926-33. Acting administrator Bonneville Power Project, 1939; regional director Region 1, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1943-45. District manager, Columbia River District since 1945. Raised May 17, 1919 in American Falls Lodge No. 58, American Falls, Idaho.


            Nathaniel P. Banks (1816-1894) Governor of Massachusetts (1858-61) and Civil War general. b. Waltham, Mass. Served through Civil War as major general and received thanks of Congress in 1864 for capture of Port Hudson (1863). Member of U.S. House of Representatives, 1853-57, 1865-73, 1875-79 and 1889-91. Speaker of house 1856-57. He was a member of Monitor Lodge, Waltham, Mass. and although a Union general, delivered the St. John's day address at Memphis, Tenn., on June 24, 1875.


            Jose Bans One of the five Catholic friars who established the lodge Philantrophia in Santo Domingo (now Dominican Republic) in 1819 and met in the vestry of a Catholic Church called Convento Dominico.


            N. Moore Banta (1867-1932) Writer of children's stories. b. Dec. 3, 1867 at Rensselaer, Ind. Editor and publisher with Flanagan & Co., Chicago from 1921. Wrote 23 children's books between 1905 and 1927. Mason. d. Feb. 5, 1932.


            Parke M. Banta Congressman from Missouri, 80th Congress (194749). b. Berryman, Mo. Nov. 21, 1891. Admitted to Missouri bar in 1913. Practiced at Potosi, Mo. from 191425. Administrator of State Social Security Comm. (Mo.) 1941-45. Circuit judge, 1935-36. Served in WW1 advancing from private to 1st lieutenant. General counsel, U.S. Dept. of Health and Education since 1953. Raised in Potosi Lodge No. 131 at Potosi, Mo. about 1916, serving as master in 1923. 32° in Missouri Consistory No. 1, St. Louis. Member of Ironton chapter No. 349, O.E.S.


            Jules Sara (1835-1900) Belgian lawyer, deputy and Minister of Justice. Mason.


            Charles W. Barber (1872-1943) Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. Sept. 21, 1872. Served in Spanish-American War 1898-1899, being mustered out as a captain; served in the Philippines 1899-1908 and duty with Isthmian Canal Commission, Panama, 1908-15. Mexican border service in 1916. Brig. general N.A., July 25, 1917. Commanded the 29th Infantry Division, 1917 and 57th Infantry Brigade in front line sectors as chief of staff, Base Sector No. 2, Bordeaux, France WW1. Retired as brigadier general in 1930 serving as director, officer and special representative of several corporations. Mason. d. Jan. 7, 1943.


            George C. Barber President-general of Methodist Church of Australia (1948-51) and president of Australian Council, World Council of Churches (1950-51). b. Jan. 24, 1893 at Bendigo, Australia. Graduate of Wesley College and University of Melbourne in Australia and University of London, England. Ordained Methodist ministry in 1922. President of Victoria-Tasmania Conference, 1948; chairman Australian Student Christian Movement, 1939-51. Served in WW1; military chaplain 1936-39 and Air Force chaplain 1939-46. Chaplain of the grand lodge 1949-51. Mason.


            55 Orion M. Barber

            Orion M. Barber ( 1 8 5 7 - 1 9 3 0 ) Judge, U.S. Court of Customs Appeals. b. July 13, 1857 at Jamaica, Vt. Member of Vermont house of representatives in 1892 and state senate in 1894. Was member of commission to revise Vermont statutes, state railroad commissioner and state auditor. Mason. d. March 28, 1930.


            Clarence A. Barbour (1867-1937) President of Brown University 192636; Peddie School, 1929-36; Worcester Academy 1926-36. b. April 21, 1867. Ordained Baptist ministry in 1891. Professor of homiletics, Rochester Theolo. Seminary, 1915-29. President of Northern Baptist Convention, 191617. Author of several books on religion. He was grand chaplain of the G.L. of New York four years and of the G.L. of Rhode Island one year. d. Jan. 16, 1937.


            James Barbour (1775-1842) Secretary of War, minister to England, U.S. Senator and governor of Virginia. b. June 10, 1775 in Orange Co., Va. Gained a knowledge of law while a deputy sheriff and admitted to practice when 19. Sat in Virginia House of Delegates from 1796-1812. Elected governor in 1812. After term as governor, was elected to U.S. Senate in 1815. In 1825 John Q. Adams made him Secretary of War. In 1828 he went to England as American minister, but was recalled upon the election of President Jackson. Member of Stephensburg Lodge No. 40, Stevens-burg, Va. d. June 8, 1942.


            Sir Charles Malcolm Barclay-Harvey (of Kinord) 95th Grand Master Mason of Scotland (1949-54) and G.M. of G.L. of Southern Australia, (194144). First grand principal, Grand Chapter of Scotland, 1948-53, making trip to South Africa in 1950 to visit chapters there. He was initiated in Apollo University Lodge No. 357 (E.C.) in 1908 and affiliated with Lodge Charleston of Aboyne No. 281 in 1924.


            McClelland Barclay (1 8 9 1-1 9 4 3 ) Artist and illustrator. b. May 9, 1891 at St. Louis, Mo. Began as advertising illustrator in 1912 and is also known for sculpture and portrait painting. Awarded 1st prize WW1 for recruiting poster and 1st prize for Red Cross poster Fill the Breach. Creator of the Fisher Body Girl. Designer of covers for Ladies' Home Journal, Pictorial Review, Saturday Evening Post, etc. A naval camoufleur in 1918. Called to active duty as lieutenant commander in Navy, 1940 and reported missing in action while passenger on ship torpedoed in Solomon Sea, July 18, 1943. Mason.


            A. T. Bard President of Reliance Manufacturing Co., Chicago since 1944. b. March 18, 1889 at New Carlisle, Ind. Started with the Reliance Company in 1901 and advanced from cutting room foreman to president. Member of Republic Lodge No. 914 Chicago, Ill.


            Guy Kurtz Bard (1895-1953) U.S. District Judge, Eastern Pennsylvania 1939-52, resigning to private practice. b. Oct. 24, 1895 at Lincoln, Pa. Admitted to bar in 1922. Attorney general of Pennsylvania 1938-39. Active in Democratic politics on state and national level. Mason. d. Nov. 23, 1953.


            Samuel Bard (1742-1821) Famous early American physician who was personal doctor to George Washington in New York following the Revolution. He was instrumental in establishing first New York medical school and the New York hospital. Member of Union Lodge, N.Y.


            Thomas R. Bard (1841-1915) U.S. Senator from California. b. Dec. 8, 1841 at Chambersburg, Pa. Graduated from Chambersburg Academy at 18 with honors and studied law. Sent by


56 Countess Helene Hadik Barkoczy Col. Thomas A. Scott in 1865 to California to supervise his property, and remained. Was interested in farm lands and oil property. Served as U.S. Senator from 1900-1905. Member of Hueneme Lodge No. 311, Hueneme and Ventura Chapter No. 50. Also Knight Templar. d. Mar. 6, 1915.


            Graham A. Barden Congressman from North Carolina to 74th to 81st Congresses (1935-51). b. Sept., 1896, Sampson Co. North Carolina. Began as school teacher in New Bern and admitted to bar in 1920. Mason and Shriner.


            Clinton L. Bardo (1867-1937) President of New York Shipbuilding Co., 1928-37. b. Oct. 24, 1867 at Montgomery, Pa. With railway and steamship companies since 1885, beginning as telegraph operator. Superintendent of N.Y.C. & H. R.R. 1907-12; assistant general manager of N.Y. N.H. & H. R.R. in 1913; president of Central N.E. Ry. 1920-25. Mason. d. Aug. 2, 1937.


            Winfield W. Bardwell (1872-1946) Judge and college president. b. July 18, 1872 at Excelsior, Minn. Admitted to Minn. bar in 1893. Presiding judge, District Court of Minneapolis since 1919. President of Minneapolis College of Law since 1924 and member of faculty University of Minnesota for many years. Mason. d. Dec. 22, 1946.


            Frank F. Barham Vice president and director of Hearst Consolidated Publications, Inc. and Hearst Publishing Co., Inc. b. May 24, 1879 at Anaheim, Calif. Mason.


            Walter S. Baring Congressman from Nevada to 81st Congress (194951). b. Sept. 9, 1911 at Goldfield, Nev. Graduate of University of Nevada in 1934. Representative in Nevada state legislature 1936 and reelected in 1942. With U.S. Navy WW2. Raised in May1941, Reno Lodge No. 13 and has served as senior deacon of same. Member of Valley of Reno, 32° AASR and member of Kerak Shrine Temple and Adah Chapter No. 4 O.E.S.


            John Barker (1794-1845) A dispenser of Masonic degrees during middle of the 19th century in the United States. He appeared about ten years after Jeremy L. Cross, who was in the same "business." It is said that he originally received his degrees from Cross. Organized councils in the south and southwest under a warrant from The Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction. When the Supreme Council demanded the return of the warrant, he refused. Although his purpose was mercenary, like Cross, he did much to spread the degrees throughout the country.


            William J. Barker U.S. District Judge, Southern District of Florida since 1940. b. June 25, 1886 at Marietta, Ga. Admitted to Florida bar in 1916. Florida circuit judge, 1925-40. Mason.


            Countess Helene Hadik Barkoczy b. 1833. A Hungarian countess, said to have been a Freemason. The sole heir of Count Johann Barkoczy, she succeeded him on his death in 1871 in the extensive Majorat of Barkoczy. In 1860 she married Count Bela Hadik, aide-de-camp to Emperor Maximilian. She became interested in an extensive Masonic library that came with her inheritance, and being highly educated, made an earnest study of Freemasonry. She endeavoured to gain admittance as a member of the craft and through some close acquaintances who were Freemasons, was initiated in 1875 in the Lodge Egyenloseg at Unghvar, holding a warrant from the Grand Orient of Hungary. On learning of the glaring violation of its statutes, the Grand Orient instituted proceedings against the brethren who were guilty of conferring the degrees and on January 5, 1876 ordered the deputy master of the lodge forever expelled and the officers of the lodge to have their names struck off the lists. The other members were expelled for periods of three, six and twelve months. This still left the question of the Countess's standing in Freemasonry. This was resolved at a meeting of the Grand Orient held on March 10, 1876 when it held that her admission was contrary to law and therefore null and void. They forbad her admittance into any lodge under the penalty of erasion of the lodge from the rolls and requested all other grand lodges to do the same. It was demanded that she return her invalid certificate within ten days.


            James A. Barksdale Commissioner of Education, Tennessee, since 1950. b. Nov. 29, 1904 at Kenzie, Tenn. A teacher and principal of Tenn. schools 1925-49. Member of Cookeville Lodge No. 266, Cookeville, Tenn. and past master of same.


            Elmer E. Barlow (1887-1948) Justice Supreme Court of Wisconsin 1942-48. b. May 18, 1887 at Arcadia, Wis. Admitted to bar in 1909 and in general practice from 1909 to 1939. Mason. d. June 26, 1948.


            Joel Barlow (1754-1812) American poet and diplomat. b. Redding, Conn. Served as chaplain in the Revolution. As U.S. consul to Algiers in 1795, he arranged treaties with Tunis, Algiers and Tripoli. He served as U.S. Minister to France in 1811. His works include two epic poems The Vision of Columbus (1787) and The Columbiad (1807). He was admitted (which probably meant affiliation) a member of St. John's Lodge No. 4, Hartford, Conn. on Jan. 9, 1788. He died near Cracow, Poland in 1812 while trying to reach Napoleon who was then campaigning through Russian snows. Efforts to have his body removed metwith no success. Barlow was chaplain at the execution of Major Andre, the spy.


            Henry Clay Barnabee American actor and operatic comedian. A member of Columbian Lodge, Boston, Mass. March 2, 1865, receiving a life membership March 2, 1890. Exalted in St. Andrew's Chapter, R.A.M., Boston on June 3, 1868 and knighted in DeMolay Commandery, Boston, Sept. 23, 1868. Received 32°, Massachusetts Consistory (NJ) April 27, 1866.


            Ernest S. Barnard (1874-1931) President of the American Baseball League 1927-31. b. July 17, 1874 at West Columbia, W. Va. Was sports editor of Columbia Evening Dispatch 1898-1902; secretary of the Cleveland Ball Club Co., 1903-10, vice president 1911-15 and president 1922-27. He was vice president of the Acetylene Stove Mfg. Co. of Cleveland. A member of both York and Scottish Rites. d. March 27, 1931.


            Isaac D. Barnard (1791-1834) U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania, 1827-31. b. July 18, 1791 at Aston, Pa. Began study of law, but War of 1812 intervened and he served as captain and major in the 14th Infantry. Was at capture of Fort George and Lyon's Creek. In 1815 he resumed his legal studies and admitted to bar in 1816. In 1820 he was elected to the state senate and in 1826 became secretary of state for Pennsylvania. A Mason. d. Feb. 28, 1834.


            Cassius McD. Barnes Territorial governor of Oklahoma Territory. Active in all branches of Freemasonry, he attended the grand lodge session of 1902 as master of Guthrie Lodge No. 35. He took an active part in cornerstone laying and assisted in the organization of the Grand Chapter of Oklahoma. He was one of the three original petitioners to the Grand Encampment, K.T. for a commandery and was first commander of Guthrie Commandery No. 1 and first grand commander of the Oklahoma Territory.


            James M. Barnes Congressman from Illinois 76th and 77th Congresses (1939-43) Administrative assistant to President of U.S. 1943-45. b. Jan. 9, 1899 at Jacksonville, Ill. LL.B., Harvard, 1924. Admitted to Ill. bar, 1924. Director National Savings and Trust Co. Member of Jacksonville Lodge No. 570, Jacksonville, Ill. and 32° AASR (NJ) at Springfield, Ill. Shriner and Jester.


            Will C. Barnes (1858-1936) Author, rancher and Congressional Medal of Honor winner. b. June 21, 1858 and educated in public schools of Minneapolis. Enlisted man Signal Corps 1879-82 and received Congressional Medal at Ft. Apache, Ariz., Sept., 1881 "For bravery in action with hostile Apache Indians." Member of Arizona state legislature 1891-92 and of New Mexico legislature 1901-02. Assistant U.S. Forester 1907-28. Mason. Wrote Tales from the X-Bar Horse Camp (1920), Cattle (1930), Arizona Place Names, (1934). d. Dec. 17, 1936.


            Eugene E. Barnett General secretary National Council Y.M.C.A.'s since 1941. b. Feb. 21, 1888 at Leesburg, Fla. In Y.M.C.A. work since 1908. Founder of Y.M.C.A. at Hang-chow, China 1910-21; secretary for China 1921-23. Raised in University Lodge No. 408, Chapel Hill, N.C. in 1910. He later became a charter member of Amity Lodge in Shanghai, China under Philippine jurisdiction.


            W. J. Barnett Admiral, U. S. Navy. Member of Roman Lodge No. 223 of New York.


            George A. Barnewall (1888-1952) Vice president of Brooklyn Dodgers baseball team. At his death on April 14, 1952 he was Deputy G.M. of the G.L. of New York and if he had liveda few weeks longer would have been installed as grand master. He was raised Oct. 18, 1916 at age of 28 in Continental Lodge No. 287, N.Y. While a grand lodge officer Barnewall always arranged an afternoon "break," so the delegates could see his team play while the committees digested the reports of the morning communication.


            John Barney (1780-1847) Masonic lecturer who studied under Thomas Smith Webb q.v. b. October, 1780 at Litchfield, Conn. Raised in Friendship Lodge No. 20, Charlotte, Vt. in 1810. He was appointed "Lecturing Master" of the G.L. of Vermont in 1817, moving to Harper's Field, Ohio in 1826 where he affiliated with New England Lodge No. 4 of Worthington in 1834 and served as grand lecturer of Ohio from 1836-43. He later moved to Chicago, Ill. where he affiliatcd with Apollo Lodge No. 32 and was appointed grand lecturer of Illinois in 1845. d. 1847 at Peoria, Ill.


            Joshua Barney (1759-1818) Commodore American Navy, serving in Revolutionary War and War of 1812. b. July 6, 1759 at Baltimore, Md. Served throughout the Revolution, being captured three times by the British. Captured British frigate General Monk (1782). In French service 17961802. A privateer during War of 1812. Joined forces at Bladensburg, Md., defending Washington where he was severely wounded in 1814 and captured for the fourth time. d. Dec. 1, 1818. He was buried with military and Masonic honors at Pittsburgh, Pa. Dec. 1, 1818. He was made a Freemason in the Lodge of the Nine Sisters, Paris, France in 1799 (although other sources state that he was raised in Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia, Pa. on May 17, 1777, and still another lists him as a member of No. 3 on May 1, 1777). He was a visitor of Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia on June 16, 1780.


            59 Maurice V. Barnhill

            Maurice V. Barnhill Judge, Supreme Court of North Carolina since 1937. b. Dec. 5, 1887 at Halifax, N.C. Admitted to bar in 1909. Member state legislature (N.C.) 1921-23; judge N.C. Superior Court, 1924-37. Mason and Shriner.


            Henry A. Barnum (1833-?) Major General (Union) in Civil War. b. Sept. 24, 1833 at Jamesville, N.Y. Studied law and enlisted as a private in 12th New York volunteers in 1861, advancing through grades to major general, March, 1865. He was twice wounded. First officer to enter Savannah on Sherman's march to the sea. After war became inspector of New York prisons, harbor-master of New York and deputy tax commissioner. Member of lodge at Syracuse, N.Y. Member of Syracuse Lodge No. 102, Syracuse Chapter No. 70, R.A.M., of N.Y.


            William H. Barnum (1818-?) U.S. Senator from Connecticut. b. Sept. 17, 1818. Engaged in the manufacture of car wheels and iron production. Served in the state legislature in 1852 and in U.S. Congress as representative from Connecticut from 1866-1876. Elected to U.S. Senate in 1876, serving until 1879. Member of Montgomery Lodge No. 13 at Lakeville, Conn.


            Joseph L. Baron Jewish rabbi. Founder of Temple Judah, Cedar Rapids, Iowa (1918); Temple Emmanuel, Waukesha, Wis. (1938), Temple Beth El, Madison, Wis. (1939). b. May 27, 1894, Vilno, Lithuania, coming to U.S. with parents in 1907. A.B. Columbia, 1914. Ph.D. Univ. of Chicago, 1932. Professor and faculty member of State Teachers College, Milwaukee and University of Wisconsin. Editor of Young Judean, 1914. Member national council of Jewish education, 1927-30. Author. Member of Wisconsin Lodge No. 13 at Milwaukee; 32° AASR (SJ) at Davenport, Iowa and also Shrine at Davenport. Honorary member of Tripoli Shrine Temple in Milwaukee.


            Norris S. Barratt (1862-1924) Judge (president) of Common Pleas, Pennsylvania from 1913. b. Aug. 23, 1862 at Philadelphia, Pa. Admitted to bar 1883. Served in various public capacities. Judge, Court of Common Pleas from 1902, and president from 1913. Author of Freemasonry of Pennsylvania 1827-1907 (3 vols.) with Dr. J. F. Sachse (1909), History of St.


            Paul's Church, Philadelphia; Colonial Wars in America and several other works. Mason. d. April 26, 1924.


            Jesse W. Barrett (1884-1953) Attorney general of Missouri, 1821-25. b. March 17, 1884 at Canton, Mo. Graduated cum laude Christian Univ. (now Culver-Stockton) Canton, Mo. 1902 and LL.D. 1923; LL.B. George Washington U. 1905. Began practice, St. Louis, 1906. Mason 33° honorary (SJ). d. Nov. 12, 1953.


            Lawrence P. Barrett (1838-1891) American actor. b. Paterson, N.J. April 4, 1838. Joined Boston Museum Company (1858-59). Served in Civil War. In partnership with the famous Shakespearean actor Booth q.v. 188691. Excelled in Shakespearean roles. Raised in Oriental Lodge No. 144, San Francisco, Calif. July 19, 1870, Royal Arch membership in New York and member of Adelphic Commandery No. 59, New York City. d. New York City March 20, 1891 and buried by Catholic church.


            Oscar F. Barrett (1860-1935) President of The Barrett Line (operators of tow-boats and barges on Ohio and Mississippi rivers) 1897-1907; president of Barrett Line, Inc. from 1927. b. April 27, 1860 at Racine, Ohio. Associated with father in John Barrett & Son from 1882. Vice president of Columbia Life Ins. Co.; president of National Board of Steam Navigation 1928-30. Mason. d. Aug. 12, 1935.


            Robert S. Barrett Physician, diplomat, philanthropist. b. March 30, 1877, at Richmond, Va. Educated in the University of the South and George Washington Univ. In 1897 he went to Mexico where he was editor and publisher of the Mexico City Daily Record; returned to the U.S. in 1907. For many years he served the U.S. in quasi-political positions abroad. In 1910, with Charles H. Callahan, he inaugurated the movement to establish the George Washington National Masonic Memorial Association which resulted in the erection of that famous memorial. He served as grand master of the G.L. of Virginia in 1942. From 1925 to 1950 he served as president of the Florence Crittenden Mission, an organization of which his mother was one of the founders. He is 33° Sovereign Grand Inspector General for Virginia AASR (SJ). Dr. and Mrs. Barrett have erected a hospital at the Masonic Home in Virginia (1940) and given an auditorium for the Elks Home at Bedford, Va. (1945). He was grand exalted ruler of the Elks, U.S.A. in 1944-45. In 1946 they gave a library to the city of Alexandria, Va. as a memorial to his mother, and in 1947, gave $1,000,000 to the Barrett Foundation for philanthropic and educational purposes. Barrett is the author of several volumes including Standard Guide to Mexico (1900) ; Blue Book of Mexico (1905); Fifty Years Work With Girls, I Was an Unmarried Mother. He was raised in Puritan Lodge No. 7, Mexico City in 1902, and affiliated with Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, of Alexandria, Va. in 1910. He is a member of Mount Vernon Chapter No. 14 R.A.M. and Old Dominion Commandery, K.T. of Alexandria. While in Mexico, he was one of the organizers of the Anezeh Shrine Temple in 1907.


            Samuel A. Barrett Anthropologist and explorer. b. Nov. 12, 1879 at Little Rock, Ark. Received B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. at University of Calif. Ethnologist with George G. Hey Expedition, 1908-09 in South America. Cur-ator of anthropology, Milwaukee Public Museum since 1909 and director 1920-40. Director emeritus since 1940. Active in research and ethnology of Pomo and Miwok tribes of California; also Cayapa Indians of Ecuador. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.


            Carter T. Barron (1905-1950) Theatre executive. Manager of Loew's Eastern Division of Theatres including D.C., Md., Va., Del. and Pa. since 1934. b. Clarkesville, Ga. Jan 30, 1905. B.S. Georgia Institute of Tech., 1927. Assist. manager and manager of theaters from 1905. Vice president of Kes-Bar, Inc.; director of Washington Board of Trade since 1949; executive vice chairman of National Capitol Sesqui-Centennial Comm. since 1948; Chairman entertainment comm. President's Birthday Balls 1934-46. Head of music and entertainment committee National Democratic Convention, 1940. Mason. d. Nov. 16, 1950.


            Dionysiue Barron Male alto singer. Raised in St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York City on Oct. 7, 1873.


            Clark DeBlanc Barrow President of Southeastern Louisiana College at Hammond since 1952. b. June 8, 1894 at Plaquemine, La. Graduate of Louisana State and Columbia. Mason.


            Chester W. Barrows (1872-1931) Judge, Supreme Court of Rhode Island, 1925-31. b. July 4, 1872 at Woonsocket, R.I. LL.B. Harvard, 1898. Admitted to R.I. bar, 1898. Associate Justice Superior Court of R.I. 191325. Mason. d. Feb. 19, 1931.


            Lewis 0. Barrows Governor of Maine 1937-41. b. June 7, 1893 at Newport, Maine. Secretary of Liberty Mutual Insurance Co. and United Mutual Fire Ins. Co. of Boston. Maine secretary of state 1935-36. Member of lodge, chapter, council, commandery and consistory.


            Augustin Barruel (1741-1820) An anti-Mason better known as the Abbe. Born in Villeneuve de Berg, France, he was a prolific writer but owes his reputation principally to his Recollections to Serve for a History of Jacobinism (1797). He sought to trace the origin of Freemasonry to the Templars, accusing them of having an "impious code and vows of vengeance against kings and priests." Educated by the Jesuits and entered the society. When they were suppressed in France, he went to Moravia and Bohemia.


            John Barry Commodore, U.S. Navy in American Revolution. Initiated in Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia, Pa. on Oct. 12, 1795. Suspended NPD in 1800.


            William T. Barry (1785-1835) Postmaster General of the U.S. under President Jackson and U.S. Senator from Kentucky. b. Feb. 5, 1785. Served in the war of 1812. Lawyer and statesman. Was a member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky. and later of Daviess Lodge No. 22 of Lexington. On Jan. 4, 1830 he was elected an honorary member of Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C.


            John L. Barstow (1832-1913) Governor of Vermont. b. Feb. 21, 1832 at Shelburne, Vt. Served as major in Union army from 1861-64 and was made brigadier general of state troops at time of the St. Albans raid. Member of Vermont house 1864-65 and senate, 1866-68. Became 39th governor in 1880, serving two terms until 1885. Mason. d. June 28, 1913.


            Oliver E. Barthel Engineer and inventor. b. Oct. 3, 1877 at Detroit, Mich. Has been designer and engineer with Ford, Cadillac, Oldsmobile and Standard Steel Car Co. Holder of 35 patents. Designed and built outboard motor in 1906; streamlined automobile in 1912; all-steel automobile body in 1917. Mason and Knight Templar.


            Frederic A. Bartholdi (1834-1904) Designer of Statue of Liberty in New York harbor. b. April 2, 1834 at Colmar, Alsace, France. He was one of the early members of Lodge Alsace-Lorraine, Paris (Oct. 14, 1875) which was composed of prominent intellectuals, writers and government representatives. When his famous statue Liberty Enlightening the World was achieved, Bartholdi convened his lodge to review it, even before the statue was shown to the U.S. committee. On June 19, 1884, the lodge, as if it were a pilgrimage, went in a body to review his masterpiece that was to be the gift of the French people to the United States. On Nov. 13, 1884 Bartholdi delivered a lecture and gave the lodge a report on the history and various methods used in the execution of his statue. Again the lodge witnessed his emotion when he came back from his visit to U.S. in 1887, and he told them of the ardent welcome he had received and of the wide enthusiasm created by his work. Another famous work by Bartholdi is Le Lion de Belfort, commemorating the defense of Belfort in Franco-Prussian War.


            Frank H. Bartholomew President and general manager of United Press Association since April, 1955. b. Oct. 5, 1898 at San Francisco, Calif. Began as a reporter in 1918 on Portland and Vancouver (B.C.) papers, starting with United Press as the Portland Bureau manager. During WW2 he was in charge of all correspondents covering the Pacific War and a correspondent himself in New Guinea, Aleutians, Luzon. He covered the Japanese surrender aboard the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay in Sept., 1945 and the atomic bomb test at Bikini in 1946. Member of Temple Lodge No. 14, Sonora, Calif., and Islam Shrine Temple, San Francisco.


            H. Roe Bartle Lawyer, youth leader, college president. b. Richmond, Va. Admitted to Kentucky bar in 1920 and Missouri bar in 1921. President of Missouri Valley College, Marshall, Mo. 1948-51. Long-time scout executive for Kansas City area, Boy Scouts of America. Member of 17 boards of directors and owns 5,000 acres in Missouri and Oklahoma. Makes some 200 public speeches a year ranging upwards from $1,000 per speech—much of which he turns over to the American Humanities Fund of which he has been administrator since 1947. Elected mayor of Kansas City in 1955. Member Ararat Shrine Temple; Lebanon Lodge No. 87 (Ky.) Independence Chapter, R.A.M. No. 12 and Palestine Cornmandery No. 17, K.T. of Independdence, Mo.


            Frederick B. Bartlett (1882-1941) Bishop, Protestant Episcopal Church. b. Aug. 23, 1822 at South Manchester, Conn. Graduate of Trinity College, Episcopal Theological School and Harvard. Served as deacon and priest from 1908. General secretary National Council. P. E. Churches 1925-31 and consecrated bishop of North Dakota Dec. 16, 1931, transferring to Missionary District of Idaho in 1935. Mason. d. Dec. 15, 1941.


            John H. Bartlett Governor of New Hampshire and 1st Assistant Postmaster General in Coolidge Cabinet. b. Sunapee, N.H., March 15, 1864. Member of DeWitt Clinton Commandery, K.T. (N.H.). Birth date March 15, 1869.


            Josiah Bartlett (1729-1795) Signer of the Declaration of Independence. Not to be confused with Josiah Bartlett (1759-1820) who was also a physician q.v. b. Amesbury, Mass. Nov. 21, 1729. Practiced medicine at Kingston, N.H. (1750-95). Was a delegate to Continental Congress (1773-76) (1778-79). Associate justice (1782-88) and chief justice (1788-90) of superior court of New Hampshire. He was"President" of New Hampshire, 179093 and its first governor from 1793-94. d. May 19, 1795 at Kingston, N.H. Although his lodge is not known, his great grandson, Levi S. Bartlett, has a letter written by Josiah to his son Ezra saying, "I attended a Mason meeting last night, and as soon as you can I wish you would join the Masons.”


            Josiah Bartlett (1759-1820) Revolutionary physician and grand master of the G.L. of Mass. Not to be confused with Josiah, the signer of the Declaration of Independence, who was also a physician q.v. b. Charlestown, Mass. Aug. 11, 1759. He was elected and initiated in Union Lodge at Danbury, Conn. (now No. 40 on the roll) on April 13, 1780; passed April 24 and raised May 2, same year. The history of that lodge, written in 1926, says in discussing the installation of the first master that a meeting was held on April 13 at the home of Mrs. Mary White, "to consider the request of Dr. Josiah Bartlett whose inclination to be a Freemason was so great he was determined if possible to be initiated so as to join this Lodge on the day appointed for the installment of the Wor. Master . . . ." He later became a charter member of King Solomon's Lodge, Charleston, Mass. in Mass. in Sept., 1783. The 150th anniversary history of that lodge confirms his original membership by stating that he was barely 21 years old when in 1780 he received his degrees in Union Lodge at Danbury. Bartlett followed Paul Revere q.v. as grand master of Massachusetts (after union of March, 1792), serving in 1798, 1799 and 1810. d. March 2, 1820 at Charlestown.


            Murray Bartlett Organizer and first president of University of Philippines (1911-15). b. March 29, 1871 at Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Graduate of Harvard, Gen. Theol. Sem., Univ. of Roch-


63 Robert A. Bartlett ester, Trinity College, Columbia and Hobart. Protestant Episcopal rector and dean, serving Cathedral of St. Mary and St. John, Manila, P.I. 1908-11. Founder of Tropical Medicine and Public Health school. Chaplain with U.S. Infantry in WW1, wounded in Marne-Aisne offensive Mason. 33° AASR.


            Robert A. Bartlett (1875-1946) Explorer. b. Aug. 15, 1875 at Brigus, Newfoundland. Began explorations wintering with R. E. Peary at Cape D'Urville, Kane Basin 1897-98; on a hunting expedition, Hudson Bay and Strait in 1901; captain of a sealer off Newfoundland coast, 1901-05; commanded the Roosevelt, 1905-09, taking active part in Peary's expedition to the pole, reaching the 88th parallel; with Canadian government Arctic expedition 1913-14 as captain of the cutter Kariuk which was crushed by ice in January, 1914. He reached Wrangel Island with 17 persons, and leaving 15 on the island, he crossed ice to Siberia with one Eskimo and returned with a rescue party in Sept., 1914. They reached Nome, Alaska a year later with 13 survivors. In the service of the U.S. government, National Geographic Society and various museums, he made exploration trips until 1944 to Arctic ocean, Greenland, Alaska, Baffin Land, Siberia, and Hudson Bay. Received many national and international honors for his explorations. Author of several books. Mason. d. April 28, 1946.


            Francesco Bartolozzi (1727-1815) Famous Italian designer and engraver. b. Florence, Italy. Studied on the continent and settled in London in 1764. He was an early member of the Lodge of Nine Muses No. 235, London, and collaborator of Cipriani q.v. the painter, who was a member of the same lodge. He was one of the four members of this lodge to be original members of the exclusive Royal Academyat its foundation in 1768. He engraved works of Guercino, Annibale Carracci, Giordano, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Cosway and Angelica Kauffmann. The frontispiece of the 1784 edition of the Book of Constitutions is his engraving. He became engraver to the King (England), later moving to Lisbon where he became head of the Royal Academy at Lisbon (1802-15).


            Sir Edmund Barton (1849-1920) First prime minister of Australian Commonwealth (1901-03). Speaker of legislative assembly, New South Wales, 1883-87 and attorney general in 1889 and 1891-93. He led the delegation presenting Australian Commonwealth Constitution bill to British Parliament in 1900. Nearly one-third of the members of the first Australian parliament were Freemasons. He was judge of the Australian high court from 1903 until his death in 1920. Barton was a member of Australia Lodge of Harmony No. 556 (initiated March 3, 1878) which later became No. 5 with the establishment of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales in 1888. He was invested as senior deacon of the lodge on June 9, 1880.


            LeRoy Barton Architect. b. Dec. 14, 1887 in New York City. An architect in New York City, 1910-34. Assistant to Secretary of Treasury 193439 and acting supervising architect to Treasury Department. Architectural supervisor Public Buildings Administration, 1939-40. Now practicing as consultant architect. Served in both WW1 and WW2, retiring as colonel in 1948. Raised in Wamponamen Lodge No. 437, Sag Harbor, N.Y. on March 3, 1921. Member of Manhattan (N.Y.) Chapter No. 86, National Sojourners and Martyr's Camp, Heroes of '76.


            William Barton (1748-1831) Colonel of American Revolution. b. May 26, 1748 at Providence, R.I. Noted for his daring capture of British General Prescott in the latter's house at Newport. He was imprisoned at Danville, Vt. from 1810-24 for refusing to pay judgment on his land in Vermont. The judgment was paid by General Lafayette q.v. on his visit to America in 1824. He became a member of St. John's Lodge, Providence, R.I. in 1779. d. at Providence, Oct. 22, 1831.


            Sydney N. Baruch Research engineer who invented the depth bomb successfully used in destruction of submarines in WW1 and WW2. b. March 1, 1890 at Mamaroneck, N.Y. Chief engr. Federal Telephone Co. (radio division of Postal Telegraph Co.) 1919-20. President of Public Service Corp. of Calif. 1916-20. Conductor of private research laboratories in New York City since 1930. Inventor of thermo relay and other devices, also thyraton and nortron type mercury rectifier tubes and sound recording on film (1934). Designer of 300,000 volt direct current transmission system of Bonneville Project. Mason and Shriner.


            Charles Baskerville ( 1870 - 1922 ) Chemist who discovered the chemical elements, carolinium and berzellum. b. June 18, 1870 at Noxubee Co. Miss. Author of many books on chemistry. Mason. d. Jan. 28, 1922.


            Edward Bass (1726-1803) First Protestant Episcopal bishop of Massachusetts in 1797. His bishopric included Rhode Island and New Hampshire. b. Dorchester, Mass. Nov. 23, 1726. Served as pastor at Newbury, Mass. from 1752-1803. Admitted a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1 of Portsmouth, N.H. April 12, 1758. In 1768 he served as grand chaplain of the G.L. of Mass.


            Perkins Bass Congressman from New Hampshire to 84th Congress. b. Oct. 6, 1912 at East Walpole, Mass. Admitted to N.H. bar in 1938. Member N.H. state legislature, 1939-43 and1947-49. President of N.H. state senate 1949-51. Member of Altemont Lodge No. 26, Peterborough, N.H. 32° AASR (NJ) in Nashua, N.H. Member of Bektash Shrine Temple, Concord, N.H.


            Norman L. Basset (1869-1931) Justice, Supreme Court of Maine 1925-31. b. June 23, 1869 at Winslow, Me. Graduate of Colby College, Harvard and University of Maine. Mason. d. Sept. 29, 1931.


            Richard N. Batchelder (1832-1901) Quartermaster General of U.S. Army. b. July 27, 1832 at Lake Village, N.H. Entered volunteer service in 1861 and rose through arnks to brigadier general on March 13, 1865. Was awarded Congressional Medal of Honor in Civil War. Entered regular service after war and made Quartermaster General in 1890. A member of Lafayette Lodge No. 41 at Manchester, N.H. d. 1901.


            Robert F. Batchelder Commodore, U.S. Navy. b. March 27, 1895 at Worcester, Mass. Commissioned ensign in supply corps of Navy in 1921 and advanced through grades to commodore in Nov., 1945. With Atlantic fleet in WW2, Sicilian occupation and Normandy invasion. Deputy administrator, War Assets Admin., 1946-47; assistant chief, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, U.S. Navy since 1947. Retired. Raised in Quinsigamond Lodge, Worchester, Mass. in 1922. Life member of Eureka Chapter, R.A.M., Worcester, Mass.; life member California Consistory AASR (SJ) at San Francisco; life member of Chapter No. 3, National Sojourners and Heroes of '76, Washington, D.C.


            Willis T. Batcheller President and chief engineer of Canadian Alaska Railway Co., involving 3,300 mile transcontinental system from Seattle and Vancouver to Fairbanks, Alaska. b. Dec. 23, 1889 at Joliet, Ill. President and chief engineer of Portland Canal Power Co. Served as engineer on many hydro-electrical developments, including Grand Coulee, Skagit River, Nimpkish River pulp plant and Quincy Valley Irrigation Dist. Raised in Green Lake Lodge No. 149, Seattle in April, 1921. Member of Ballard Chapter No. 26, R.A.M. Seattle Council No. 6 R. & S.M., Bethlehem Cornmandery, K.T. No. 19 all of Seattle. Active worker in Commandery 32° AASR (SJ) in 1921 and KCCH in 1945. Past wise master of Rose Croix, 1944. Member of Nile Shrine Temple since 1921 and past patron of University Chapter, O.E.S.


            James C. Batchelor (1818-1893) Succeeded Albert Pike as 9th grand commander of Supreme Council AASR (SJ) in 1891, serving until death in 1893. b. July 10, 1818 at Quebec, Canada. Was a physician in New Orleans and distinguished himself in the yellow fever epidemic. Initiated in Eureka Lodge No. 64, Greenville, Ala. April 11, 1846 and Royal Arch in Polar Star Chapter No. 21, New Orleans Aug. 17, 1857. Joined Orleans Council R. & S.M. Feb. 15, 1859 and Jacques DeMolai Commandery, K.T. No. 2, New Orleans, Feb. 17, 1860. 32° AASR in New Orleans Dec. 17, 1856 and 33° on Feb. 14, 1857. d. July 28, 1893 at Washington, D.C.


            William B. Bate (1826-1905) U.S. Senator from Tennessee. b. Oct. 7, 1826 near Castilian Spring, Tenn. Was a steamboat clerk on Mississippi river and served as private in Mexican War in Louisiana and Tennessee regiments. He served in the Tennessee legislature and graduated from Lebannon Law School in 1852, practicing at Gallatin, Tenn. Entering the Civil War as a private, he advanced to major general, C.S.A. 1861-65, being wounded three times. After the war he practiced law at Nashville and was U.S. Senator from 1887 until his death in 1905. He was a member of King Solomon Lodge No. 94 (successor of No. 6).


            Edward Bates (1793-1869) Attorney General of United States in Lincoln's cabinet. b. Sept. 4, 1793 at Belmont, Va. of Quaker parentage. He came to Missouri in 1814 at the age of 21, his brother Frederick q.v. then being secretary of the territory. Admitted to bar in 1816 after studying with Rufus Easton q.v.. He was a member of the convention of 1820 that framed the state constitution of Missouri, and appointed by Gov. McNair q.v. as first attorney general. In 1822 he was a member of the legislature and in 1824 was appointed by President Monroe q.v. as U.S. Attorney for the District of Missouri. He was the second representative in Congress from Missouri being elected to the 20th Congress in 1826, but declined re-election. In 1830 he served as state senator and in 1834 as state representative. In 1850 President Fill-more q.v. appointed him Secretary of War and he was confirmed by the Senate, but declined the position. In 1853 he was elected judge of the St. Louis Land Court and in 1856 he was presiding officer of the Whig national convention in Baltimore. President Lincoln named him Attorney General of the U.S. in 1861 and he served until 1863 when he resigned. He was the first cabinet member from west of the Mississippi river. He was a member of Missouri Lodge No. 12, under Tennessee charter (later Missouri No. 1) and was active in the formation of the Grand Lodge of Mo. He was elected to preside at the preliminary convention and was later made permanent chairman. A preamble and resolution was drawn up, evidently the work of Bates. Two months later the delegates again assembled to consider the matter of organizing a grand lodge with Bates presiding. Bates served four terms as grand master, 1825-26-27-31. In his last term as grand master he introduced a resolution to be submitted to all subordinate lodges of the state (height of Anti-Masonic period) which ended: "Be it Resolved, that immediately after the close this evening, this Lodge shall cease to act as an organized body, and that its charter be surrendered and returned to the Grand Lodge." As far as known, Edward Bates never thereafter appeared at a Masonic meeting. d. March 25, 1869.


            Frederick Bates (1777-1825) Second governor of Missouri, 1824-25. b. June 23, 1777 in Belmont, Va. of a Quaker family. Older brother of Edward Bates q.v. In 1797 he settled in Detroit, Mich. where he engaged in the mercantile business and served as postmaster, U.S. Receiver of Public Money and named in 1805 by Jefferson as the first U.S. Judge for the Territory of Michigan. He first appeared in St. Louis in 1806 where he was first recorder of the Board of Land Commissions. On May 7, 1807, Jefferson appointed him as the second secretary for the Territory of Louisiana, a position he held 13 years until the formation of the state government. As Territorial secretary he compiled the Laws of the Territory of Louisiana, which was the first book printed in the territory. He was probably made a Freemason in Michigan for he is listed as a charter member of St. Louis Lodge No. 111 (Pennsylvania charter) in 1809. He succeeded Meriwether Lewis as Master. He is also listed as a charter member of Missouri Lodge No. 1 (12 under Tenn.) when the Grand Lodge of Missouri was formed in 1821. He was elected grand master on Oct. 3, 1821 and turned it down for reasons of heavy business and poor health. This was probably true as he died Aug. 4, 1825 after having served as governor for less than a year.


            Isaac B. Bates (1780-1845) U.S. Senator from Massachusetts. b. May 14, 1780 in Granville, Mass. Graduated at Yale in 1802 and studied law, practicing in Northhampton, Mass. First elected to Congress as an anti-Jackson man, and reelected three times, serving from 1827-1835. In 1841 he was elected to U.S. Senate where he served until his death. He opposed the admission of Texas to the union. Member of Jerusalem Lodge at Northhampton, Mass. d. March 16, 1845.


            John L. Bates (1859-?) Governor of Massachusetts, 1903-04. b. Sept. 18, 1859 at Easton, Mass. Practiced law at Boston since 1885. Member state house of representatives 1894 - 99 (speaker 1897-99); lieutenant governor of Mass. 1900-02. President of Mass. Constitutional Convention of 1917-18-19. President board of trustees Boston University 1907-27. Member Baalbec Lodge, East Boston and St. John's Royal Arch Chapter of Boston. 33° AASR (NJ). Deceased.


            Joseph B. Bates Congressman from Kentucky, 75th to 80th Congresses (1937-49). b. Oct. 29, 1893 at Republican, Ky2Teacher and school superintendent for 16 years and county clerk of Greenup County, Ky. from 1922-38. Mason.


            John S. Battle Governor of Virginia, 1950-54. b. July 11, 1890 at New Bern, N.C. Admitted to bar in 1913 and began practice at Charlottesville, Va. Member of Virginia general assembly in 1920 and state senator from 1934-49. Served in WW1. He is a member of Charlottesville Lodge No. 55 and a past master. A member of Keystone Chapter No. 58, R.A.M. and past high priest. Member of Charlottesville Commandery No. 3, K.T. and Acca Shrine Temple, Richmond, Va.


            Laurie C. Battle Congressman from Alabama to 80th and 81st Congresses (1947-51). b. May 10, 1912 at Wilsonville, Ala. Graduate of Birmingham-Southern College and Ohio State Univ. Has been a laborer, clerk, salesman, personnel worker and teacher of sociology at Ohio State Univ. Served in WW2 Pacific Theatre and rose from private to major. Member of Docena Lodge No. 815, Docena, Ala.; 32° AASR at Birmingham, Zamora Shrine Temple; High Twelve and O.E.S. chapter No. 118, Birmingham.


            Arthur A. Batts Chairman of the board of the Carborundum Co. b. June 25, 1884 at Syracuse, N.Y. With the Carborundum Co. since 1901 as bookkeeper, office manager, assistant secretary, secretary (1827-42); president (1942-46) and chairman of the board since 1947. Mason.


            Clyde M. Bauer Geologist, naturalist. With National Park Service. b. April 5, 1886 at Bristol, Ind. Taught school; was high school principal from 1908-11. With U.S. Geological Survey 1911-16. Commercial geologist 1916-31. Park naturalist, Yellowstone National Park 1932-46 (chief naturalist 194346). Director of Yellowstone Library and Museum Association, 1932-46. Wrote The Story of Yellowstone Geysers (1937) and Yellowstone—Its Underworld. Raised in Bartlesville, Okla. in 1917 and now life member of Columbia Lodge No. 14, Boulder, Colo. 32° AASR (SJ) at Billings, Mont. and member of Al Bedoo Shrine Temple, Billings.


            Howard K. Bauernfeind President of J. B. Lippincott Co. Philadelphia, book publishers since 1949. b. April 12, 1900 at Council Bluffs, Iowa. Graduate of Central College, Naperville, III. and Univ. of Chicago. School superintendent from 1921-30. With Lippincott Co. since 1930 as editor, managing editor and vice president. Raised in Monmouth Lodge No. 37, Monmouth, Ill. in 1922. Member of Monmouth Chapter No. 30, R.A.M.


            Harry L. Baum (1887-1951) Physician and author of several Masonic plays. b. Sept. 7, 1887 at Shelbyville, Ill. Graduated in medicine from University of Pennsylvania and removed to Denver, Colo. where he specialized in diseases of ear, nose and throat. Was first master of Emulation Lodge No. 154 of Denver and served as grand master of the G.L. of Colorado 193738. Was chairman of the correspondence committee of the G.L. for many years. 33° AASR (SJ) in 1929. Best known for his Masonic plays, John Brent and Prelude to Victory. d. March 25, 1951.


            Warren W. Baumgartner Artist and illustrator. b. Oakville, Mo. March 15, 1894. Student at Art Institute of Chicago and Grand Central School of Art, N.Y. Illustrator for national magazines since 1938. Exhibited at National Academy American Water Color Society. Awarded Adolph and Clara Obrig prize in 1941 and Hans Obst prize in 1945. Mason.


            Bruce R. Baxter (1892-1947) Bishop, Methodist Church 1940-47. b. Aug. 18, 1892 at Rock Run, Ohio. Assistant to president of University of Southern California 1924-30 and president of Willamette Univ., Salem, Ore. 1934-40. President of Oregon Assn. of Independent Colleges 1939-40. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° AASR. d. June 20, 1947.


            James P. Baxter (1831-1921) Author. b. March 23, 1831 at Gorham, Me. President of Savings Bank of Portland and mayor of Portland six terms (1893-97) (1904-05). Organized and established Portland Society of Art in 1883 and Associated Charities. Built and donated libraries to Portland (1888) and Gorham (1907) and conveyed the family mansion to city of Gorham for a museum. President of the Maine Historical Society from 1890. Author of many historical works including The Trelawney Papers (1884); George Cleve and His Times (1885); The British Invasion from the North (1887); The Voyages of Jacques Cartier (1906), and edited 20 volumes of documentary history of Maine. Mason. d. May 8, 1921.


            Jedediah H. Baxter Surgeon General, U.S. Army. Member of Columbia Commandery No. 2, K.T. at Washington, D.C. d. Dec. 4, 1890.


            John B. Mac. Baxter (1868-1946) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New Brunswick from 1935. b. Feb. 16, 1868 at Saint John, N.B., Canada. Began as an attorney in 1890. Attorney general of New Brunswick 1916-17; premier of New Brunswick, 1925-31; member of Canadian Parliament 192125 and judge of Supreme Court, N.B. from 1931-35. Mason and 33° AASR. d. Dec. 27, 1946.


            Warner Baxter Movie actor. Member Cahuenga Lodge No. 513, Hollywood and of the "233 (Masonic) Club.”


            Francis Baylies Lawyer, author, member of Congress and U.S. Minister to Buenos Aires. Original lodge not known, but made honorary member of Mount Lebanon Lodge, Boston, Mass. on Jan. 26, 1835.


            Hojijah Baylies Aid to General Washington in Revolutionary War. Held rank of major and was member of Masters' Lodge No. 2, New York.


            William Baylis (1848-1919) Architect, inventor and Sovereign Grand Commander, Supreme Council. b. Nov. 8, 1848 at Pictou, N.S., Canada. Became superintendent hospital construction, office of surgeon general, U.S. Army in 1882 (Major). Invented combination steam and hot water heating system in 1893.


            Samuel H. Baynard, Jr. (1879-1947) Secretary General of AASR (NJ). b. June 3, 1879 at Wilmington, Del. Graduated B.A. from Delaware College in 1900. Admitted to bar in 1904. Raised in Eureka Lodge No. 23, Wilmington. Author of two volume history of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (Northern Jurisdiction) in 1938. d. Sept. 9, 1947.


            Alfred W. Bays Lawyer, president of The Abbott Foundation and vice chairman of board of Abbott Laboratories since 1947. b. July 12, 1876 at Vermont, Ill. Graduate of Northwestern Univ. School of Law, 1904. Professor of law, 1912-37 at Northwestern. Trustee Northwestern Univ., Lake Bluff Orphanage, Ravenswood and Evanston hospitals and others. Editor and compiler of American Commercial Law Series (9 vols.) and other law works. Mason.


            Etienne-Francois Bazot b. March 31, 1782 at Nievre, France. Wrote a Masonic dictionary and manual.


            George L. Beal Union general in Civil War. b. May 21, 1825 in Norway, Maine. He left Portland on Oct. 6, 1861 as colonel of 10th Maine regiment. Appointed by president as brigadier general of volunteers Nov. 30, 1864 and mustered out of service Jan. 15, 1866. Member of Oxford Lodge No. 18, Norway, Maine.


            Jack Beall, Jr. Radio commentator and newspaperman. b. Dec. 6, 1898 at Waxahachie, Texas. Graduate of Princeton (1921), and Yale Law School, 1924. Admitted to Texas bar in 1924, but gave up practice in 1929 to become newspaperman. With Dallas Times-Herald and New York Herald Tribune and then London correspondent and later Washington correspondent covering White House, Senate and State Department (1937-43). Entered radio field in 1944, with WLW, Cincinnati. Now Washington correspondent for A.B.C. with Headline Edition; News of Tomorrow and This Week Around the World. Mason.


            Walter B. Beals Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Washington (1933-34 and 1945-46) and presiding judge for the War Crimes Tribunal in Nurnberg, Germany, 1946-48 (with military leave of absence from Supreme Court of Washington). b. July 21, 1876 at St. Paul, Minn. Admitted to Washington bar in 1901. Judge of Supreme Court of Washington 1928 to 1952. Advanced from private to lieutenant colonel in WW1, served in Meuse-Argonne offensive. Mason and 32° AASR.


            Rosenham (Jack) Beam Brigadier General U.S. Air Force. b. June 11, 1895 at Bardstown, Ky. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant Infantry in 1916 and advanced through grades to brigadier general, Air Force, 1948. Served in WW1 with Aviation Section, Signal Corps. Commanded the 12th Air Support Command in invasion of North Africa 1932-43. Commander of various air force bases since 1944. Commanding general of Air Force Technical School, Lowry Air Force Base, Denver since 1945. Mason, National Sojourner and Shriner.


            Alexander G. E. Beaman (18851943) Insurance executive and Masonic editor. b. June 23, 1885, Hartford, Conn. Started as shorthand teacher with Gregg School, Chicago and later as executive assistant of railroads and banks. Organized the A. G. Beaman Agency, Ltd. and headed since 1929. President of Fire-Police Commission, City of Los Angeles and director of Hollywood Academy of Fine Arts. Managing editor of Masonic Digest, 1923-25 and secretary of Masonic Periodicals Corp. 1923-25. Active for many years in the care of homeless and transients. Editor of Los Angeles Consistcrry Bulletin from 1912. d. Oct. 22, 1943.


            John V. Beamer Congressman from Indiana to 82nd Congress (195153). b. Nov. 17, 1896 in Indiana. A.B. from Wabash College, 1918. Farm owner and operator since 1943. Member of Hanna Lodge No. 61; Wabash Chapter No. 26, R.A.M.; Wabash Council No. 13, R. & S.M.; Wabash Commandery, No. 37, K.T. all of Wabash, Ind. and Capital Forest No. 104, Tall Cedars of Lebanon at Washington, D.C.


            Henry J. Bean (1853-1941) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Oregon (1930-32 and 1937-38). b. Nov. 13, 1853 at Bethel, Maine. Admitted to bar, 1881. Member of Oregon house of representatives 1889, district attorney, county co-judge, circuit court judge. Justice of Supreme Court of Oregon, 1911 to term expiring in 1944. d. May 9, 1941.


            Cyrus Beard (1850-1920) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Wyoming, 1911-13. b. Aug. 1850 in Venango Co., Pa. Began practice of law in Washington, Iowa, 1874. Removed to Harlan, Iowa, 1878 and to Evanston, Wyo., 1890. Justice of Supreme Court of Wyoming, 1904 to term expiring in 1921. d. Dec. 17, 1920.


            Daniel Carter Beard (known as Dan Beard) (1850-1941) American painter, illustrator and organizer of the Boy Scout movement in the United States. b. June 21, 1850 at Cincinnati, Ohio. Started as book and magazine illustrator and teacher of drawing. Originator and founder of the first boy scout society from which others were modeled. National Scout Commissioner and honorary vice-president of B.S.A. Awarded the Golden Eagle, by B.S.A., the only one ever given. Chief scout, dept. of woodcraft at Culver (Ind.) Military Academy (1911-15). Mt. Beard, the peak adjoining Mt. McKinley is named for him. Wrote many books on scouting and wilderness lore including: Moonlight and Six Feet of Romance (1890); American Boys' Handy Book (1882); Boy Pioneers and Daniel Boone (1909); Shelters, Shacks and Shanties (1914); Bugs, Butterflies and Beetles (1915); Signs, Signals and Symbols (1918); American Boy's Book of Wild Animals (1921) and at least a dozen others. Associate editor of Boy's Life. Chief of School of Woodcraft. Raised in Mariners' Lodge No. 67, New York City and later a member of Cornucopia Lodge No. 563, Flushing, N.Y. at the time of his death on June 11, 1941. Raised Nov. 30, 1917.


            Arthur L. Beardsley (1869-1944) President of Miles Laboratories, Inc. b. Dec. 27, 1869. Employed by hardware companies until 1900 and with Cleveland Twist Drill Co. 1902-20. With Miles Laboratories since 1920, purchasing agent, plant manager, treasurer, general manager and president and treasurer. Mason, Knight Templar, Shriner. d. Jan. 4, 1944.


            William S. Beardsley (1901-1954) Governor of Iowa 1949-54. b. May 13, 1901 at Beacon, Iowa. Retail druggist and jewelry business, 1922-38. Operator of 900-acre farm from 1938. Member of Iowa state senate, 1932-40 and house of representatives, 1947-48. Killed in highway accident while governor on Nov. 21, 1954.


            Theodore P. Beasley President, owner and general manager of Republic National Life Insurance Co., Dallas since 1937. b. June 29, 1900 at Mt. Ayr, Iowa. Started in insurance business, Joplin, Mo. in 1928. Director of several companies. Active nationally and internationally in Y.M.C.A. and Salvation Army work. Member of Washington Lodge No. 1117, Dallas, Texas. 32° AASR, Dallas and Bella Shrine Temple.


            Mrs. Beaton (1717-1802) A lady of Norfolk, England, who it was said, concealed herself in a lodge room andlearned the secrets of the first degree before she was discovered, upon which she herself was initiated. The only reference to the occurrence, which is probably tradition, is found in A General History of the County of Norfolk (1829). It gives the following: "Died in St. John's Madder-market, Norwich, July, 1802, aged 85, Mrs. Beaton, a native of Wales. She was commonly called the 'Freemason' from the circumstances of her having contrived to conceal herself one evening in the wainscoting of a lodge room, where she learned the secret, the knowledge of which thousands of her sex have in vain attempted to arrive at. She was, in many respects, a very singular character, of which one proof adduced is, that the secret of Freemasons died with her.”


            John Beatty Commissioner General of prisoners (with rank of Colonel) in Revolutionary War. Raised in Trenton Lodge No. 5, Trenton, N.J. A past master of that lodge, he was elected grand master of the G.L. of New Jersey Jan. 11, 1791. In 1792 he transferred his membership to Solomon's Lodge No. 1.


            Troy Beatty (1866-1922) Bishop, Protestant Episcopal Church. b. Nov. 12, 1866 at Tuscaloosa, Ala. Deacon, 1891; priest, 1892. Rector in various churches in Tennessee and Georgia until 1919 when consecrated coadjutor bishop of Tenn. (Sept. 18). Deputy to General Convention from 1901. Mason. d. April 23, 1922.


            Henry, 5th Duke of Beaufort Grand master of G.L. of England, 1767-71. Of the Somerset family holding earldoms and later marquess of Worcester, merging in 1682 with dukedom of Beaufort. Its founder was Charles Somerset (1460?-1520) illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset.


            Eugene de Beauharnais (1781-1824) Viceroy of Italy. b. Paris. Served with Napoleon in Egypt, 1798-99. Napoleon made him viceroy of Italy in 1805. He married Princess Amalie Auguste of Bavaria in 1806. In the same year he was formally adopted by Napoleon and made heir apparent to the throne of Italy. He commanded the army corps in Russia (1812), retiring to Bavaria in 1814 and became the Duke of Leuchtenberg and Prince of Eichstatt. He was Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Italy.


            Campbell E. Beaumont Judge, U.S. District Court of Southern California since 1939. b. Aug. 27, 1883. Admitted to bar in 1912. Served as assistant and district attorney. Was judge of Calif. Superior Court, 192139. Mason.


            Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont (1728-1810) A French political adventurer and Freemason who was thought to be an hermaphrodite or a woman. The full name was Charles Genevieve Louis Auguste Andre Timothee de Beaumont. "He" was born at Tonnerre, Burgundy, France on October 5, 1728. In 1755 Beaumont received an appointment at the court of Louis XV and was sent to Russia as a secret agent in woman's dress. In 1762 he was sent to London as an agent and later became minister plenipotentiary. In 1764 doubts began to be expressed as to Beaumont's sex and between 1769 and 1777 the matter became so notorious that a scheme of "insurance on the sex of M. le Chevalier (or Mlle. la Chevalhere) d'Eon" resulted in policies to the amount of £120,000. While the discussion was at its height, Beaumont was initiated a Freemason in La Lodge de l'Immortalite No. 376. It was a French lodge under English constitution and met at the Crown and Anchor tavern on the Strand in London. "He" received the third degree in January, 1769 and was appointed junior warden the same year. Fearing an attempt at kidnapping might be made by those who had effected "policies" on the issue, Beaumont was sheltered by Earl Ferrers at Staunton Harold near Ashby-de-la-Zouch. Ferrers was grand master of England in 1762-63. In 1777 an action was brought by a policyholder against an insurance broker to recover the sum secured by the policy, and when two witnesses swore in court that, of their own personal knowledge, the Chevalier was a woman, Beaumont admitted that "he" was a female. In order to receive a pension from France, Louis XVI decreed that Beaumont should wear woman's dress to the end of "his" life. Beaumont never again entered a Masonic lodge.


            William Beaumont (1796-1853) Pioneer physician who laid the foundations for the present medical knowledge of how the human stomach functions. b. in Lebanon, Conn. He was a surgeon with the U.S. Army and when stationed at Mackinac, Mich. in 1822, he was called to treat a young Canadian half-breed named Alexis St. Martin, who had been wounded in the stomach by the accidental discharge of a gun in the store of the American Fur Co. The opening in the stomach failed to close and while alleviating the boy's suffering, Beaumont studied his stomach through this opening, noting the structure and action of gastric juices. He noted that when St. Martin was upset by fear or anger the secretions of acid in his stomach would increase. He observed the effects of alcohol and time required for various foods to digest. His work Experiments and Observations of the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion (1833) is considered the greatest single contribution ever made to the knowledge of gastric digestion. Although he did not expect St. Martin to live more than 36 hours, the youth survived Beaumont by many years. Beaumont was raised in Harmony Lodge, Champlain, N.Y. holding a certificate from that lodge dated April 11, 1820. He also held a certificate dated April 3, 1820 from the "Mark Master Masons Lodge in the town of Plattsburg, N.Y." A third certificate was issued to him by Plattsburgh Chapter No. 39, N.Y. dated April 3, 1820, which vouched for him as a Royal Arch Mason. After resigning from the Army, he practiced at St. Louis, Mo. where he died on April 25, 1853. In 1954 the Michigan State Medical Society sponsored the reconstruction of the retail store of the American Fur Co. on Mackinac Island where St. Martin was shot, as a memorial to Beaumont. Beaumont Ave. in St. Louis is named for him.


            Pierre G. T. Beauregard (1818-1893) Confederate General, Civil War. b. near New Orleans. Graduate of West Point, 1838 and served through Mexican War. Superintendent of West Point at outbreak of Civil War but resigned to enter Confederate Army. As brigadier general he was in command of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, serving through the Civil War at Bull Run, Shiloh and Corinth. He was manager of the Louisiana lottery, 1780-88 and commissioner of public works of New Orleans, 1888. Author of Principles and Maxims of the Art of War (1863) and A Commentary on the Campaign and Battle of Manassas (1891). Mason and Knight Templar.


            Charles H. Bebb (1856-1942) Architect of Washington State Capitol and other west coast buildings. b. April 10, 1856 at West Hall, Surrey, England. Began practice in Chicago, 1886, and moved to Seattle in 1893, where as member of Bebb and Jones, designed buildings for University of Washington, residence and commercial buildings and supervising architect of state capitol from 1911. Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner. d. June 21, 1942.


            Robert C. Becherer President of Link-Belt Co., Chicago since 1952. b. June 25, 1902 at Indianapolis, Ind. Graduate of Purdue, 1923. With Link-Belt Co. since 1923. Raised in Mystic Tie Lodge No. 398, Indianapolis, Ind. in 1924.


            J. George Becht (1865-1925) State superintendent of public instruction of Pennsylvania 1923-25. b. July 17, 1865. President of State Normal, Clarion, Pa. 1904-12 and with State Board of Education from 1912. Mason. d. April 26, 1925.


            Stephen Bechtel President of W. A. Bechtel Co. since 1936; vice president of Six Companies, Inc. (builders of Hoover Dam) and of Bridge Builders, Inc. (foundations of San Francisco Bay bridges). b. Sept. 24, 1900 at Aurora, Ind. Vice president and director of a score of firms allied with the shipbuilding, pipe line and heavy construction field. Raised June 30, 1923 in Oakland Lodge No. 188, received 32° AASR (SJ) in Oakland Consistory in 1924; member of Aahmes Shrine Temple, all of Oakland, Calif.


            Adam L. Beck (1862-1939) Organizer and president of three Portland Cement Companies, Oklahoma (1906) Great Lakes (1925), Indiana (1917). b. May 9, 1862 at Huntington, Ind. Construction engineer from 1883-87 followed by organization of several limestone companies. Mason. d. Aug. 10, 1939.


            Edward A. Beck (1885-1925) City manager of Goldsborough, N.C. (191718) ; Auburn, Me. (1919-20) and Lynchburg, Va. from 1920. b. Jan. 19, 1885 at Peru, Ind. Mason. d. Oct. 18, 1925.


            Robert Mc. Beck, Jr. Major General U.S. Army. b. May 9, 1879 at Westminster, Md. Graduate of West Point, 1901. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant, Cavalry 1901 and promoted through grades to brigadier general in 1936 and major general in 1938. Served in Philippines 1903-05 and 1909-11. Participated in many large offensives in WW1. Instructor in army service schools and chief of staff, Operations and Training Div. of War Department General Staff, 1938-39. Retired, 1939. Mason.


            T. Romeyn Beck (1791-1885) Physician and author. b. Schenectady, N.Y. Collaborated with his brother John B. in Elements of Medical Jurisprudence (1823). Member of Masters Lodge No. 5, Albany, N.Y.


            Arthur D. Becker (1878-1947) Osteopathic physician, president of American Osteopathic Assn. 1931-32 and president of American College of Osteopathic Internists since 1944. President of Des Moines Still College of Osteopathy, 1935-42. President of Associated Colleges of Osteopathy 1938-39. Mason. b. Aug. 20, 1878, at Austin, Minn. d. May 16, 1947.


            Rudolph Zacharias Becker (17521822) German popular writer, journalist and active Freemason of Gotha. Edited Allgemeiner Reichsanzeiger (from 1791), Nationalzeitung der Deutschen (1796). In 1786 he published an historical essay on the Bavarian Illuminati titled Grundsatze Verfassung und Schicksale des  Illumi- nates Order in Baiern. He also wrote Noth- und Hulfsbuchlein (1788), Mildheimisches Liederbuck (1799), and a description of his experiences in prison in 1814.


            John C. W. Beckham Governor of Kentucky. Member of Duvall Lodge No. 6, Bardstown, Ky. (June, 1901) A Knight Templar.


            John J. Beckley First clerk of the House of Representatives and first Librarian of Congress. Member of Williamsburg Lodge No. 6, Williamsburg, Va.


            Johann Beckmann (1739-1811) German technologist and educator. Professor of economics, Gottingen (from 1770) and author of a history of inventions. Mason.


            Marc, Michel and Joseph Bedarride Three brothers classed as Masonic charlatans who were active in the "Rite of Mizraim" during the middle of the 19th century.


            Elbert Bede Editor and publisher of several periodicals. b. June 28, 1881. Retired in 1936, moving to Portland, Ore. where he purchased the Masonic Analyst, changing its name to Oregon Mason in 1938 and later to Oregon Freemason. Raised in Chicago Lodge No. 271, North Branch, Minn. and later affiliated with Ashlar Lodge No. 209 of Portland, Ore. Raised in Cisago Lodge 232 (Ill). Member of Cottage Grove (Oreg) Lodge No. 51.


            Gunning Bedford, Jr. (1742-1812) Constitution signer of 1787. b. Philadelphia. Colonel and aide to General Washington in Revolution. Washington appointed him the first judge of the U.S. District Court of Delaware, a position which he held until his death. He was the first grand master of Delaware (1806-08). Graduated from Nassau Hall (now Princeton) with distinction. Studied law in Philadelphia and practiced in Delaware. He was raised on Sept. 11, 1782 in Washington Lodge No. 14 (under Pa.) and now No. 1 of Delaware. He served as master of the lodge but the date is not known. It was through his efforts that two U.S. senators were obtained for Delaware. He died March 30, 1812 at Wilmington and was buried with honors by the G.L. of Delaware on the lawn of the Masonic Home on Lancaster Pike about three miles from Wilmington.


            Joseph D. Bedle Governor of New Jersey. Raised in Olive Branch Lodge No. 16, Freehold, N.J. on April 24, 1857.


            Bernard B. Bee, Jr. Confederate General in Civil war. Graduate of West Point. Bee named General T. J. Jackson "Stonewall" in the first battle of Bull Run where Bee was killed. A Knight Templar in Texas.


            Hamilton P. Bee Confederate General in Civil War. Member of Austin Lodge No. 12, Texas.


            Lewis C. Beebe Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. Dec. 7, 1891. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1917 advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1942. Served as regimental staff officer 3rd Inf. Division in WW1. Deputy chief of staff for General MacArthur on Corregidor and chief of staff for General Wainwright until surrender of U.S. forces in Philippines. Japanese prisoner of war from 19421945. Later served in Europe. Mason.


            Royden E. Beebe Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Dec. 14, 1878 at Burlington, Vt. Graduated in chemistry cum laude, Univ. of Vermont, 1900. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant, Infantry, U.S. Army in 1901, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1942. His son, Royden E., Jr., is also a brigadier general. Served 82nd division WW1 and commanding general of Fort Jackson, S.C. in 194143. Retired. Mason.


            R. Livingston Beeckman (1866-1935) Governor of Rhode Island. b. April 15, 1866 in New York City. Banker and member of New York Stock Exchange, 1887-06. Member R.I. house of representatives, 1909-11 and state senate, 1912-14. Served three terms as governor, 1915-21. Mason. d. Jan. 21, 1935.


            Carroll L. Reedy (1880-1947) Congressman from Maine to 67th to 73rd Congresses (1921-35). b. Aug. 3, 1880 at Phillips, Maine. LL.B. Yale, 1906.


            Began practice at Portland in 1907. Practiced law in Washington, D.C. from 1935. Mason. d. Sept. 20, 1947.


            Frederick W. Beekman American clergyman, dean of Nativity Pro-Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Paris, France since 1918 (Protestant and Episcopal). b. Feb. 14, 1871 at Newbury, Mass. Ordained priest, 1905. Founder of American Students and Artists Center, Paris since 1919. Founder of American Battle Cloister, Paris, 1923. Served in Spanish-American War 1898. Mason.


            Alfred B. Beers (1845-1920) Commander in Chief of G.A.R., 1912-13. b. April 23, 1845 at New Rochelle, N.Y. Served as enlisted man Civil War, 1861-65. Lawyer in Bridgeport, Conn. from 1871. Mason. d. March 30, 1920.


            Wallace Beery (1889-1949) Movie star, actor. b. in Kansas City, Mo. and attended Chase School in that city. He ran away from home to join a circus and became an elephant trainer. He was first identified with the film world as a female impersonator. He is noted for his character roles in such films as Big House, Hell Divers, The Champ, Grand Hotel, Stable Mates, Sergeant Madden, and Bad Man of Brimstone. Was awarded gold medal as "World's best actor" by the International Motion Picture Exposition at Venice, Italy in 1934. Was a member of the advisory board of the Bank of America. Beery belonged to Blaney Lodge No. 271 of Chicago, 32° AASR and a Shriner. d. April 25, 1949.


            Fred I. Holt Beever His Masonic burial was the first Masonic ceremony held in the present state of N. Dak. While carrying orders from General Sibley to Col. Crooks, near the conjunction of Apple Creek and the Missouri River, Beever took the wrong route and was ambushed and killed by the Indians. A marker erected on the spot by the Grand Lodge of North Dakota to his memory, bears the following inscription: "On this spot, July 31, 1863, occurred the first Masonic Ceremony held in the present State of North Dakota. It was the Masonic funeral of Lieutenant Fred I. Holt Beever, an Englishman and Oxonian, and a volunteer soldier attached to the staff of General H. H. Sibley. He was killed in a skirmish with the Indians and was buried in the rifle pits which were dug along this ridge. Deputy Grand Master John C. Whipple of Minnesota, convened an emergency Masonic Lodge, with brothers A. J. Edgerton as Worshipful Master, J. C. Braden, Senior Warden, and Patch, Junior Warden, and the body of Brother Beever was here consigned to earth with Masonic Services. This tablet and marker has been placed by the Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of North Dakota, 1920, to commemorate the fact that while Lieutenant Beever died far away from home and among strangers, yet he was among brethren, who saw that the honors so justly his due were paid him.”


            Harvey A. Beffa Brewery executive and past imperial potentate of Shrine. b. June 19, 1900 at St. Louis, Mo. With Anton Beffa & Son Wrecking Co., 1915-33. With Falstaff Brewing Corp., St. Louis since 1933 being vice president and director in 1935 and now executive vice president and general manager. Raised in Purity Lodge No. 658, St. Louis, Mo. in 1925, serving as master in 1935. Member of Cabany Chapter No. 140, R.A.M. and St. Aldemar Commandery No. 18, K.T. 32° AASR (SJ) Valley of St. Louis. Potentate of Moolah Shrine temple in 1940. Member of Grotto and 0.E. S . Imperial potentate, North America from 1952-53 of Shrine and honorary life member of 75 Shrine temples.


            Lyall T. Beggs National commander Veterans of Foreign Wars, 1948. b. Nov. 1889 at Plainfield, Wis. Graduate of University of Wisconsin, 1925. Admitted to bar in 1926. Member of Wisconsin legislature 1940-46. Mason, 32°, Shriner.


            Josiah W. Begole Former Governor of Michigan. Member of Flint Lodge No. 23, Flint, Mich.


            Herman A. Behrens ( 1883 - 1945 ) President of Continental Assurance Co. from 1928. b. Sept. 29, 1883 at Hamburg, Germany. With Pacific Mutual Life of California from 1903-12, coming to Chicago in 1907 where he became vice president and manager of Continental Casualty Co. in 191228. Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner.


            H. Frederick Behrens (1870-1935) President of Sterling Products, Inc. and Bayer Co., Inc. b. Aug. 4, 1870 at Wheeling, W. Va. Trustee of Washington and Jefferson College. Mason. d. Jan. 17, 1935.


            William W. Behrens Commodore, U.S. Navy. b. June 6, 1898 at Lancaster, Pa. Commissioned ensign in 1918 and advanced through grades to commodore in 1945. Executive officer of USS Concord during Pearl Harbor attack and subsequent duty in Pacific. Mason.


            Lynden E. "Bee" Behymer (18621947) Impresario and manager of world celebrities on the Pacific coast. b. Nov. 5, 1862 at New Palestine, Ohio. Presented La Boheme first time in America on Oct. 14, 1897 at Los Angeles. In 1898 he formed and managed for 20 years the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra. Presented Metropolitan Opera Co. on west coast in 1901, 02, 04, 06 and Boston Opera in 1910, 12. Chicago Opera Co. 1914, 16, 18. Brought the following to the west coast for tours: Sarah Bernhardt, Eleanora Duse, Enrico Caruso, Sir Henry Irving, Edwin Booth, Paderewski, Rabindranath Tagore, Jacob Riis, Feodor Chaliapin. Presented Lawrence Tibbett, Maud Allan and Isadore Duncan in first concerts. Knight Templar, AASR member and Shriner. d. Dec. 16, 1947.


            William A. Beiderlinden Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. March 4, 1895 at Springfield, Mo. Graduate Drury College, Springfield, Mo., and army service schools. Commissioned 1st lieut. in 1917 and advanced through grades to brig. general in 1943. Commanded 44th Div. Arty. in WW2 and later assistant chief of staff G-1 GHQ, SCAP and FEC, Tokyo, 1946. Mason.


            Robert S. Beightler Brigadier General U.S. Army. b. March 21, 1892 at Marysville, Ohio. Student at Ohio State University and of service schools. Member of engineering firm in Columbus, Ohio since 1930 and from 1912-30 was highway engineer, serving as chief engineer of Ohio State Highway Department. Enlisted in 4th Ohio Infantry in 1911, served on Mexican border and WW1. Promoted to major general in 1940 and permanent major general in 1944. Commanded 37th Division in WW2, 43 months in Pacific. Member War Department General Staff, Washington 1932-36; commanding 5th Service Command 1946-47; president of Army Personnel Board 1947-48; commanding general, Camp Chaffee, Ark. and 5th Armored Division since 1948. Mason. Received 33° Sept. 25, 1945.


            Edwin J. Beinecke President and chairman of board of The Sperry and Hutchinson Co. since 1923. b. Jan. 6, 1886 in New York City. Graduate of Yale in 1907. President of Henry Maurer & Son, 1921-23; president and chairman of board of U.S. Realty & Improvement Co. 1936-42; chairman of board Plaza Hotel Co. 1936-42; and present director of 13 large corporations. Served as captain in WW1 anddepartment commander of Red Cross in England in WW2. Mason.


            Ian Hay Beith (1876-1952) British major general, author and playwright. Served as junior grand deacon of the G.L. of England in 1934. Widely known to literary public and playgoers under psuedonym of his two christian names of "Ian Hay." d. Sept. 1952.


            Jonathan Belcher (1681-1757) Colonial governor of Massachusetts, and New Hampshire (1730-41) and of New Jersey in 1747. b. Jan. 8, 1681 at Boston and claimed by some to be the first native born American to become a Freemason. He was raised in an old "Guilde Lodge" in England in 1704-13 years before the founding of the G.L. of England. Others have claimed this honor for John Moore q.v. and John Skene q.v. Belcher is also reported as having been on the rolls of the craft in Nova Scotia at an early date. He graduated from Harvard in 1699, later affiliating with St. John's Lodge in Boston, Mass. In 1756 the trustees of Princeton University wanted to name Nassau Hall after Belcher stating "when your Excellency is translated to a house not made with hands, eternal in the Heavens, let Belcher Hall proclaim your beneficent acts." Upon his retirement as governor in 1741 the First Lodge of Boston called upon him to thank him for the many favors bestowed upon Freemasonry. In reply, he wrote the lodge: ". . . It is now thirty-seven years since I was admitted into the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and accepted Masons, to whom I have been a faithful Brother & well-wisher to the Art of Masonry . . ." d. August 31, 1757 at Elizabethtown, N.J.


            Clark Belden Advertising and public relations expert b. April 4, 1896 at Falls Village, Conn. Student at Brown, Cornell and Northwestern Universities. Started as a reporter, 1914 in Hartford, Conn. In advertising with Insurance companies from 1919 to 1924. With Connecticut Chamber of Commerce 1924-29 as secretary, vice president and director. Lecturer, advisor and public relations expert for many corporations, universities and quasi-governmental organizations. Mason.


            Manuel Belgrano Argentine patriot who designed that country's flag. b. June 3, 1779 at Buenos Aires. Studied in Spain and returned to River Plate as consul. Ardent supporter of the 1810 revolution, he formed part of the junta that governed the country for a short time. Was made a general and commanded an unsuccessful military expedition against Paraguay. After this defeat, he created the Argentine flag. He returned to Spain to negotiate recognition of the new state and on his return was given another command, with which he defeated the Spanish Royalists. For these successes he received a substantial grant which he turned into the building of schools.


            Robert Edward, 11th Lord of Belhaven (and Stanton) Was 87th Grand Master Mason of Scotland 1931-32.


            Brian Bell (1890-1942) Newspaperman and chief of Washington Bureau of Associated Press from 1939. b. March 30, 1890 at York, S.C. Began as a reporter in Columbia, S.C. and has been with Associated Press since 1924 as staff member in Atlanta, Ga., chief of New Orleans Bureau, general staff in New York (1926-30); chief of Los Angeles Bureau (193036); news editor, Western division (1936-39). Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner. d. June 8, 1942.


            Charles J. Bell Congressman from Missouri 74th to 80th Congresses (1935-49). b. Jan. 16, 1885 at Lake City, Colo. LL.B. Kansas City Schoolof Law, 1913 and began practice in Kansas City same year. Member of city council of K.C. 1926-30 and judge of 16th Mo. Circuit Court 1931-34. Member of Temple Lodge No. 299, Kansas City, Mo.


            Charles J. Bell (1858-1929) Banker, organizer of Bell & Co., Washington, D.C. in 1881. b. April 12, 1858 at Dublin, Ireland. Educated in Wesleyan College, Dublin. Came to U.S. in 1873. General manager of National Telephone Co. in 1880, organizing exchanges in north of England. Chairman of board of Terminal Cold Storage Co., Washington, from 1893. Trustee of George Washington National Memorial Association and National Geographic Society. Mason. d. Oct. 2, 1929.


            Charles S. Bell (1880-1945) Judge, Supreme Court of Ohio from 1942. b. Oct. 8, 1880 at Cincinnati, Ohio. Admitted to bar in 1910. Served as local solicitor and prosecutor and judge of court of common pleas, Hamilton Co. Mason, Shriner. d. Aug. 22, 1945.


            Frank Bell Acting Governor of Nevada. Member of Reno Lodge No. 13, and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Nevada.


            George M. Bell Publisher of The Albertan, Calgary, Alta, Canada since 1943. b. Oct. 13, 1911 at Regina, Sask., Canada. Graduate of McGill Univ. 1932. Liberal. Member of Perfection Lodge No. 9, Calgary, Alta. and Al Azhar Shrine Temple of Calgary.


            John Bell Former Governor of New Hampshire. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, N. H.


            John Bell (1797-1869) Secretary of War, U.S. Senator from Tennessee and speaker of U.S. House of Representatives. b. Feb. 15, 1797 near Nashville, Tenn. Member of state senate in 1817. Elected to Congress in 1827 over Felix Grundy q.v. and reelected six times, serving until 1841. Elected speaker of house in 1834. Was one of the founders of the Whig party. Named Secretary of War in 1841 by Harrison. Elected to U.S. Senate in 1847, remaining in that body until 1859. Member of King Solomon Lodge No. 6 at Gallatin, Tenn., and was probably a member of Nashville Lodge No. 37 before he affiliated with the former lodge.


            John A. Bell Organizer of Negro "bogus" lodges in competition with legitimate Prince Hall (Negro) Grand Lodges.


            Lawrence D. Bell Founder of Bell Aircraft Corp., 1935. (Buffalo, N.Y.) b. April 5, 1894 at Mentone, Ind. Started with Glenn L. Martin Co., airplane mfgrs. as shop foreman in 1912 and became vice president and general manager. Then moved to Consolidated Aircraft Corp., (1928) and became vice president and general manager. Organized Bell Aircraft with associates in 1935. Completed the Airaconda, a twin-engine fighting plane with two cannons in 1937; began making the Airacobra, a pursuit plane with one cannon, in 1939 in mass production for U.S. Army. President of Aircraft War Production Council, East Coast, Inc.; president of National Aircraft War Production Council. Received trophy for aid in supersonic flight. Mason.


            Robert C. Bell Federal judge. b. Nov. 1, 1880 at Harrisonville, Mo. LL.B. University of Missouri, 1908. U.S. district judge since 1933. U.S. Attorney General 1916-21; attorney for Red Lake Indians (Minn.) 192733; attorney for Pillager Indians (Minn.) 1930-33; Minnesota state senator, 1928-33; Author of Minnesota Income Tax Law. Mason.


            Rev. Francis J. Bellamy (1855-1931) Author of the American "Pledge of Allegiance" to the flag. Member of Little Falls Lodge No. 181, Little Falls, N.Y. The original pledge as written by Bellamy did not contain the words "of the United States of America," or "under God." The Order of Eastern Star erected a memorial tablet to him in 1955 at the O.E.S. Home in Oriskany, N.Y.


            Johann Joachim Bellermann (17541842) German Theologian and Freemason.


            George, Viscount of Bellfield Grand Master, Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1774. Later became 2nd Earl of Belvedere.


            Perry Belmont (1851-1947) Lawyer and philanthropist. b. Dec. 28, 1851 in New York City, son of August Belmont a noted financier. His grandfather was Commodore Matthew C. Perry q.v. Raised in Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City on June 11, 1878 and received 50-year medal and palm on April 28, 1941. Graduated from Harvard in 1872 and Columbia law school in 1876. Practiced in New York until 1881 when he was elected to Congress and served until 1887.


            Charles S. Belsterling Vice president of U.S. Steel Corp. since 1932. b. May 31, 1874 at Philadelphia, Pa. Admitted to Pennsylvania bar in 1904; general commerce attorney for U.S. Steel Corp. from 1914 to 1932. Life member of Lodge No. 51, Philadelphia and 50-year veteran. Member of Keystone Chapter No. 175, R.A.M. (life) and Corinthian Commandery (life), both of Philadelphia. Life member of Zamora Shrine Temple, Birmingham, Ala. as well as Lu Lu Temple, Philadelphia.


            Harry H. Belt Associate justice, Supreme Court of Oregon since 1925. b. Nov. 24, 1883 at Salem, Oregon. Mason.


            Giovanni Battista Belzoni (17781823) Italian explorer and archaeologist. Explored Egyptian antiquities (1815-19); opened temple of Abu-Simbel (1817); discovered tomb of Seti I, Thebes (1817); opened second pyramid of Giza; transferred bust Young Memnon from Thebes to Alexandria. The Norfolk Remembrancer (England) in August 1821 said, "Mr. Belzoni, the celebrated traveller and discoverer of Egyptian antiquities, visited Norwich; he stayed with Jeremiah Ives, Esquire, of St. Catherine's Hill; previous to his departure he received the high masonic degree of Knight Templar." He was referred to as "Bro. Belzoni" when his widow was helped by the Lodge of Emulation (London) in 1825. Bedford Lodge No. 183 (England) also contributed to his widow.


            Thomas Benbury Brigadier General of Militia in American Revolution. Served as Master of Unanimity Lodge No. 7, Edenton, N.C.


            Charles A. "Chief" Bender (18831954) Baseball player. b. May 5, 1883 at Brainerd, Minn. A Chippewa Indian who was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1953 for winning over 200 games. He pitched for the Athletics in the 1905-1910-1911-19131914 world series. He defeated the New York Giants 3-0 for the Athletics' only victory in 1905. He was first pitcher in world series of six games (1911) to pitch three complete games. In 1910 he pitched a no-hit game against Cleveland. He petitioned Robert A. Lamberton Lodge No. 487 of Philadelphia, Pa. when 27 years of age and was raised on April 4, 1911. He was suspended NPD in 1938, but reinstated in 1943.


            Andrew B. Benedict (1885-1953) University administrator. President of Ward-Belmont, 1938-39 and trustee of Vanderbilt University from 1930-53. b. July 21, 1885 at Nashville, Term. Mason.


            David Benedict (1779-1874) Early Baptist minister and author. b. Oct. 10, 1779 at Norwalk, Conn. Studied shoemaker's trade, but became interested in religion and graduated from Brown Univ. in 1806. Although he did not hold a regular pastorate, he preached with great vigor until 92 years old. Devoted much time to historical research and wrote History of the Baptists (1813), History of all Religions (1824), History of the Baptist Denominations in America and all Parts of the World (1848), Fifty Years among the Baptists (1860), and several others including poems and a hymn book. He was raised in Newport Lodge No. 1, Newport, Rhode Island on June 24, 1827 and was a member of Pawtucket Chapter No. 4 at Pawtucket, R.I. d. Dec. 5, 1874.


            Pope Benedict XIV (1675-1758) Anti-mason who issued a Papal Bull on May 18, 1751, renewing and perpetuating that of his predecessor which excommunicated all Freemasons (see Pope Clement XII). His real name was Prospero Lambertini and he served as Pope from 1740, succeeding Clement XII, to his death in 1758. He greatly encouraged education, literature and science and was liberal in his policy toward foreign powers. He was, however, an implacable enemy of secret societies.


            William L. Benedict Surgeon, president of staff of Mayo Clinic 193234. b. Feb. 13, 1885 at Springport, Ind. Received M.D. degree at University of Michigan in 1912. In private practice until 1917 when he went with the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. as head of section of Ophthalmology. Member of Rochester Lodge No. 21 and Halcyon Chapter No. 8, R.A.M., both of Rochester, Minn.


            Eduard Benes (1884-1948) President of Czechoslovakia. Educated in universities of Prague, Paris, and Dujon. A disciple of Masaryk, he worked in Paris with him from 1915-19 in Czech nationalist movement. He was Czech delegate at peace conference in 1919-20 and first foreign minister of Czechoslovakia from 1918-35 and prime minister from 1921-22. He was co-founder of the Little Entente. Elected president of Czechoslovakia in 1935, he resigned in October, 1938 on German occupation of Sudetenland. Was appointed professor of sociology at the University of Chicago in 1939. President of the Czechoslovak government in exile with headquarters in England from 1939-45, returning to Czechoslovakia in March, 1945 and was re-elected president in 1946. Buried in the garden of his country home at Sezimovo Usti, September 10, 1948, with both Catholic and Protestant services. When elected President of Czechoslovakia, he withdrew from Masonic activities, but remained interested in the fraternity and rendered his full moral and financial support in London where the National Grand Lodge of Czechoslovakia in Exile was established as well as the Comenius in Exile Lodge. Benes was initiated in the Jan Amos Komensky Lodge No. 1 of Prague (the oldest modern Czechoslovak lodge) about 1924-25 and he later became a member of Pravda Vitezi (Truth Shall Prevail) Lodge of Prague, being passed and raised in the latter about 1927-28.


            Conrado Benitez Philippine statesman, serving under Quezon. Helped write the Philippine constitution. A past grand master of the Philippines. Appointed a member of the Philippine delegation to the Manila Treaty Conference by President Magsaysay. A 33° AASR, he served for a time as acting sovereign grand commander. Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Philippine Woman's University, president of the Y.M.C.A. and director of the Rotary Club of Manila.


            Louis Benjamin (1883-?) Newspaper publisher. b. London, England, Nov. 8, 1883 and brought to the U.S. as a child. Publisher of the Erie (Pa.) Dispatch-Herald from 1925. Became president of Benjamin Advertising Corp. in 1913 and was president of the Erie Dispatch-Herald Broadcasting Corp. A director of Zem Zem Shrine Hospital for children and member of board of governors of B'nai B'rith. Mason. Deceased.


            Aleksandr Khristoforovich Benkendorf (or Benckendorff) (1783-1844) Russian general and statesman. Family was originally German. He engaged in campaigns against Napoleon in 1813-15 and became Chief of Gendarmes under Nicholas I. Nicholas I banned Freemasonry in an edict dated April 21, 1826 just as his predecessor Alexander I q.v. had on Aug. 1, 1822. Benkendorf was a member of the Lodge of United Friends in Petersburg.


            Winthrop W. Benner Rubber executive. b. Minneapolis, Minn. March 25, 1881. President of National Synthetic Rubber Corp. from 1942 until retirement in 1948. Began as chemist for Oliver Iron Mining Co. in 1903 and later with Zenith Furnace Co., Atikokan Iron Co., production superintendent for Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. from 1909-14 and vice president of Lee Rubber Tire Corp. from 1915-26. Mason.


            Augustus W. Bennet Lawyer, congressman. b. Oct. 7, 1897 in New York City. Graduated from Amherst and Columbia Universities. Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1921 and practiced since in Newburgh, N.Y. Member of the 79th Congress (1945-47) from 29th N.Y. district. Served in Navy Air Corps in WW1. A past district deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of New York. Member of Hudson River Lodge No. 607, Newburgh, N.Y., serving as master in 1930. Member of Highland Chapter, R.A.M. No. 52, Newburgh and Tall Cedars of Lebanon.


            William S. Bennet Lawyer, congressman. b. Port Jervis, N.Y., Nov. 9, 1870. Member of 59th to 61st Congresses (1905-11) from 17th N.Y. district and 64th Congress (1915-17) from 23rd N.Y. district. Declined appointment as U.S. District Judge in 1906. Assistant treasurer of the United States in 1911; appraiser of Port of New York in 1912; assistant attorney general of U.S. in 1929; delegate to state constitutional convention in 1938; member of the U.S. Immigration Commission 1907-10. He moved to Chicago in 1920 as vice president and general counsel of Edward Hines lumber interests, returning to New York City in 1933 where he resumed practice. Mason and 32° AASR.


            Andrew C. Bennett Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Goodland, Kansas. Graduated from U.S. Naval Academy in 1912 advancing from ensign to rear admiral in 1942. He commanded submarines and submarine units for 24 years, also serving on battleships and cruisers. Commanded light cruiser U.S.S. Savannah from 1940-42; unit commander at Oran, Algeria area of invasion of North Africa in WW2. Commandant of 8th Naval District Hdqs. in New Orleans from 1943. Mason, 32° AASR. Deceased.


            Burton E. Bennett (1863-?) Lawyer, who as early district attorney for Alaska secured first convictions in that territory for murder, adultery and illicit sale of intoxicants; secured 99 convictions out of 101 cases in spring term of 1898. b. April 17, 1863 at Brookfield, N.Y., he received three degrees from Cornell University. Practiced law in New York but early moved to Seattle, Washington. Mason.


            Caleb P. Bennett (1758-1836) Governor of Delaware. b. Nov. 11, 1758 in Chester Co., Pa. He entered the Delaware regiment of the Revolution as a private and rose to 1st lieutenant, serving in the Battle of Brandywine and was wounded at Germantown. At Valley Forge during winter of 1777 and in command of battery at surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. In the War of 1812 he was a major of the Delaware State Militia. His grandmother was Mary Boone, daughter of the famous Daniel Boone. He was governor of Delaware from 1832-36. He adhered to the old fashioned style of dress, low shoes, silver knee and shoe buckles, long silk stockings, white breeches, velvet coat with brass buttons, ruffled shirt bosom, powdered hair and cue. He was raised in Lodge No. 14 at Christina Ferry, Del., Jan. 16, 1781. d. July 11, 1836.


            Charles E. Bennett Lawyer, congressman. b. Dec. 2, 1910 at Canton, N.Y. Graduated University of Florida in 1934 and admitted to Florida bar that year, since practicing in Jacksonville. Member of Florida State Legislature in 1941 and member of 81st Congress (1949-51) from 2nd Florida dist. Served in south Pacific in WW2, advancing from private to captain. Member of Riverside Lodge No. 266, Jacksonville, Fla.


            Charles Edwin Bennett Public utilities executive. b. May 21, 1888 at Ft. Collins, Colo. Graduated University of Wisconsin in 1912. President and director of the following companies: Manufacturers Light and Heat Co., Natural Gas Co. of W. Va., Cumberland & Allegheny Gas Co., Home Gas Co., Binghamton Gas Works, The Keystone Gas Co., Inc., Eastern Pipe Line Co., Gettysburg Gas Corp. Mason.


            Charles H. Bennett President of Daisy Manufacturing Co. (air rifles) since 1920. b. Plymouth, Mich., July 27, 1863. Began as salesman for Daisy Co. at Plymouth, Mich. in 1888. Was vice president from 1888-1920. Mason. Charles R. Bennett (?-1855) His tombstone bears the inscription "Capt. Charles Bennett was discoverer of gold in California." He came to California as a mule hostler with General Fremont, q.v., in 1845. While satering his mules at their camp on the American River, in what is now El Dorado Co., he picked up a small nugget which he recognized as gold. He showed it to Fremont who paid little attention to the incident. Bennett afterwards moved to Oregon, but in company with Stephen Staat and James W. Marshall, returned to Calif. and was employed by Sutter to assist Marshall in the construction of the mill at Coloma. Bennett was present at Coloma when Marshall picked up the piece of gold which precipitated the gold rush. Staat said that Bennett picked up the original piece of gold before Marshall saw it. As soon as Sutter recognized the extent of the discovery at his mill, he sent Bennett to Monterey in an effort to induce Governor Mason to lease him the land surrounding the mill with mineral rights. The governor refused, believing the land was still held under Mexican law. After mining for some time on the lode Bennett returned to Oregon with a large quantity of gold and built the first hotel in Salem, located where the present Masonic temple stands today. Hotel keeping was a little tame for him, and soon he became captain of the Salem Oregon Mounted Rifles, and while leading the company in the Yakima Indian War, he was killed at Walla Walla in 1855. His body was returned to Salem where it was interred with Masonic honors by Salem Lodge No. 4. Bennett was the first candidate to have been initiated in that lodge. Name on original petition is spelled "Bennet".


            Granville G. Bennett Bishop, Protestant Episcopal church. b. Nov. 28, 1882 at Deadwood, S.D. Degrees from University of Nebraska, Seabury Divinity School and Brown University. Priested in 1907, he served in Faribault, Minn., Holdrege, Nebr., Bozeman, Mont., Great Falls, Mont., and Minneapolis, Minn. He was bishop coadjutor of Duluth from 1920-22 and bishop of Duluth from 1922-32 when he became auxiliary bishop of R.I. In 1946 he was named bishop of R.I. Mason.


            Henry G. Bennett College president. b. Dec. 14, 1886 in Nevada Co., Ark. College degrees from Ouachita College, University of Oklahoma and Columbia University. Has served as president of Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College since 1928. Previous to that he had served as superintendent of schools of Choctaw County, Okla. and at Hugo, Okla. He was president of Southeastern State Teachers College from 19191928. Mason.


            Philip A. Bennett (1881-1942) Congressman. b. March 5, 1881 in Dallas Co., Mo. Began as school teacher in 1899 and was publisher of the Buffalo (Mo.) Reflex from 1904-21. Served as state senator, 19th dist. of Mo. 192125 and lieutenant governor of Mo. from 1925-29. Was a member of the 77th Congress (1941-43) from 6th Mo. dist. Director of O'Bannon Banking Co. from 1919-36. Died Dec. 7, 1942 at Springfield, Mo. Mason.


            Richard Bedford Bennett (18701947) Prime minister of Canada. Statesman, minister of justice and attorney general 1921, served as prime minister from 1930 to 1935. Viscount Bennett was raised in Miramichi Lodge No. 18 at Chatham, N.B., and affiliated with Ashlar Lodge No. 28, Calgary, Alta., on April 14, 1910.


            Robert R. Bennett (1865-1933) Explorer, lawyer. b. Dec. 12, 1865 at Toledo, Ohio. LL.B. from George Washington Univ. in 1904. Served as special agent of the U.S. Dept. of Justice in 1917 as well as confidential agent of War Dept. Later a captain of Intelligence, General Staff. Sent on confidential mission to Central America in 1919 and conducted expedition to Yucatan, exploring ancient ruins for Museum of American Indian, N.Y. in 1930. Mason. d. Dec. 12, 1933.


            Thomas Bennett Governor of South Carolina who was a member of Solomons Lodge No. 1, Charleston, S.C.


            Henry A. Benning Business executive. b. Aug. 8, 1882 at Lyons, N.Y. President and general manager of Amalgamated Sugar Co., Ogden Transit Co. Director of First Security Bank, Mountain States Implement Co., Utah Power and Light Co. and U.S. Beet Sugar Assn. Residence, Ogden, Utah. Mason and Shriner.


            Pierre L. L. Benoit (1834-1901) Belgian composer and director of Antwerp Conservatory of Music. A leader in Flemish musical circles, composing oratorios, operas, cantatas, religious dramas, hymns and songs. A Freemason according to Cock's Dictiarmaire Macanique, published in Brussels.


            August Benson Clothing manufacturer. b. Nov. 29, 1892 at Simrishamm, Sweden. Vice president and designer of Richmond Bros. (clothiers), Cleveland, Ohio, since 1922. Earlier he was designer for Society Brand Clothes of Chicago. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.


            Carville D. Benson (1872-1929) Congressman from 2nd Maryland dist. b. Baltimore Co., Md. Aug. 24, 1872. Received law degree from Baltimore Univ. and practiced at Baltimore from 1893. Served in Maryland's lower house of legislature from 1904-10 inclusive and again in 1918, beingspeaker in 1906. Member of Maryland Senate 1912-14 and served in 65th and 66th Congress. Mason. Died Feb. 8, 1929.


            Elmer A. Benson U.S. Senator and governor of Minnesota. Raised in Appleton Lodge No. 137, Appleton, Minn. on Jan. 3, 1917.


            William E. Benswanger Insurance and baseball executive. b. Feb. 22, 1892 at New York. In insurance business from 1911-31 and in baseball from 1931 to 1946. President, treasurer and director of Forbes Field Co.; director of the National League and former president of the Pittsburgh Pirates (he sold in 1946). Served in Air Service (balloon) during WW1. Now devotes himself to many musical activities. Director of Pittsburgh Symphony Society, president of Pittsburgh Concert Society and has written extensively on music. Has been annotator of the Pittsburgh Symphony since 1926. A member of Lodge No. 45 and Zerubbabel Chapter No. 162 of Pittsburgh as well as Islam Grotto.


            Charles Bent 1799-1847) Pioneer and first American governor of New Mexico. b. at Charleston, Va. (now W. Va.) November 11, 1799. His father, Judge Silas Bent, emigrated to St. Louis, Mo. in 1806 and became a famous Missouri jurist. Both were members of Missouri Lodge No. 1, Charles being initiated on June 8, 1822. He attended West Point, but resigned from the army to engage in the fur trade in Colorado and New Mexico. With his brother, William, and Ceran St. Vrain, organized a trading company and built an adobe fort known as Bent's Fort on the bank of the Arkansas River where the Santa Fe Trail crossed. When New Mexico was formed into a territory, he was named as first governor and thereby was ex-officio superintendent of Indian Affairs. He left Santa Fe for Taos on Jan. 14, 1846 to return his family after hearing rumors of Mexican and Indian uprisings. Reaching Taos on Jan. 18 he was shot, and scalped while still alive in an Indian-Mexican raid of that evening. He was closely associated with Kit Carson q.v.


            Alvin M. Bentley Congressman and foreign service officer. b. Aug. 20, 1918 at Portland, Me. Graduated from Univ. of Michigan in 1940. Was a foreign service officer in Mexico City, 1942-44; Bogata, Colombia, 1945-46; Budapest, Hungary, 1947-49; and Rome, Italy 1949-50. Vice president of Lake Huron Broadcasting Co., Saginaw, Mich. since 1952. Member of U.S. Congress from 8th Dist. Mich. since 1953. Member of Owosso Lodge No. 81, Owosso Chapter No. 89, R.A.M., Owosso Comrnandery No. 49, K.T. all of Owosso, Mich. 32° AASR (NJ) in Bay City, Mich. and Elf Khurafeh Shrine Temple of Saginaw, Mich.


            George A. Benton ( 1848 -1921) Judge. b. May 7, 1848 at Tolland, Conn. Admitted to N.Y. bar in 1874. Served as justice of Supreme Court of N.Y. from 1907-1918 when he was retired by age and appointed official referee. Mason. Died Sept. 10, 1921.

 Joseph Horace Benton (see Joseph Bentonelli) Thomas Hart Benton (1782-1858) U.S. Senator from Missouri, 1821-51. Defender of sound money; supported Jackson q.v. in his campaign against the national bank; often called "Old Bullion." In slavery issue he opposed secession, which resulted in his defeat in 1850 for another senate term. He did return to Washington from 1853-55 as congressman. His political autobiography is contained in his Thirty Years' View. His daughter, Jessie, married John C. Fremont q.v. and his nephew and namesake q.v. became a Civil War general andgrand master of Iowa. Benton was a charter member of Missouri Lodge No. 1 at St. Louis until the anti-Masonic days of 1831 when he withdrew for political reasons. Painter Thomas Hart Benton is his grandnephew.


            Thomas Hart Benton (1816-1879) Civil War general. b. Sept. 5, 1816 in Williamson Co., Tenn. Nephew of Missouri senator of same name q.v. Raised July 16, 1849 in Iowa City Lodge No. 4, Iowa City, Iowa and later a member of Bluff City Lodge No. 71, Council Bluffs, Iowa. Served as grand master of Iowa from 186062. As a Union general he saved the valuable Masonic library of Confederate General Albert Pike q.v. by placing a guard of Federal troops around Pike's Little Rock, Ark. home. d. April 10, 1879 at St. Louis, Mo.


            William P. Benton (1828-1867) Brigadier general (Union) in Civil War. b. Dec. 25, 1828 Newmarket, Md. When 18 years old, enlisted as a private in Mexican War and fought at Contreras, Churubusco, Chapultepec and Mexico City. Returning to home at Richmond, Ind. he re-entered college and was admitted to bar in 1851. Early volunteer for Civil War and raised first company from Wayne Co., Ind. Fought battles at Pea Ridge, Port Gibson, Jackson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, Vicksburg and Mobile. At close of war he returned to Richmond and resumed practice of law. He was a member of Webb Lodge No. 24 at Richmond, Ind. and King Solomon Chapter No. 4. d. March 14, 1867 at New Orleans, La.


            Joseph Bentonelli (Joseph Horace Benton) Lyric tenor. b. Sept. 10, 1898 at Kansas City, Mo. Holds three degrees from Univ. of Oklahoma and later studied with Jean de Reszke. Made debut in Don Giovanni at Nice, France in 1924 and created the world premieres of two operas—// Vassallo at Trieste in 1930 and Cecilia at Rome in 1934. Was with the Chicago Civic Opera in 1934 and made debut with Metropolitan Opera in 1936, when he took the lead on 33 hours notice. Has been tenor of the Metropolitan Opera Quartet since 1936. In 1934 he was voted one of Italy's four most popular tenors by the Italian Fascist Society of Musicians. Has served as advisor to dept. of voice at University of Oklahoma since 1944. In 1934 he was the star on three major radio hours of the NBC and guest on seven other radio hours. He gives yearly concert tours from coast-to-coast. Raised in Norman Lodge No. 38, Norman, Okla. on Nov. 22, 1920 and received 32° at Guthrie, Okla. Oct. 24, 1940. Present home is Norman, Okla.


            Lloyd Bentsen Congressman, judge. b. Feb. 11, 1921 at Mission, Texas. LL.B. Univ. of Texas in 1942. Practiced law at McAllen, Tex. from 1945-1948; judge of Hidalgo Co., Texas from 1946-48. Elected member of 80th Congress in 1948 to fill unexpired term. Member of 81st Congress (194951) from 15th Texas dist. Entered WW2 as private and rose to major in 1945. Served in European theater as squadron commander of bombers. Mason and Shriner.


            Paul F. Berdanier Artist. b. March 7, 1879 at Frackville, Pa. Illustrator for St. Louis Post-Dispatch from 190218. Painted St. Louis Veiled Prophet Ball in permanent collection of Missouri Historical Society; Canal at Moret, France in permanent collection, Museum of Fine Arts, Foret, France; six etchings on aviation themes in permanent collection of National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.; four etchings (satire) in John Vanderpoel Memorial Museum, Chicago; 19 etchings in permanent collection of New York Public Library; one etching in Library of Congress. Now a cartoonist with United Feature Syndicate, Inc. Mason.


            Victor L. Berger (1860-1929) Socialist leader and editor. Born in Austria and came to United States in 1879, settling in Milwaukee, Wis. Edited the Milwaukee Daily Vorwaerts from 1892-98, the Social Democrat Herald in 1900 and Leader (socialist daily) from 1911. Berger, a pioneer in U.S. organizing Socialists, became a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1911-13, being the first Socialist elected to Congress. He was elected again in 1918 and 1919, but excluded by Congress on the ground of disloyalty to the United States (1919). He was finally elected and seated in 1923, serving until 1929. He was sentenced to prison for 20 years on charge of giving aid and comfort to the enemy in time of war, (1918-19) but the sentence was reversed by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1921. He was raised in Aurora Lodge No. 30, Milwaukee, Wis. on Feb. 26, 1889.


            George E. Bergstrom Architect. b. March, 1876 at Neenah, Wis. B.S. in architecture from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1899. After 14 years with architectural firms, went into business alone in 1913. Chief architect of The Pentagon, War Department building in Washington, D.C., 1942. Also chief architect of the Pasadena Civic Auditorium; the Los Angeles County Hospital; Los Angeles Hall of Justice; Los Angeles Museum of History, Science and Art. Served as president of the Los Angeles Housing Commission in 1916; editor of the Uniform Building Code, State of California 1938-39; chief consulting architect to U.S. War Department in 1941. Mason.


            Randolph C. Berkeley Brigadier general, U.S. Marine Corps. A Mason and Sojourner.


            Richard C. Berkinshaw President and general manager of Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. of Canada, Ltd. b. Sept. 2, 1891 at Toronto, Ontario. Graduated in law, 1916 and has been with Goodyear since 1920. Has served in capacities as assistant secretary, secretary, general counsel, assistant to president, and treasurer. Also vice president and director of The Goodyear Improvement Co., Ltd.; Toronto Elevators Ltd. and chairman of board of Easy Washing Machine Co., Ltd. Other directorates include Bank or Montreal, Mutual Life Assurance Co., Crown Trust Co., Phoenix Assurance Co. Raised in Georgina Lodge No. 343, Toronto on Nov. 2, 1929 and also charter member of Kingsway Lodge No. 565, Lamberton Mills, Ont. Past master of his mother lodge. Past grand senior warden of grand lodge and presently member of the board of general purposes and chairman of the audit and finance committee, Grand Lodge of Canada. Life member of both St. Patrick's Chapter No. 145, R.A.M. and Cyrene Preceptory. 33° AASR in Moore Consistory, Hamilton, Ont. and Rameses Shrine Temple.


            Irving Berlin Composer. b. May 11, 1888 in Russia, the son of Moses and Leah (Lipkin) Baline, who brought him to the United States in 1893. His only education was two years in the public schools of New York City. Served in WW1 as infantry sergeant at Camp Upton, N.Y. Is president of the Irving Berlin Music Corporation. Among his most famous compositions are: Alexander's Ragtime Band, A Pretty Girl Is Like a Melody, Easter Parade, Blue Skies, 0, How I Hate to Get Tip in the Morning, White Christmas, God Bless America, All Alone, Remember, Always, Russian Lullaby, Because I Love You. On several songs he has turned over all royalties to a foundation to assist youth in "less chance" areas. He received the first three degrees of Freemasonry in Munn Lodge No. 190, New York City on May 12, May 26 and June 3, 1910, becoming a life memberof the lodge on December 12, 1935. Berlin received the 32° AASR (N.J.) on December 23, 1910 and was initiated into Mecca Shrine Temple on January 30, 1911, becoming a life member of the Shrine in December, 1936.


            Morton M. Berman Rabbi, Temple Isaiah Israel, Chicago, since 1937. b. Aug. 23, 1899 at Baltimore, Md. Degrees from Yale, Jewish Institute of Religion and studied in Palestine, France and Germany. From 1927 to 1937 was rabbi at temples in Davenport, Iowa and New York City. With 6th Marine division at Okinawa as chaplain, U.S.N.R. during WW2. Author of A Jew's View of the Crucifixion, Role of the Rabbi and other works. Mason and 32° AASR (NJ).


            Remigio Morales Bermudez (18361894) President of Peru from 189094, dying in office. Previously he was a military leader and general. Mason.


            Jean Baptiste J. Bernadotte (see Charles XIV John, King of Sweden) John Charles Bernadotte (see Charles XV, King of Sweden) David Bernard Anti-Mason. An expelled member who had received degrees up to "Intimate Secretary," and in 1829 published a pretended expose entitled Light on Masonry. The book was one of the fruits of the anti-Masonic excitement of that period. It was a worthless production, intended as a libel on the craft.


            Max Bernd-Cohen Artist, lecturer and critic. b. May 7, 1899 at Macon, Ga. Graduated from Columbia Univ. B.A. and LL.B. and studied art in Paris and Madrid. Painter of portraits, landscapes and murals. Has held one-man expositions in Madrid; Morgan Galleries, New York; Durand Ruel Galleries of New York and Paris; Boyer Galleries, Philadelphia, and Del Gado Museum at New Orleans. Among his murals have been the Florida building at Chicago Century of Progress Exposition and The Sermon on the Mount for the First Methodist Church of Canon City, Colo. Served in WW1 and with the American Red Cross in Pacific during WW2. Mason.


            Ben Bernie (1893-1943) Orchestra leader and entertainer. b. May 31, 1893 at Bayonne, N.J. He first studied engineering and later became a violin salesman but switched to vaudeville in 1910. His real name was Abramowitz and he was known to his radio audiences as the "Old Maestro." From 1914-1917 he teamed up with Phil Baker. From 1923-1928 he was an orchestra leader in New York and later in London. Bernie served as master of ceremonies on many radio shows during his day. d. Oct. 20, 1943. He was a member of Keystone Lodge No. 235, New York City.


            Armand Berquin (1750-1791) French literary man called "The Friend of the Children." Bulletin of the International Masonic Congress of 1917 lists him as a Freemason.


            Berridge, H. H. British General. Present at the consecration of Lodge of Aviation in London on Sept. 5, 1952.


            George L. Berry (1882-1948) Union official and U.S. Senator. b. Sept. 12, 1882 at Lee Valley, Tenn. Started to work at age of 9% years with the Jackson Evening News (Miss.), and held every position in printing offices of various cities including St. Louis, Omaha, Denver, San Francisco. Was president of the International Pressmen and Assistants Union of North America from 1907 until his death. Organized the movement and built the Pressmen's Home in Tennessee where he died on Dec. 4, 1948. Appointed U.S. Senator from Tenn. May 7, 1937 to fill unexpired term of Nathan L. Bachman. Private, 3rd Marines (Miss.) in Spanish-American War.; major AEF during WW1. Delegate to Britain representing A.F. of L. to British Trades Union Congress, Newport, Wales in 1912; delegate to International Economic Congress in Zurich, 1912; delegate to International Printer's Congress, Stuttgart, Germany in 1912. One of the founders of the American Legion and past national vice commander. Defeated by three votes for vice presidential nomination in 1924 and declined to have name submitted in 1928. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner. Honorary member of St. Brides Lodge of England. d. Dec. 4, 1948.


            Hiram G. Berry (1824-1863) Union Major General in Civil War. b. Aug. 27, 1824 at Thomaston (now Rockland) Maine. Learned the carpenter's trade as well as navigation. Served as mayor of Rockland and organized a company of volunteers. At beginning of Civil War he entered as a colonel of the 4th Maine Infantry and took part in the battles of Bull Run, Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, 2nd Bull Run and Chantilly. Had risen to the rank of major general when he was killed at battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863. His orders on that date were "Go in, general; throw your men into the breach; don't fire a shot—they can't see you!" Berry was junior deacon of Aurora Lodge No. 50, Rockland, Maine.


            James D. Berry, Jr. Oil producer and cattle breeder. b. March 25, 1914. An oil producer in the Penn. field since 1934. A breeder of registered Guernsey cattle, Titusville, Pa. since 1939. A director of Quaker State Oil Refining Corp. since 1940. Secretary and director of Oil City National Bank since 1945. Member of Fraternal Lodge No. 483, Rouseville, Pa.; Oil City Chapter No. 236, R.A.M. and Talbot Commandery No. 43, K.T. all of Oil City. Served as commander of his commandery. 32° AASR (SJ) at New Castle, Pa. and member of Zem Zem Shrine Temple, Erie, Pa.


            Kearie L. Berry Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. July 6, 1893 at Denton, Texas. Attended University of Texas and officer's training camp, commissioned 2nd lieutenant of infantry on Aug. 15, 1917, advancing through grades to brigadier general (Temp.) on Jan. 18, 1946. Served on Mexican Border in 1916 and during WW1 in Siberia, Philippines and Hawaii. Later in China, and back to Philippines where at outbreak of WW2 he commanded 1st Philippine division until captured at Bataan on April 9, 1942. Prisoner of war in Luzon, Formosa, Kyushu and Manchuria until Aug. 20, 1945. He was appointed adjutant general of Texas in 1947 and major general of Texas National Guard in August, 1947. Retired from regular army as brigadier general in June, 1947. Received first two degrees in Southern Cross Lodge No. 6, Manila, P.I. and 3rd in Schofield Barracks Lodge No. 443, T.H. in 1921, transferring to Fort Benning Lodge No. 579 in 1926. Received 32° AASR (SJ) in Salina, Kansas in 1946 and transferred to Austin, Tex. in 1947. Member of Ben Hur Shrine Temple, Austin, Tex. and Court 35, Royal Order of Jesters.


            Thomas M. Berry Governor of South Dakota from 1933 to 1937. Member of White River Lodge No. 181, White River, S. Dak. and received 32° AASR (SJ) in Oriental Consistory at Yankton, S. Dak. in May, 1933. d. Oct. 30, 1956.


            Clifford K. Berryman (1869-1949) Cartoonist. b. April 2, 1869 at Versailles, Ky. He was self-taught in drawing and received an honorary A.M. from George Washington Univ. in 1921. He started as a draftsman in the U.S. Patent Office in 1886 and turned to general illustrating in 1891,switching to cartooning in 1896. Was with the Washington Post from 18961907, going to the Washington Evening Star on Feb. 1, 1907 where he remained until his death. He was the originator of "Teddy Bear" and winner of the Pulitzer Prize in 1943. He is the author of Berryman's Cartoons of the 58th House (probably the only cartoonist who has cartooned every member of any one Congress). He was a past master of Temple Noyes Lodge No. 32 of Washington, D.C., a Knight Templar and Shriner. d. Dec. 11, 1949.


            William A. Berryman Vice president of Gulf Oil Corp. b. Jan. 22, 1892 at Enterprise, Va. With the Gulf interests since 1933, first in the European marketing field, then as assistant to the vice president and then vice president since 1949. He is also vice president of Gulf European Co., Gulf Exploration Co., Gulf Refining Co. and Gulf Research and Development Co. Is a director of 11 Gulf foreign oil companies. Mason.


            Paul Bert (1833-1886) French physiologist and politician. Governor general of Annam and Tonkin (1886) and author of scientific works, includ- ing Lecons d'Anatomie et de Physiologie Animales (1885). International Masonic Congress Bulletin of 1917 lists him as a Freemason.


            Bartholomew Berthold (1780-1831) Pioneer fur trader who helped lay foundation for the American Fur Company. b. in 1780 in the city of Trent, Tyrol, a province of Austria that is now part of Italy. He came to Philadelphia in 1798 and in 1809 moved to St. Louis, Mo. with a stock of goods and entered business with Rene Paul. On Dec. 27, 1809 he joined Louisiana Lodge No. 109 at St. Genevieve, Missouri's first lodge. The lodge was chartered by Pennsylvania and records show that on June 2, 1810, dues from the lodge in the amount of $32.49 were delivered to the Grand Secretary of Pennsylvania by Berthold. He withdrew from the lodge on June 9, 1812, the records noting that he had "withdrawn and removed." He was married to Pelagie, the only daughter of Major Pierre Chouteau, Sr. and in 1812 built a brick house and store building on Main St. in St. Louis—the first west of the Mississippi river. In the same year he formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Peter Chouteau, Jr. q.v. under the name of Berthold & Chouteau. To this firm they added two partners, John P. Cabanne and Bernard Pratte, Sr. This firm was later combined with the Columbia Fur Company under John Jacob Astor q.v. as the great American Fur Company. d. April 20, 1831.


            Julius Bertin Actor who played the role of "Abie" in Abie's Irish Rose on the New York stage. He was a member of St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, and Corinthian Chapter No. 159, R.A.M. of New York City. d. Oct. 3, 1945.


            Abbe Bertolio French Roman Catholic abbe who was a member of the Lodge Social Contract of the Grand Orient of France and the first master of the adoptive lodge (for both sexes) formed by that lodge. His co-officer in the adoptive lodge was Princess Lamballe q.v., who served as the first Grand Mistress when the lodge was formed in 1780.


            Francisco Bertrand President of Honduras from 1913-15 and again from 1916-20. Was initiated in the Lodge Francisco Morazan.


            Antonio Luis Berutti (1772-1846) Argentine patriot who as a colonel distinguished himself in many military engagements and became successively, governor of the province of Santa Fe and Tucuman and minister of war after the formation of the new country. Mason.


            Jons Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) Swedish chemist and baron. Taught medicine, pharmacy and chemistry at Stockholm from 1807. Created a baron in 1835 because of scientific achievements. He determined the atomic and molecular weights of many substances, using oxygen as a standard. He discovered the elements selenium, cerium and thorium and first isolated columbium and silicon. He was initiated in 1805 in St. John's Lodge St. Erik, at Stockholm.


            Sir Walter Besant (1836-1901) English novelist. Educated in King's College, London and Christ's College, Cambridge. Was co-author with James Rice of a series of novels including Ready-Money Mortiboy (1872) and The Seamy Side (1881). Sole author of All Sorts and Conditions of Men (1882) and Children of Gibeon (1886). He was raised in Mauritius Lodge in 1862 and became master of Marquis of Dalhousie Lodge No. 1159, London, in 1873. He conceived the idea of establishing a lodge of research and as a result became one of the founders of the famous Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 of London, serving as its treasurer at one time. d. Hempstead, England, June 10, 1901.


            Dale P. Bessire Artist. b. May 14, 1892 at Columbus, Ohio. His paintings represented in the Indiana building at Chicago Century of Progress; Gary, Lafayette and Indianapolis public schools; Muncie Indiana Art Assoc.; Ball collection of Indiana Univ.; public library at Bedford; DePauw Univ.; and others. His works have won numerous art awards through the years. Raised in Nashville Lodge No. 135, Nashville, Ind., Sept. 1, 1917.


            William N. Best Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. July 14, 1887 at Los Angeles, Calif. Served in WW1 as 2nd lieutenant Marines and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1946. Service included United States, Haiti, Hawaii, Santo Domingo, China, Nicaragua, Philippines, Cuba and at sea with fleet. He retired Dec. 1, 1946. Mason.


            William T. Best (1826-1897) Famous English organist who edited the works of Handel and Bach and was a composer of anthems and fugues. Mason.


            James A. Bethea Major General, Army Medical Corps. b. Oct. 30, 1887 in Marion Co., S.C. Received M.D. degree from Tulane Univ. in 1913 and graduated from Army Medical School in 1917. A director of the 4th Division Field Hospital in WW1, rising through the grades to major general in 1948. Now chief surgeon of Far East Command, Tokyo, Japan. Mason.


            Edwin S. Bettelheim, Jr. b. April 11, 1887 at New York City. B.S., Columbia Univ. 1911, LL.B. George Washington Univ. 1924, LL.M., 1925, A.B., 1926, A.M., 1927. Graduate of Command and General Staff School, 1938. Served in Mexican Border conflict and WW1 in field artillery, rising to colonel. He became assistant chief of staff of the military district of Washington and military analyst of the U.S. Dept. of State as well as biographer of the Inter-American Military Association. Has been adjutant general and executive officer of the Order of World Wars since 1931. Headed expedition in 1929 to northern Russia to search for and return the bodies of Americans lost in the Polar Bear Campaign. A past president of the National Sojourners and past commander of the Heroes of '76 (both Masonic military organizations). Past grand master of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. Shriner and Knight Templar.


            Jackson E. Betts Congressman from 8th Dist. of Ohio in 82nd, 83rd and 84th Congresses (1951-1957). b. May 26, 1904 at Findlay, Ohio. Law-yer, member of General Assembly of Ohio from 1937-47, serving as house speaker in 1945-46. Member of the Judicial Council of Ohio, 1941-45. Raised in Findlay Lodge No. 227, Findlay, Ohio in 1931. Member of Findlay Chapter No. 58, R.A.M. and Findlay Council No. 50 R. & S.M. 32° AASR (NJ) in Toledo.


            James A. Betts (1853-1928) Justice, Supreme Court of New York, 1898-1912, 3rd judicial district and associate justice of the appellate division, 1910-12. b. March 18, 1853 at Broadalbin, N.Y. After serving as a school principal for two years, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1880, practicing at Kingston. Mason.


            Frank A. Beu Educator and president of Western Illinois State Teachers College at Macomb, Ill., since 1942. b. Sept. 2, 1898 at Huntley, Ill. B.A. and M.A. degrees from Northwestern Univ. and Ph.D. from Univ. of Chicago. Taught and served as administrator in Illinois public schools and in 1928 became professor of education at Eastern Illinois State Teachers' College, serving until 1933 when he became dean. Raised in Hebron Lodge No. 604, Hebron, Ill. Received 32° at Quincy, Ill. in 1947. Member of O.E.S. in Hebron.


            Pierre de Reil, Marquis of Beurnonville (1752-1821) Marshal of France. He served as minister of war in 1793, ambassador to Berlin in 1800, ambassador to Madrid in 1802. In 1814 he supported Louis XVIII and was named marshal in 1816. He was a zealous Freemason and became grand master "adjoint" in the Grand Orient of France.


            Albert P. Beutel Business executive. b. Nov. 13, 1892 at Cleveland, Ohio. Started with Dow Chemical Co. in 1914 as draftsman. General manager of the Texas division of Dow


91 Thomas D. Beven Chemical Co. at Freeport, Texas since 1940; director and assistant secretary of Dow Chemical Co.; president and director of Dowell, Inc., Midland, Mich.; vice president and director of Dow Magnesium Corp. Mason.


            Thomas D. Beven President and director of Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway Co. since 1946. b. Dec. 23, 1898 at New Orleans, La. Started with the Central and Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway companies in 1912. Served in U.S. Marine Corps in WW1. Mason and Shriner.


            Albert J. Beveridge (1862-1927) U.S. Senator and historian. b. in Highland Co., Ohio. Served as member of U.S. Senate from Indiana from 18991911 and was a supporter of Theodore Roosevelt and his policies. He was the author of The Life of John Marshall (2 vols., 1916, 1919). Member of Oriental Lodge No. 500, Indianapolis, Ind.


            Frank Stanley Beveridge (18791956) Founder of Stanley Home Products, Inc. b. April 17, 1879 at Yarmouth, N.S. From 1904-09 he was a photographers' representative. Became associated with the Fuller Brush Company in 1913 and rose to vice president in charge of sales from 1921-29. From 1929-31 he was associate sales manager of Real Silk Hosiery Mills, founding the Stanley Home Products, Inc. in 1931, serving as president until 1950 when he became chairman of the board. Received a citation from Pope Pius XII in 1949. Member of Port Byron Lodge No. 130, New York.


            James R. Beverley Governor of Puerto Rico 1932-33. b. June 15, 1894 at Amarillo, Tex. A.B., A.M. and LL.B. from Univ. of Texas and honorary LL.D. from Polytechnic Institute of Puerto Rico. Practiced law in Corpus Christi. Special adviser to Public Service Commission of Puerto Rico from 1925-27; assistant attorney general 1927-28 and attorney general, 1928-32. Acting governor of Puerto Rico various times. Served as officer in field artillery during WW1 and lieutenant commander, U.S. Coast Guard Reserve in WW2. Mason.


            Howard L. Bevis Chairman of the President's Committee on Scientists and Engineers from 1956. b. Nov. 19, 1885 at Bevis, Ohio. A.B. and LL.B. from Univ. of Cincinnati; S.J.D. and LL.D. from Harvard. Practiced law from 1910-18. Served as director of finance of Ohio from 1931-33; judge of Ohio Supreme Court, 1933-35; professor of law and government at Harvard, 1935-40 and president of Ohio State Univ. from 1940-56. Raised in McMakin Lodge No. 120, Mt. Healthy, Ohio in 1911 and served as master of same in 1916. York rite memberships in Cincinnati and Columbus. Received AASR (N.J.) in 1921 and 33° in 1942. Member of Syrian Shrine Temple, Cincinnati.


            Raymond H. Beyer Engineer and designer. b. Dec. 11, 1902 at South Bend, Ind. An engineer and designer since 1920. Built and flew first airplane in Indiana; designer of amphibian plane in 1920, helicopter in 1943. Has been associated with Dodge Mfg. Corp., Westinghouse, U.S. Airlines, Bendix Aviation, Rockne Motors, Chevrolet Motors, Glen L. Martin, Emerson Electric, South Bend Bait Co., National Pressure Cooker, AC Spark Plug. With Armour Research Foundation since 1950. Mason.


            Francois Louis de Beyerle French Masonic writer and member of the French Constitutional Convention of 1792. He was a leading member of the Rite of Strict Observance in which his adopted name was Eques a Fiore. He wrote a criticism on the Masonic Congress of Wilhelmsbad and translated Frederic Nicolai's essay on the Templars.


            Osborne Bezanson Vice president and director of Monsanto Chemical Company since 1942. b. Nov. 10, 1888 at Woburn, Mass. Started as chemist with Merrimac Chemical Co. of Woburn, Mass. in 1906 and became vice president in 1930. When Monsanto liquidated Merrimac in 1935 he became assistant vice president of the Everett division. Has served as general manager of the Texas division and the organic chemicals division and a member of the Monsanto executive committee since 1948. Mason.


            George M. Bibb (1776-1859) Secretary of Treasury under President Tyler (1844-45). b. Oct. 30, 1776 in Prince Edward Co., Va. He served two terms as U.S. Senator from Kentucky-1811-14 and 1829-35. He was the first master of Russellville Lodge No. 17, Russellville, Ky. and was master of Hiram Lodge No. 4, Frankfort, Ky. He was also past master of Lexington Lodge No. 1 at Lexington, and served as secretary in 1804. In 1804 he was grand master of Kentucky. Past high priest of Frankfort Chapter No. 3, Frankfort, Ky. and was adjunct professor of ancient languages in the primary department of the Masonic College of Kentucky. d. April 14, 1859 at Georgetown, D.C.


            Thomas Bibb Governor of Alabama (1820-21). He succeeded his father (Wm. W.) as governor when the latter died in office. Member of George Lodge No. 32, Warminster, Va.


            Joseph H. Biben Newspaper publisher. b. Oct. 27, 1900 at Kiev, Russia and came to United States in 1902. Editor and publisher of the Jewish Ledger publications; in Rochester, N.Y. since 1928, in Washington, D.C. since 1930, in Albany, N.Y. since 1931, in Syracuse, N.Y. since 1932. Publisher of the American Hebrew in New York since 1936. Mason.


            Dana X. Bible Athletic director, Univ. of Texas since 1947. b. Oct. 8, 1891 at Jefferson City, Tenn. An athletic director since 1912 with Brandon Training School (Tenn.), Mississippi College, Louisiana State Univ., Texas A. & M. College, Univ. of Nebraska. With University of Texas as football coach from 1937-47. Served with the A.E.F. in WW1 as a pursuit pilot. Author of Championship Football, A Guide for Coach, Player and Fan. Member of the National Football Rules Committee and past president of American Football Coaches Association. Member of Mossy Creek Lodge No. 353, Jefferson City, Tenn.; Jefferson Chapter No. 81, R.A.M., Jefferson City, Tenn.; Lincoln Council No. 4 R. & S.M. and Mt. Moriah Commandery, K.T. both of Lincoln, Nebr. Member of Ben Hur Shrine Temple, Austin, Texas.


            Thomas W. Bickett (1869-1921) Governor of North Carolina 1917-21. b. Feb. 28, 1869 at Monroe, N.C. Graduated from Wake Forest College (N.C.) and studied law at Univ. of North Carolina, practicing at Monroe and later Danbury. Member of state house of representatives in 1907-08 and attorney general of N.C. 1906-16. He was raised in Louisburg Lodge No. 413, Louisburg, N.C. on Oct. 2, 1901, demitting to William G. Hill Lodge No. 218 at Raleigh in 1921. In 1917 he was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. d. Dec. 28, 1921.


            Edward Biddle Delegate to first Continental Congress in 1774. Raised in Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia, Pa. March 29, 1763.


            Benjamin A. Bidlack (1804-1849) American diplomat. b. at Paris, N.Y. U.S. charge d'affaires in New Granada (Colombia) and negotiated a treaty with that country in 1846 for U.S. right-of-way across the Isthmus of Panama. Raised in Lodge No. 61, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. on May 1, 1826.


            John Bidwell (1819-1900) California pioneer and politician. b. Aug. 5, 1819 in Chautauqua Co., N.Y. Taught school in Pennsylvania and Missouri and in 1841 emigrated to California, being one of the first to make the hazardous journey overland. He served in the Mexican War with Fremont's Battalion and became the state's first great agriculturist, owning an immense estate of several thousand acres. Gov. Leland Stanford q.v. commissioned him brigadier general of California Militia, and he later was made a regent of the Univ. of Calif. In 1849 he was a member of the state constitutional convention and the same year became state senator. Representative to U.S. Congress from California 1865-67. He was raised in San Jose Lodge No. 10 in 1851 and later affiliated with Chico Lodge No. 111.


            Marshall S. Bidwell Organist. b. Dec. 24, 1893 at Great Barrington, Mass. Studied music at New England Conservatory, Fontainebleau, France, Coe College (Ia.), Univ. of Pittsburgh. Served as organist of several large churches and from 1919-32 was organist and director of music at Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Ia. Has been organist and director of music of Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. since 1932. Raised in Mt. Herman Lodge No. 263, Cedar Rapids, Ia. in 1926. Member of Scottish Rite in Cedar Rapids.


            Baron Jacob Frederick Bielfeld (1717-1770) German merchant. b. March 31, 1717. d. April 5, 1770. He was one of the founders of the Lodge of the Three Globes in Berlin.


            Daniel L. Biemesderfer President, State Teachers College, Millersville, Pa. since 1943. b. Jan. 19, 1894 at Kissel Hill, Pa. Teacher and schoolprincipal in Pennsylvania from 19111943. Member of Charles M. Howell Lodge No. 496, Millersville, Pa., and past master of same. 32° AASR (NJ) at Harrisburg, Pa. and member of Zembo Shrine Temple, Harrisburg.


            Lucius V. Bierce Led an expedition into Canada in 1838 to "save" the Canadians from the "Crown." He headed an abortive attempt to raid Windsor, Canada from Detroit with a rabble of 200 men. The raid was easily repulsed. Bierce was grand master of Ohio in 1854. Raised in Unity Lodge No. 12, Ravenna, Ohio on Oct. 12, 1826 and demitted to Akron Lodge No. 83 as charter member on Oct. 1, 1841, serving that lodge as master a number of times.


            Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902) American landscape painter of the Hudson River school. b. in Solingen, Germany and came to the United States in 1831. His paintings include Sunshine and Shadow, Rocky Mountains, Valley of the Yosemite. His historical works include Discovery of the Hudson River, Settlement of Cali- fornia, and Entrance into Monterey. Bierstadt was a member of Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City.


            Leslie L. Biffle Secretary of the U.S. Senate, 1945-47. b. Oct. 9, 1889 at Boydsville, Ark. Secretary of the majority, U.S. Senate from 1933-45; executive director of Democratic Policy Committee, U.S. Senate, 1947-49. Member of American Battle Monument Commission, 1941-45. Member of Piggott Lodge No. 545, Piggott, Ark.


            Horace F. Bigelow Admiral of the U. S. Navy. Made a Shriner at a ceremonial in Tokyo, Japan in November, 1956.


            Timothy Bigelow (1767-1821) Massachusetts lawyer and politician. b. April 30, 1767 at Worcester, Mass. He was the son of Timothy Bigelow, Revolutionary War patriot. Graduated from Harvard in 1786, studied law and practiced at Groton, Mass. from 1789-1807, when he moved to Medford and opened a law office in Boston. He was an active Federalist and was elected to the legislature in 1790, serving there 20 years, eleven of which he was speaker of the house. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts two terms, 1806-08 and 1811-13. It is said that in the course of his 32 years practice he argued 15,000 cases. d. May 18, 1821.


            George C. Biggers President of the Atlanta Journal since 1946. b. Jan. 24, 1893 at Louisville, Ky. Began journalism career with the Louisville Herald in 1910 and subsequently with the Indianapolis Star, The Courier-Journal, Louisville Times, Birmingham Age-Herald, Atlanta Georgian, Atlanta Constitution, and Birmingham News. Went to the Atlanta Journal as business manager in 1934; vice president and general manager in 1939 and president since 1946. Mason.


            Benjamin T. Biggs (1821-?) Governor of Delaware in 1887-91. b. Oct. 1, 1821 at Summit Bridge, Del. Congressman from Delaware 1860-71. Member of state constitutional convention of 1852. Member of Union Lodge No. 5, Middletown, Del.


            Burton B. Biggs Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. July 3, 1898 at Elliott, W. Va. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy in 1921. Ensign with Navy June 5, 1920 and advanced through grades to rear admiral, May 1, 1948. Mason and member of Scottish Rite.


            John Bigler (1804-1871) Governor of California. b. Jan. 8, 1804 in Cumberland Co., Pa. Learning the printer's trade, he became a journalist and afterwards a lawyer, moving to Illinois in 1846. In 1849 he emigrated to California and there became a prominent Democratic politician, gaining the name "Honest John Bigler." From 1852-1856 he was governor of the state. His brother, William, was governor of Pennsylvania at the same time. Bigler was initiated in Pacific Lodge, Long's Bar, Butte Co., Calif. in 1850 and later a member of Tehama Lodge No. 3, Sacramento and Washington Lodge No. 20, Sacramento.


            Louis Pierre Edouard Bignon (17711841) French statesman and historian. Designated by Napoleon in his will to write the history of France from time of Consulate, he produced Historie de France depuis le 18-Brumaire jusque'en 1812. (1829-38) A Freemason.


            Theodore G. Bilbo (1877-1947) U.S. Senator and Governor of Mississippi. b. Oct. 13, 1877 at Juniper Grove, Miss. Attended Univ. of Nashville, Vanderbilt Univ. and Univ. of Michigan. Taught school for six years and admitted to bar in 1908. Member of Miss. state senate, 1908-12, lieutenant governor of Miss. 1912-16. Twice governor of Miss. 1916-20 and 1928-32, elected three terms as U.S. Senator from Miss., 1935, 1941, 1947. He was raised April 17, 1899 in Claiborn Lodge No. 293 at Nashville, Tenn. and affiliated with Sherrard Byrd Lodge No. 353 at Poplarville, Miss. Received AASR 32° in Hattiesburg, Miss. in 1925 and was suspended NPD in 1929 from those bodies. d. Aug. 21, 1947.


            W. Chester Billings (1872-1939) Senior surgeon and medical director of U.S. Public Health Service. b. April 15, 1872 at Hartford, Conn. Received M.D. from Harvard in 1894 and after private practice in Springfield, Mass. of four years entered U.S. Public Health Service as surgeon. Was senior surgeon from 1929 and medical director from 1930-33, serving in 19 different stations including chief medical officer at Angel Island, Calif. and Ellis Island and chief surgeon of U.S. Coast Guard and medical adviser to American Consulates in Liverpool and London. Mason. d. Aug. 16, 1939.


            Clayton 0. Billow (1860-1945) Pioneer in burning oil for industrial use. b. June 14, 1860 at Shelby, Ohio. Carried on experiments with crude oil for fuel for the Champion City Oil Co. from 1884-88 and was general western manager of Pasteur-Chamberlain Filter Co. in 1888, later organizing the National Supply Co. for furnaces, forges, kilns, etc. for oil burning. Inventor of many appliances incidental to oil burning. Knight Templar, 33° AASR, Grand Sovereign, Grand Imperial Council of the Red Cross of Constantine (1938-39). Decorated Knight Grand Cross, 1938. d. March 19, 1945.


            Thomas H. Binford Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Aug. 25, 1896, at Durant, Miss. Graduate Naval Academy in 1919, advancing through grades to vice admiral in 1954. In 1942 he commanded the destroyer division of the Asiatic Fleet and participated in entire Java Sea campaign. He commanded the cruiser U.S.S. Miami and participated in first strikes on Tokyo and raids on Chichi Jima, Iwo Jima, Kyushu, Okinawa. Commanded cruiser division one of Pacific Fleet from 1949. Assisted in establishing Enlisted WAVE program of Navy. Retired. Mason.


            George Bingaman Judge, Supreme Court of Oklahoma. b. Sept. 15, 1904 at Princeton, Kansas. Admitted to Oklahoma bar in 1928 and practiced law in Purcell, Okla. from 1929-50. Has been judge of Supreme Court of Oklahoma since 1951. Raised in Purcell Lodge No. 27, Purcell, Okla. on Dec. 15, 1925 and has served as master and secretary of same. Member Purcell Chapter No. 10, R.A.M. and Norman Council, R. & S.M. of Norman, Okla. 33° AASR (SJ) in Guthrie Consistory. Member of India Shrine Temple, Oklahoma City and DeMolay Legion of Honor.


            Malcolm W. Bingay (1884-1953) Newspaper editor and Pulitzer Prize winner. b. Dec. 16, 1884 at Sandwich, Ont., Canada and was brought to United States in infancy. Began at 17 as reporter for Detroit News, rising as sports editor, city editor, managing editor and in charge of the London Bureau of the News. Became editor of the Detroit Free Press in May 1930, serving until his death. Author of Detroit Is My Own Home Town (1946) and Of Me I Sing (1949). He became a member of City of the Straits Lodge No. 452, Detroit, June 19, 1920 and successively joined Peninsular Chapter No. 16, R.A.M. Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T. and Scottish Rite, being coroneted a 33° Sept. 15, 1925. He was known to Masonic readers for his series of brilliant word sketches on English Freemasonry. d. Aug. 21, 1953.


            Hiram Bingham Governor and Senator from Connecticut, explorer and aviator. b. Nov. 19, 1875 at Honolulu, T.H. His father and grandfather (both named Hiram) were missionaries. His grandfather reduced the Hawaiian language to writing and his father, a missionary to Gilbert Islands, did the same for the Gilbert language. Holds degrees of A.B., M.A., Ph.D. and Litt.D. Taught in Harvard, Yale, Princeton and Johns Hopkins Universities. Explored Bolivar's route across Venezuela and Colombia in 1906-07, the Spanish trade route from Buenos Aires to Lima, 1908-09 and the Inca ruins in Peru, 1911-15. Served as lieutenant governor of Connecticut, 1923-24 and governor, 1924, resigning in 1925 to become U.S. Senator and serving until 1933. Chief of Air Personnel Division at Washington 1917-18. A member of both Scottish and York rite bodies as well as the Shrine. Has written on Masonic subjects. Chief writings are on exploration, his latest being Lost City of the Incas. (1948) Robert Bingham (1838-1927) Educator. b. Sept. 5, 1838 at Hillsboro, N.C. Captain in 44th N.C. troops, Army of Northern Virginia, C.S.A. Surrendered with General Lee. Was superintendent of the Bingham School (which his grandfather founded in 1793) from 1873-1920. Grand Master of North Carolina 1883-85.


            Robert W. Bingham (1871-1937) U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain from 1933-37. b. Nov. 8, 1871 in Orange Co., S.C. Degrees from universities of North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky and Louisville. Publisher of both the Louisville Courier-Journal and Times. He was past master of Falls City Lodge No. 376 of Louisville and a member of York and Scottish Rites as well as the rank of KCCH. At a meeting of the Grand Lodge of England, in the presence of the King and 8,000 Masons, he was created a past senior grand warden of that grand lodge. d. Dec. 18, 1937.


            Claude V. Birkhead (1880-1950) Lawyer and Major General (NGUS). b. May 27, 1880 at Phoenix, Oreg. Practiced law at San Antonio from 1904, serving as district judge and city attorney. He was special attorney appointed by the Texas legislature to represent the state's coastal land claims before Congress in 1939. In WW1 he served as a colonel with the 131st Field Artillery in France and as chief of staff of Texas 36th division national guard. He was elevated to brigadier general in 1923 and major general, commanding the 36th division in 1936; commanding general of Camp Bowie, Texas 1940-41; commanding general Internal Security Forces, 3rd Service Command, 1942, retiring fromactive service that year. Mason and Knight Templar. d. Nov. 19, 1950.


            Leon M. Birkhead Clergyman, author. b. April 28, 1885 at Winfield, Mo. Served as minister of Methodist churches in New York City and St. Louis and Unitarian churches in Wichita, Kansas and Kansas City, Mo. In 1937 he founded "Friends of Democracy" and has been national director since. He was technical advisor to Sinclair Lewis during his writing of Elmer Gantry (1926-27). He has written numerous "Little Blue Books" including Is Elmer Gantry True?, Religious Bunk Over the Radio, Can Man Know God, President Hoover and Quakerism, and The Religion of a Free Man. Mason.


            Matthew Birkhead English singer, composer and actor who wrote the Enter'd 'Prentice's Song first printed in Read's Weekly Journal in 1722. It was immortalized by being printed in the first Book of Constitutions after his death in 1723. He was not only a composer, but a singer and actor at the famous Drury Lane Theater in London. Mackey says he was master of Lodge V at the time Anderson was preparing his constitutions. d. December, 1722.


            Ormand N. Birkland President of S. H. Kress & Co. b. July 26, 1890 at Chicago, Ill. Started with S. H. Kress & Co. in 1916 as a stockman in the Little Rock, Ark. store and rose to presidency in 1948. Served in WW1. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.


            Hammond D. Birks Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 5, 1896 at Chicago, Ill. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1917 and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1945. Served with the AEF in WW1. In WW2 he was commander of the 120th Infantry Combat Team of the 30th Division and assistant division commander of 9th Infantry Division, participating in battle of Mortain and other important engagements of European Theater. Mason.


            David B. Birney (1825-1864) Union Major General of Civil War. b. May 29, 1825 at Huntsville, Ala. Studied law in Cincinnati and after engaging in business in Michigan, began practice of law in Philadelphia in 1848. Entered army as lieutenant colonel at beginning of war and was made colonel of the 23rd Pennsylvania volunteers, which he raised principally at his own expense in 1861. Distinguished himself in battles of Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. At death of General Berry he commanded the division, and was commissioned major general May 23, 1863. He commanded the 3rd Corps at Gettysburg and later the 10th Corps. Died of disease contracted in the service on Oct. 18, 1864 at Philadelphia. He was initiated in Franklin Lodge No. 134 of Philadelphia on Oct. 31, 1850.


            Hoffman Birney Writer of fiction, juvenile, historical and biographical books. b. April 1, 1891 at Philadelphia, Pa. Among his books are: King of the Mesa, The Masked Rider, Steel-dust, Vigilantes, The Canyon of Lost Waters, Roads to Roam, The Pinto Pony, Zealots of Zion, Two Little Navajos, Kudiu, the Eskimo Boy, Barrier Ranch, Forgotten Canon, Eagle in the Sun, Mountain Chief, Ann Carmeny, Brothers of Doom. Mason.


            Eben F. Bishop (1863-1943) Sugar executive. b. Oct. 27, 1863 at Naperville, Ill. Started with C. Brewer & Co., sugar factors at Honolulu, TH in 1883. Was chairman of the board and director of Hilo Sugar Co., Onomea Sugar Co., Pepeekeo Sugar Co., Honomu Sugar Co., Waimanalo Sugar Co., and Matson Navigation Co. Trustee of the B. P. Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology. Mason. d. Feb. 11, 1943.


            George T. Bishop (1864-1940) Financier. b. Ravenna, Ohio, Oct. 11, 1864. A director of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Sherwin-Williams Co., Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. Mason. d. Aug. 24, 1940.


            Sir Henry Rowley Bishop (17861855) English composer who introduced the air of Home Sweet Home and was first musician to be knighted (1842). He composed operas, burlettas and incidental music to Shakespeare's plays. Mason.


            Herbert P. Bissell (1856-1919) Justice of Supreme Court of New York 1912-19. b. Aug. 30, 1856 at New London, N.Y. Graduated at Harvard, 1880 and practiced law in Buffalo. Mason. d. April 30, 1919.


            Andrew G. Bisset Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Oct. 4, 1893 at Washington. Entered Navy in 1917 and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1947 and retired in July, 1950 as vice admiral. Was treaty engineer to Republic of Haiti, 1924-28, officer in charge of construction, U.S. Naval Academy 1936-39, Portsmouth, N.H. and Norfolk, Va. navy yards 1939-41. Commanded Seabees in South Pacific and Okinawa operations WW2. Member of William R. Singleton Lodge No. 30 (1922) and William R. Singleton Chapter No. 14, R.A.M. both of Washington, D.C.


            Van A. Bittner (1885-1949) Labor official. b. Mar. 20, 1885 at Bridgeport, Pa. A labor representative since 1908, representing the United Mine Workers of America from 1908-42 and steelworkers from formation in 1936 until meeting of constitutional convention in 1942, when it became United Steelworkers of America, C.I.O. At death on July 20, 1949 he was vice president and national director of the C.I.O. Organizing Committee. Served as labor representative on National War Labor Board in 1943. Mason.


            William B. Bizzell (1876-1944) University president. b. Oct. 14, 1876 at Independence, Texas. Held degrees from Baylor Univ., College of Law, Chicago, Univ. of Chicago, and Columbia. Was superintendent of public schools in Navasota, Texas 1900-10, president of College of Industrial Arts, at Denton 1910-14, president of Texas A. & M. 1914-25 and president of the Univ. of Oklahoma, 1925-41. From 1941 until his death on May 13, 1944, he was president emeritus of Univ. of Oklahoma. Author of several books including Judicial Interpretation of Political Theory, Teaching of the Jewish Prophets, Farm Tenantry in the United States, and The Green Rising. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.


            Sveinn Bjornsson First president of Iceland. He was one of the founders of Edda Lodge in Reykjavik on Jan. 6, 1919 under the authority of the National Grand Lodge of Denmark. At that time he had the 6th degree of the 11-degree Denmark system. At the time of his death on Jan. 25, 1952 he had received the highest degree and was grand master of Icelandic Freemasonry. The Sovereign Grand Jurisdiction of Iceland was constituted on July 23, 1951.


            Alfred W. Bjornstad (1874-1934) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Oct. 13, 1874 at St. Paul, Minn. Served as captain in the Spanish-American War. Promoted through grades to brigadier general in Jan. 1925. Engaged in 34 battles and actions in Philippines 1898-1904. Later on duty with general staff, military attache, instructor at army schools. At beginning of WW2 he directed the 16 training camps for officers which produced the original 25,341 officers of WW2. He organized and directed the Army General Staff College in France in 1919. Commanded the 13th brigade in France and participated in all major engagements. Retired Aug. 21, 1928. Mason. d. Nov. 4, 1934.


            Frank S. Black (1853-1913) Governor of New York. b. March 8, 1853 at Limington, Maine. While reading law he was part time editor of the Johnstown Journal (N.Y.) and later a reporter on the Troy Whig. Admitted to the bar in 1879, he practiced in Troy until 1898 when he moved to New York City. Served his district in the 54th Congress (1895-97) and was governor of New York from 189799. He was raised in King Solomon's Primitive Lodge No. 91 of Troy and later affiliated with Roman Lodge No. 223 at Rome. d. March 21, 1913.


            Hugo La Fayette Black U.S. Supreme Court Justice. b. Feb. 27, 1886 at Harlan, Ala. Received LL.B. from Univ. of Alabama in 1906 and began practice in Birmingham the next year. Served as police judge and prosecuting attorney and in general practice until 1927 when he was elected U.S. Senator from Alabama for two terms (1927-37). Nominated associate justice of the supreme court by Franklin D. Roosevelt Aug. 12, 1937, confirmed Aug. 17 and took his seat Oct. 4. Black was raised in Ashland Lodge No. 356, Ashland, Ala. in 1909 and later became life member of Birmingham Temple Lodge No. 636, Birmingham, Ala. He is a 32° AASR (SJ) member, Knight Templar and Shriner.


            James D. Black (1849-1938) Governor of Kentucky. b. Sept. 24, 1849 in Knox Co., Ky. Member of Kentucky lower house 1876-77. Elected governor of Kentucky in 1915 for term of 1916-17 inclusive and again served as governor from May to Dec., 1919. President of Union College, Barbourville, Ky., 1910-12. Was grand master of Grand Lodge of Kentucky in 1888-89. d. Aug. 5, 1938.


            John Black Early U. S. Senator from Mississippi. Member of Rising Virtue Lodge No. 7.


            John C. Black (1839-1915) Union Brigadier General in Civil War. b. Jan. 27, 1839 at Lexington, Miss. Received A.M. and LL.D. from Knox College. Entered service as private and advanced to brigadier general "for gallant services in assault on Ft. Blakely, Ala." Awarded medal of honor for Battle of Prairie Grove, Ark. in which he was severely wounded. Admitted to Illinois bar in 1867 and practiced at Danville until his death on Aug. 17, 1915. Was U.S. Commissioner of Pensions 1885-89 and member of the 53rd Congress from Ill. at large (1893-95), president of the U.S. Civil Service Commission 1904-13. Commander-in-chief of the G.A.R. in 1903-04. Member of Olive Branch Lodge No. 38, Danville, Ill. and grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1894 and again in 1895.


            Lloyd L. Black Federal Judge. b. March 15, 1889 at Leavenworth, Kans. Received A.B. (cum laude) and LL.B. from Univ. of Washington and admitted to Washington bar in 1911. Associated with father in firm Black & Black 1913-32, served as prosecuting attorney, attorney for Port of Everett and special counsel for City of Everett as well as judge of superior court. Was appointed U.S. Judge for Western District of Washington in 1949 and Eastern and Western Districts in 1940. Mason.


            Samuel W. Black Governor of Nebraska, 1859-61. In 1849 he was a member of St. John's Lodge No. 219, Pittsburgh, Pa.


            S. Rexford Black Lumber executive. b. April 30, 1894 at Flint, Mich. Chairman of board of C. D. Johnson Lumber Corp., president of Springfield Plywood Corp., Acme Door Corp., and Whatcom Timber Co. Mason and Shriner.


            Joseph C. S. Blackburn (1838-1918) U.S. Senator from Kentucky. b. Oct. 1, 1838 in Woodford Co., Ky. A.B. and LL.D. from Centre College, (Ky.). First practiced law in Chicago. After serving in Confederate forces during Civil War resumed his practice in Kentucky. Member of house of representatives (Ky.) 1871-75; member of 44th to 48th Congresses (1875-85); and U.S. Senator, 1885-97 and again from 1901-07. Member of Isthmian Canal Commission and head of department of civil administration, Canal zone, 1907-09. Mason, Knight Templar. d. Sept. 12, 1918.


            Luke P. Blackburn (1816-1887) Governor of Kentucky in 1879. Member of Landmark Lodge No. 41, Versailles, Ky. and Webb Chapter, R.A.M. No. 6 of same city.


            Robert Blackburn (1870-1935) Congressman from Kentucky. b. April 9, 1870 in Este11 Co., Ky. Traveling salesman, merchant, insurance and stock brokerage business in Stanton, Ky. and later Lexington. Served in Spanish American War. Member of Kentucky lower house in 1904-05. Elected to 71st Congress (1929-31). Mason. d. Sept. 20, 1935.


            Isaac N. Blackford (1786-1859) Jurist. b. Nov. 6, 1786 at Bound Brook, N.J. Graduated from Princeton, 1806 and moved to Indiana in 1812 and settled in Vincennes. Clerk of the territorial legislature in 1813 and judge of the first judicial circuit in 1814-15. He was speaker of the first state legislature in 1816 and judge of the supreme court of Indiana from 1819-35. From March, 1855 until his death on Nov. 6, 1786 he was judge of the U.S. Court of Claims in Washington. Member of Harmony Lodge No. 11 at Brookville, Ind.


            Samuel H. Blackmer (1902-1951) Supreme Court Justice, Vermont. b. March 2, 1902 at Bennington, Vt. A.B. from Yale and LL.B. from Harvard. Elected one term to Vermont lower house, served as states attorney, municipal judge and superior judge, being appointed associate justice of Vermont Supreme Court in 1949. Raised in Mount Anthony Lodge No. 13 on Dec. 25, 1923, serving as junior warden in 1932-33; member of Temple Chapter No. 8, RA.M., Bennington Council No. 3, R. & S.M.; Taft Commandery No. 8, K.T., all of Bennington, Vt. Member of Vermont Consistory, Burlington, Vt. and received 33° AASR (NJ). Member of Cairo Shrine Temple of Rutland, Vt.


            William W. Blackney Congressman from Michigan. b. Aug. 28, 1876 at Clio, Mich. Law degree, Univ. of Michigan, 1912. Member of 74th and 76th to 81st Congresses (1936-37, 193951). Mason and 32° AASR.


            J. Stuart Blackton (1875-1941) Pioneer motion picture producer. b. Jan. 5, 1875 at Sheffield, Eng., coming to the United States in 1886. Started as newspaper writer and artist and entered the motion picture industry in 1896. Associated with Albert E. Smith, 1900 in organizing the Vitagraph Co.—first to make screen plays—of which he was vice president. In 1910 he founded Motion Picture Magazine. In 1915 he organized the Motion Picture Board of Trade of America and was its first president. He produced The Christian, Island of Regeneration, Battle Cry of Peace, The Glorious Adventure (in color), The Clean Heart, The Happy Warrior and Bride of the Storm. Member of Centennial Lodge No. 763, New York City. d. Aug., 1941.


            Ibra C. Blackwood (1878-1936) Governor of South Carolina. b. Nov. 21, 1878 at Blackwood, S.C. Admitted to bar in 1902 and practiced at Spartanburg, S.C. Member of house of representatives 1903-05, solicitor 7th Judicial Circuit, 1916-31 and governorof South Carolina 1931-35. Raised in Spartan Lodge No. 70, Spartanburg, S.C. on Aug. 20, 1903. Past grand master of Grand Lodge of S.C. d. Feb. 12, 1936.


            Norman J. Blackwood (1866-1938) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Jan. 3, 1866 at Philadelphia, Pa. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy and received M.D. from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia in 1888. Entered navy in 1890 and advanced through grades to rear admiral Oct. 10, 1929. Served in Spanish-American War, Cuban Insurrection, WW1. Commanded naval hospitals in the Philippines and U.S. and the ships U.S.S. Solace and U.S.S. Mercy. Retired from active service Jan. 3, 1930 and became medical director of Provident Hospital, Chicago. Mason and member of the National Sojourners. d. April 1, 1938.


            Robert L. Blaffer (1876-1942) President of Humble Oil & Refining Co. b. Aug. 5, 1876 at New Orleans, La. Began with Monongahela Coal & Coke Co., New Orleans, 1894. Entered oil business in 1902 and from 1917-33 was vice president and treasurer of Humble Oil & Refining Co., becoming president in 1933 and chairman of the board in 1937. Mason. d. Oct. 22, 1942.


            James G. Blaine Bank president. b. Jan. 10, 1888 in New York City. Began with New York Life Insurance Co. in 1911. Vice pres. Liberty National Bank, 1919-21, vice pres. New York Trust Co. 1921-27, president Fidelity Trust Co. 1927-30. President and director of Marine Midland Trust Co. 1930-54 and chairman of the board since 1955. He is a director of the following: Fidelity Safe Deposit Co., Remington Rand, Inc., Studebaker-Packard Corp., Pepsi Cola Co. In 1948-49 he was chief of the E.C.A. Mission to Belgium and Luxembourg and has served on many national and by Washington as a justice on the first Supreme Court of the United States. b. Williamsburg, Va. in 1732. Graduated from William and Mary College and studied law at the Temple, London, soon becoming prominent in his profession and was a member of the legislature as early as 1765. In 1776 he was a member of the committee that drew up a plan for governing the state and was chosen to the council and in 1777 became a judge of the court of appeals for Virginia. He was afterward chief justice and in 1780 was judge of the high court of chancery. A delegate to the convention that drew up the Federal Constitution and with Washington and Madison voted for its adoption—the other Virginians dissenting. In 1789 Washington named him as one of the justices of the first Supreme Court of the U.S. and he served until 1796 when he resigned. He is often confused with his father, John Blair (1689-1771), who was president of the Council of Virginia under British rule (same as governor). A member of Williamsburg Lodge No. 6, Williamsburg, Va. he was passed Aug. 3, 1773, raised Dec. 23, 1773. Where he was initiated is not known, but it is thought it may have been at the Lodge of St. James, England. The records of Williamsburg Lodge show that on Sept. 7, 1773 he was fined "1 shill, 3 pence for absence this evening," and that he signed the by-laws on July 6, 1773. He was elected master in May, 1774 and served as the first grand master of the Grand Lodge of Virginia from 1778-84. d. Aug. 31, 1800.


            Edgar Blake (1869-1943) Methodist bishop. b. Dec. 8, 1869 at Gorham, Maine. Graduate of Boston Univ. School of Theology, 1898; D.D. from Nebraska Wesleyan Univ., 1909 and LL.D. from DePauw Univ. Ordained in 1899 and held pastorates in New Hampshire from 1895-1908. Secretary international charitable organizations. Mason.


            David E. Blair Lawyer, jurist. b. Aug. 16, 1874 at Salina, Kans. LL.B. Univ. of Kansas, 1899. Law practice at Joplin, Mo. Judge, Circuit Court, 25th Judicial Circuit 1908-17; member Public Service Commission of Mo. 191720; associate justice Supreme Court of Mo., 1921-30 and chief justice, 192526. Practiced law in St. Louis 1931-34 and returned to Joplin, 1934. Elected to Springfield Court of Appeals in 1944 for 12 year term, making him the only Missourian elected to all three benches. Mason and 32° AASR (SJ).


            James 1'. Blair (1871-1944) Jurist. b. Nov. 11, 1871 at Loudon, Tenn. Father of James T. Blair, Jr. q.v. Taught school before starting law practice in 1896. President of Obion (Tenn.) College 1895. Member of committee to revise statutes of Mo. 1909-11; judge of Supreme Court of Mo. 1915-25 and chief justice, 1921-22. Re-entered law practice at St. Louis in 1925. Member of the Appellate Judicial Commission of Missouri from 1941 until death on April 12, 1944. Mason.


            James T. Blair, Jr. Governor of Missouri, 1957-60. b. March 15, 1902 at Maysville, Mo. Admitted to bar in 1924 and since practiced in Jefferson City, Mo. Member of house of representatives 1928-32 and majority leader in 1931. Mayor of Jefferson City 194749 and lieutenant governor of Mo. from 1949-56 when elected governor. Served as lieutenant-colonel, U.S. Army, 1942-45. Raised in Jefferson Lodge No. 43, Oct. 14, 1925; exalted March 24, 1926, Jefferson City Chapter No. 34; Ezra Council No. 32 R. & S.M., March, 1936; Knighted Prince of Peace Commandery No. 29, K.T. March 27, 1939, all of Jefferson City, Mo. Shriner.


            John Blair, Jr. (1732-1800) Named 102 Antonio Guzman Blanco of Board of Sunday Schools 1912-20. Made a bishop on May 18, 1920. Mason and Knight Templar. d. May 26, 1943.


            Henry S. Blake (1888-1956) President of Capper Publications, Topeka, Kans. b. Feb. 14, 1888 at Minneapolis, Minn. Joined the Capper Publications in 1920 as business manager and was selected vice president and general manager in 1937, taking over the presidency in 1952 on the death of Senator Arthur Capper. As president of the largest publishing firm west of the Mississippi he was executive officer of the following publications with a circulation of 5 million; Cap-per's Weekly, Topeka Daily Capital, Kansas City Kansan; two national magazines, Household and Capper's Farmer and five state farm papers, Kansas Farmer, Missouri Ruralist, Michigan Farmer, Ohio Farmer, and Pennsylvania Farmer. Capper Publications also include radio stations WIBW, Topeka and KCKN, Kansas City and television station WIBW-TV at Topeka. He was a Mason, 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner. d. March 12, 1956.


            William Rufus Blake (1805-1863) Actor. b. in Halifax, N.S. and first appeared on the stage of that city when 17 as the Prince of Wales, in Richard the Third. His first New York appearance was in 1824 at the Chatham theatre as Frederick in The Poor Gentleman. While playing at the Tremont theatre, Boston in 1827, he received the first call before the curtain ever given to an actor in this country. In 1839 he visited England, making his first appearance there in the Haymarket theatre, London. On April 21, 1863, while playing Sir Peter Teazle, in the Boston theatre, he was suddenly taken ill and died the next day. He was the author of several plays including Nero and The Turned Head. Blake was a member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2 of New York City.


            Raymond B. Blakney President of Olivet College (Mich.) b. Nov. 4, 1895 at Boston, Mass. Ordained Congregational minister in 1918 and taught physics at Fukien Christian Univ., Foochow, China from 1920-27. Served as pastor in Sanford, Me., and Williamstown, Mass. Returned to Orient as missionary for American Board Commissioners (Cong.) at Peking and Mindanao, Philippines until 1949. Served as chaplain, U.S. Army in WW1 and WW2. President of Olivet College since 1950. In 1957 he became president of Pierce College, Athens, Greece. Raised in Foochow Lodge, Foochow, China in 1923 and now member of International Lodge, Peking, China (in exile). 32° AASR (SJ) in Peking, Orient of China and served as secretary of the Scottish Rite bodies of North China (in exile) from 1948-57. KCCH.


            Antonio Guzman Blanco (1829-1899) President of Venezuela three terms. b. in Caracas. Served as vice-president of Venezuela 1863-68. Following the overthrow of Falcon in 1868, as a general he led a successful revolution. He was president from 1870-72 and on alternate two years until 1889 when deposed by Congress. He was practically a dictator for the entire period. As president he decreed that the Grand Lodge of Venezuela could send out communications postage free, a privilege which has since been rescinded. He erected the beautiful Masonic temple at Caracas, the largest and most complete in South America. He established the separation of the Catholic church and the state and abolished the convents and transformed Catholic churches into monuments such as the Capitol and the Pantheon for their independence heroes. He also installed compulsory education. He was a 33° AASR. Died in Paris, France—where he liked to live even when he was president.


            John R. Bland (1851-1923) Organizer and president of the U.S. Fidelity & Guaranty Insurance Co. in 1896. b. March 24, 1851 at Bridgeton, Mo. d. Jan. 6, 1923. Mason.


            Richard P. Bland (1835-1899) U.S. Congressman from Missouri for 25 years. Known as "Silver Dick." b. Aug. 19, 1835 near Hartford, Ky. Moved to Missouri in 1855 and thence to California on a mining expedition. He then removed to that part of Utah which is now Nevada and practiced law at Virginia City. He returned to Missouri in 1865 and practiced law at Rolla until Aug. 1869 when he moved to Lebanon. As a member of Congress from 1873-95 and 1897-99, he was the author of the Bland bill for the coinage of not less than two million and not more than four million in silver bullion per month which was passed in 1878 and repealed in 1891. In 1896 he received many votes for president. He was a member of Rolla Lodge No. 213, Rolla, Mo. and was exalted in Rolla Chapter No. 32 in 1868. He later transferred as a charter member of Lebanon Chapter No. 64 and served as high priest in 1871. Knighted in St. John's Cornmandery No. 33, Springfield and later affiliated with Lebanon Commandery No. 33 at Lebanon. d. June 15, 1899 and buried with Masonic and Knight Templar honors in a Catholic cemetery in Lebanon, Mo.


            Theodoric Bland (1742-1790) Revolutionary soldier, doctor and member of Continental Congress. b. in Prince George Co., Va. he was educated in England and studied medicine at Univ. of Edinburgh. After being admitted to medical practice he returned to America in 1764. Wrote against the English governor under the pen name "Cassius" and was one of those who removed arms and ammunition which Lord Dunmore had taken from the public arsenal. He became captain of the first group of Virginia cavalry and later colonel. He distinguished himself at the battle of Brandywine and had the confidence of General Washington. He served one term during the war in the Virginia senate and was elected to the Continental Congress from 1780-83. He was a member of the Virginia convention of 1788 and was among those opposed to the adoption of the federal constitution. He became representative from Virginia to the first Congress, taking his seat March 30, 1789. Although his lodge is not known, he was present at Williamsburg Lodge No. 6 on July 7, 1778. d. June 1, 1790.


            William T. Bland (1861-1928) U.S. Congressman from Missouri, 66th Congress (1919-21). b. Jan. 21, 1861 at Weston, Va. Law degree from Univ. of West Virginia in 1884. Practiced law in Atchison, Kans. and was elected judge of 2nd Judicial District from 1896-1904 but resigned in 1901 to engage in wholesale drug business as vice president and later president of McPike Drug Co., Kansas City, Mo. Mason. d. Jan. 16, 1928.


            Alexander H. Blankingship Episcopal Bishop. b. Nov. 30, 1894 at Richmond, Va. Graduate of Univ. of Richmond (A.B. and D.D.); Yale Divinity School (A.B.) and B.D. Virginia Theological Semin. Served as rector of Emmanuel Episcopal Church in Alexandria, Va. 1924-27 and dean of Holy Trinity Cathedral, Havana, Cuba, 1927-39. Has been bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Missionary District of Cuba since Feb. 1939. Served in Mexican Border conflict of 1916 and WW1. Received degrees in Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Va. in 1925 and presently a member of Island Lodge No. 56, Island Chapter No. 1, R.A.M.; Havana Commandery No. 1, K.T. and 32° Santiago Consistory, Havana, Cuba. Member of Mahi Shrine Temple, Miami, Florida and Havana Shrine Club. Has served as chaplain of his blue lodge and commandery.


            John D. Blanton (1859-1933) President of Ward Belmont School, Nashville, Tenn. b. March 26, 1859 in Cumberland Co., Va. Taught and supervised schools in Missouri until selected as vice-president of Ward Belmont in 1913. Became president in 1915. Mason. d. Oct. 6, 1933.


            Henry G. Blasdel First Governor of Nevada. Member of Santa Cruz Lodge No. 38, Santa Cruz, Calif. and later past master of Carson Lodge No. 1, Carson City, Nevada.


            Samuel Blatchford (1820-?) U.S. Supreme Court justice. b. March 9, 1820 in New York. Became private secretary to Gov. William H. Seward in 1839 and military secretary on his staff until 1843. Admitted to bar in 1842 and settled in Auburn, N.Y. where he was associated with Seward as a law partner. Moved to New York in 1854. Named associate justice of U.S. Supreme Court in 1882 and served eleven years (1893). He was raised in Manhattan Lodge No. 62, New York City on Jan. 16, 1863.


            Valentine Blatz Founder of Blatz Brewing Co. and member of Aurora Lodge No. 10, Milwaukee, Wis.


            Cadwallader, 9th Lord of Blayney (1720-1775) Grand Master of the Moderns from 1764-67 and of Ireland in 1768. It was under his authority that the Charter of Compact was drawn up with the Royal Arch Grand Chapter. During his grandmastership 74 lodges were constituted as contrasted with the 20 charters issued by the "Ancients.”


            Jesse Bledsoe (1776-1837) U.S. Senator from Kentucky. b. April 6, 1776 in Culpepper Co., Va. Becamesecretary of state of Kentucky in 1808 and member of the state legislature in 1812. Served as U.S. Senator, 1913-15. From 1917-20 he was state senator and in 1822 was appointed circuit judge in the Lexington district. In 1833 he removed to Mississippi and in 1835 to Texas. Member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky. and past master of same; grand tyler of the G.L. of Kentucky in 1808. Member of Frankfort Chapter No. 3, R.A.M. at Frankfort, Ky. d. June 30, 1837.


            Samuel T. Bledsoe ( 1868-1 939) President of A.T. & S.F. Railroad and affiliated companies. b. May 12, 1868 in Clinton Co., Ky. Practiced law in Texas, Indian Territory and Oklahoma. First associated with A.T. & S.F. in 1908, becoming president in 1933. Director of Railway Express Agency. Mason. d. March 8, 1939.


            Harman Blennerhassett (1764-1831) Associate of Aaron Burr and controversial figure of the post-Revolutionary period. b. Oct. 8, 1764 (or 1765) in Hampshire, England. Of a wealthy family he studied at Westminster, London and Trinity college, Dublin, receiving B.A. and LL.B. degrees in 1790. In 1797 he disposed of his estates, and sailed for New York, determined to spend the rest of his life in study and leisure. In 1798 he purchased an island in the Ohio river a few miles below Parkersburg called Backus island—and afterwards Blennerhassett island. Here he erected an elaborate mansion which he filled with costly pictures, statues and books. Settling down to a life of study on the sciences such as chemistry and astronomy, he was known for his lavish hospitality and soon became the social leader of the area. On Aug. 12, 1797 he visited American Union Lodge No. 1 at Marietta and in 1798 was made its secretary. Where he received his degrees is not known. Among the many distinguished guests to share his hospitality was Aaron Burr in 1805. Burr succeeded in interesting him in his scheme for the invasion of the Mexican territory west of the Mississippi and setting up a private "nation." It is probable that Blennerhassett did not realize that Burr's scheme was treasonable, and he invested large sums in boats, arms and provisions for the expedition. When Jefferson issued a proclamation against the scheme, Blennerhassett fled with Burr, was arrested and freed but arrested again at Lexington, Ky. and placed in prison. Even the legal services of Henry Clay could not effect his release, but when the treason charges against Burr failed, he was released in 1807. His property had been seized and then accidentally burned. Blennerhassett then settled in Natchez, Miss. where he purchased 1,000 acres of ground. He was admitted a member of Harmony Lodge No. 1 at Natchez on March 4, 1816 and was shown as a member of that lodge until the returns of 1819 when he removed to Montreal where he began the practice of law. When he failed to receive a judgeship from his friend and schoolmate, the Duke of Richmond, he sailed for Ireland in 1822 hoping to recover his estates, but failed. He died Feb. 1, 1831 on the Isle of Guernsey.


            1st Earl of Blesington (Viscount Mountjoy) (1709-1769) First grand master of the Ancients, 1756-60. It was to him that Laurence Dermott dedicated his Ahintan Rezon probably in an effort to secure his acceptance of the office. He was privately installed in his own library. Previously, as the 3rd Viscount Mountjoy, he had ruled the Irish craft in 1738-39, and had been responsible for the foundation of Irish Masonic charity. He was a kinsman of the Hon. Elizabeth St. Leger q.v. the lady Freemason.


            Archie Bleyer Musician, composer and orchestra leader. Made a hit of the Davy Crockett song in 1954. President of Cadence Records. A member of St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York City.


            Reynolds E. Blight (1879-?) Writer and lecturer. b. May 19, 1879 at Torrington, Eng., coming to United States in 1896. Lectured for churches and Southwestern Univ. Editor of several publications—Liberal Review 1918-19; Masonic Digest, 1921-23 and 1925-33; New Age 1923-25; California Certified Public Accountant, 1935-41; and Los Angeles Churchman, 1935-43. President of Pierce Insurance Co. Mason, 33° AASR (SJ), Knight Templar and Red Cross of Constantine. Field secretary of Los Angeles AASR bodies, since 1944. Member of committee on Masonic Information, G.L. of Calif. and Masonic Homes Endowment Fund Board. Author of What I Believe and Why; Freemasonry •at a Glance.


            Aaron T. Bliss (1837-1906) Governor of Michigan. b. May 22, 1837 at Smithfield, N.Y. Served in New York militia during Civil War, captured and spent six months in prisons, eventually escaping and making way back to Union lines nearly starved. Engaged in lumbering at Saginaw, Mich. from 1865 until his death in 1906. Served in many local, state and national public offices, including state senator, member of U.S. Congress from 8th Mich. dist. in 1889-91. Elected twice as governor of Michigan, serving from 1900-04. Member of Saginaw Valley Lodge No. 154 at Saginaw.


            Cornelius N. Bliss (1833-1911) Secretary of Interior under McKinley. b. Jan. 26, 1833 at Fall River, Mass. Engaged in dry goods business most of his life. Trustee and director of several large corporations. Served as chairman of the New York Republican Committee and treasurer of National Republican Committee. Named by McKinley as Secretary of the Interior in 1897 and resigned in 1899. Declined to be a candidate for governor of New York in 1885 and 1891. Member of St. Johns Lodge, Boston, joining in 1858. d. 1911.


            Herbert Bliss Brigadier General, U. S. Army. 33° AASR and member of National Sojourners.


            Raymond W. Bliss Surgeon General, U.S. Army. b. May 17, 1888 at Chelsea, Mass. Graduated Tufts Medical College in 1910, Army Medical School, 1913, Harvard Medical School, 1921 (C.S.) and 1943 (D.Sc.). Commissioned 1st Lt. in Medical Reserve Corps, 1911 and advanced through grades to major general in 1943. Appointed Surgeon General in June, 1947. Mason.


            Antonio Blitz (1810-1877) Magician. b. June 21, 1810 in Deal, England. An early magician who in those days were known as "prestidigitateurs." He began his career at the age of 13 in Hamburg, Germany and after travelling two years in northern Europe, he returned to England, appearing first in Dover in Dec. 1925. He then visited Ireland and Scotland and in 1834 came to the United States, travelling through the country, Canada and West Indies. On his return from the South he settled in Philadelphia, Pa. where he resided until his death on Jan. 28, 1877. He was author of Fifty Years in the Magic Circle. Although his original lodge is not known, he was made an honorary member of Montgomery Lodge No. 19 of Philadelphia.


            V. Harwood Blocker Consul General of United States. b. June 8, 1903 at Hondo, Texas. Entered U.S. consular service in 1926 and has served as clerk, vice consul, sec. consul in Peru, Mexico, Paraguay, Morocco, Honduras, Martinique, Brazil, Victoria. Consul general at Athens, Greece since 1954. Hondo Lodge No. 756, Hondo, Texas.


            William P. Blocker (1892-1947) Consul General of United States. b. Sept. 30, 1892 at Hondo, Texas. Entered consular service in 1913 and served in various capacities in consular offices  of Mexico and Cuba. Was consul general at Ciudad Juarez, Mexico from 1938. Mason. d. Feb. 28, 1947.


            Timothy Bloodworth (1736-1814) U.S. Senator from North Carolina. He was a member of the Continental Congress of 1786-87 and for thirty years a member of the legislative assembly of N.C. Served in U.S. Congress from 1790 to 1791 and as U.S. Senator from 1795-1801. After his senatorship, he was collector of the port of Wilmington. He grew up in poverty and followed in turn the professions of farmer, smith, preacher, doctor, wheelwright and politician. He was noted for his benevolence. In 1805 he represented St. Tammany Lodge No. 30, Wilmington, N.C. at the G.L. of N.C. d. Aug. 24, 1814.


            Henry Bloom General in the war of 1812. His grave has a Masonic headstone.


            Sol Bloom (1870-1949) U.S. Congressman from 20th New York district from 68th to 81st Congresses (1923-51). b. March 9, 1870 at Pekin, Ill. Had a varied career in newspaper, theatrical and music publishing businesses. In 1893 he was superintendent of the construction of the Midway Plaisance of the Chicago Exposition. Moved to New York City in 1903 and engaged in real estate and construction business. He was chairman of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. His greatest service to the U.S. was as director of the U.S. George Washington Bicentennial Commission in 1932. He was also chairman of committee on the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court and director general of the U.S. Constitution Sesquicentennial Commission. He was a signer of the United Nations Charter and delegate to U.N. conferences in San Francisco, London and New York. A member of Pacific Lodge No. 233 (1903), New York City, he was a 32° AASR (NJ) member and Shriner. d. March 7, 1949.


            Joseph Bloomfield (1753-1823) Governor of New Jersey. b. Oct. 5, 1753 at Woodbridge, N.J. Studied law until beginning of the Revolutionary War when he was made a captain in Dayton's regiment of the 3rd New Jersey in 1776 and served through the war, attaining the rank of major. Following the war he was admitted to the bar and practiced at Burlington until he became attorney general of the state. During the War of 1812 he was a brigadier general. From 1801-12 he was governor of New Jersey, and member of U.S. Congress from 181721. He was raised in Bristol Lodge No. 25, Bristol, Pa. and served as master in 1782. He affiliated with Trenton Lodge No. 5, Trenton, N.J. in 1790 and in 1799-80 was grand master of the G.L. of New Jersey. d. Oct. 3, 1823.


            Sumner N. Blossom Magazine editor. b. Kansas City, Mo. Attended public schools and Univ. of Missouri. Started journalism career with the Kansas City Star, 1912-14 and with the Associated Press, 1914-16. Was correspondent with the U.S. punitive expedition in Mexico, 1916. From 1919-22 was with the New York Daily News. Editor of Popular Science Monthly, 1922-29, and editor of The American Magazine since 1929 and director of Crowell-Collier Publishing Co. Raised in Ivanhoe Lodge No. 446, Kansas City, Mo. about 1913. Member of the Grand Council, Order of DeMolay.


            Willie Blount (1767-?) Governor of Tennessee, 1809-15. b. in North Carolina and was a half-brother of William Blount, the Constitution signer. He was secretary to his brother while the latter was territorial governor of Ohio, and afterward moved to Montgomery Co., Tenn. Member of Unanimity Lodge No. 54 of North Carolina.


            Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher (1742-1819) Field Marshal General of Prussia and Prince of Wahlstadt. Entered Swedish service in 1756 and captured by Prussians in Seven Year's War. He then entered Prussian army. Discharged in 1770 but rejoined in 1787. Took part in Dutch and Pomeranian campaigns and commissioned lieut.-general in 1801, serving as governor of Munster in 1803. Captured by French in 1806 but was exchanged for a French general. In the War of Liberation he led Prussian troops under Russian command and became commander in chief of the Silesian army, in war against Napoleon in 1813; defeated Macdonald at Katzbach and Marmont at Mockern. Crossed the Elbe and was first to enter Leipzig. Created field marshal general, he crossed the Rhine in 1814 and besieged Napoleon at La Rothiere, but was forced to retreat. He defeated Napoleon at Laon and entered Paris in 1814 for which he was created Prince of Wahlstatt (in Silesia). As commander of Prussian forces in Belgium, 1815, he was defeated at Ligney, but aided Wellington in the victory of Waterloo. His original lodge is not known, but he was a constant visitor in the Lodge "Pax Inimicamalis" at Emmeriah in 1800-01; and in 1814 the Lodge "Archimedes" at Altenburg received him as an honorary member. His nickname was "Marshal Forward.”


            Monte Blue Movie actor. b. Indianapolis, Ind. His father was a railroad engineer who was killed when Monte was 5, and when his mother died six years later, he and his brothers were placed in an orphans' home at Knightstown, Ind. Worked his way through school and turned to his father's trade of railroading. After working as a fireman on the Big Four, he became a soldier of fortune, trying almost everything—cowboy, lumberjack, sailor, with a circus and finally the silent films, where he was a popular Warner Brothers star. A member of Utopia Lodge No. 537 of Los Angeles, he was a member of the Los Angeles Consistory AASR and was noted for his impressive degree work in that branch of Freemasonry. He was also a member of Al Malaikah Shrine Temple and the famous "233 Club"—a movie-Masonic club.


            Robert D. Blue Governor of Iowa (1945-49). b. Sept. 24, 1898 at Eagle Grove, Ia. In law practice at Eagle Grove since 1922. Served as state representative, Republican floor leader, speaker of the house and lieutenant governor. Mason, Shriner, member of Eastern Star and White Shrine.


            Fred H. Blume Chief justice, Supreme Court of Wyoming. b. Jan. 9, 1875 at Audubon, Ia. Admitted to Iowa bar in 1899 and practiced at Audubon until 1904 when he moved to Sheridan, Wyo. Member of Wyoming lower house 1907-09 and senate, 1909-13. Has been a justice of the Supreme Court of Wyoming since 1921, serving as chief justice 1927-31, 1937-39 and 1945-47. Mason.


            4th Lord of Blythswood (Archibald Douglas Campbell) 85th Grand Master Mason of Scotland (1926-28). b. April 25, 1870 at London, Eng. Active member of the Supreme Council of Scotland.


            Elijah Boardman (1760-1823) U.S. Senator from Connecticut. b. March 7, 1760 at New Milford, Conn. Served several terms in the lower branch of the Connecticut legislature and in 1821 was elected to the U.S. Senate,serving in the 17th Congress. He died Oct. 8, 1823 at Boardman, Ohio, a town in which he was interested. He was a member of Columbia Lodge No. 25 at Stepney, Conn., and in 1809 of Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven.


            Harold S. Boardman President of University of Maine 1926-34. b. March 31, 1884 at Bangor, Me. A civil engineer with degrees from Maine State, Mass. Institute of Technology, Univ. of Maine, Colby, Rhode Island College and Bates College. Alternated between teaching and practical engineering work, specializing in bridges and hydrographic, structural and hydraulic highway projects. Mason and 32° AASR (NJ).


            Victor V. Boatner (1881-1950) President of Chicago Great Western Railroad and Peoria & Pekin Union Railroad. b. May 6, 1881 at Bethlehem, Mass. Began railroad career with Yazo & Mississippi Valley in 1901. Served as director of railway transport in Office of Defense Transportation, 194244. Mason, AASR and Shriner. d. Feb. 11, 1950.


            Hiram Abiff Boaz Methodist bishop. b. Dec. 18, 1866 at Murray, Ky. Licensed to preach in 1889 and ordained Methodist minister in 1891. Held several pastorates in Texas before becoming president of Polytechnic College at Fort Worth 1902-11; vice president of Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, 1911-13; and president of Texas Woman's College, 1913-18. From 1918-20 he was president of S.M.U. In 1922 was elected bishop M.E. Church and assigned to superintend church work in China, Japan, Siberia and Manchuria. From 1926 until his retirement in 1938 he headed various conferences in Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas and Mexico. A member of Granger Lodge No. 677, Granger, Texas, he served as grand chaplain of the G.L. of Texas in 1953. Active in York Rite Masonry, he is a noted Masonic speaker.


            E. Manchester Boddy Newspaper executive. b. Nov. 1, 1891 at Lake Tapps, Wash. Began as salesman for Encyclopedia Britannicct in New England, 1916. Owner and editor of Huntington Park Signal and Los Angeles Daily News. Is associate editor of L. D. Powell Co., book publishers. Served as infantry officer in WW1 and was disabled in Argonne Forest. Member of Craftsmen Lodge No. 559, Los Angeles, Calif.


            Johann Joachim Christoph Bode (1730-1793) German musician, book-dealer and translator. Translated Sterne, Fielding, Goldsmith, Burney, Montaigne and others. Wrote extensively on Freemasonry and was one of the most distinguished Masons of his time. b. Jan. 16, 1730 in Brunswick. He was initiated in 1791 and is listed as a member and past master of Lodge Absalem at Hamburg. He served as deputy grand master of the G.L. of Hamburg.


            Thomas Bodley (1744-?) American general who served in Wayne's Indian campaign. b. Feb. 2, 1744. A member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky., serving as master in 1798 and grand master of the G.L. of Kentucky in 1818.


            Joseph R. Bodwell (1818 - 1887) Governor of Maine. b. June 18, 1818 in Methuen, Mass. Opened quarries in 1852 on an island in Penobscot Bay and in 1870 organized the Bodwell and Hallowell granite company. Served twice in the legislature and was elected governor in 1886. A member of Rockland Lodge No. 79, Rockland, Me. d. Dec. 15, 1887.


            Johann Boeber Russian Royal Councilor of State and director of the School of Cadets at St. Petersburg during the reign of Alexander I q.v. It was presumably through his in-fluence that Emperor Alexander revoked the edict against Freemasonry and became a member of the craft himself. Boeber was grand master of the G.L. of Russia from 1811-14. He became a member of the Lodge "Alexander of Charity of the Crowned Pelican" in 1808 or 1809. This lodge worked under the Swedish system.


            Jacob Boehmen (also Bohm, Boehme) See Bohme J. Caleb Boggs Governor of Delaware. b. May 15, 1909 at Cheswold, Del. Received A.B. from Univ. of Delaware and LL.D. from Georgetown Univ. Practiced law in Wilmington. U.S. Congressman from 1946-52. Active service in WW1 as army colonel. Member of Eureka Lodge No. 23; 32° Delaware Consistory, both of Wilmington. Member of Nur Shrine Temple, Wilmington; Tall Cedars of Lebanon, Milford; National Sojourners, DeMolay, Jesters, of Wilmington.


            Lewis V. Bogy (1813-1877) U.S. Senator from Missouri. b. April 9, 1813 at St. Genevieve, Mo., a descendant of the early French settlers of the region. Studied law in Illinois and Kentucky and graduated from Lexington Law School in 1835 and set up practice in St. Louis. Served several terms in Missouri legislature and in 1867-68 was commissioner of Indian affairs. Interested in the development of the mineral resources of the state, he was a founder and president of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain railroad. Elected to U.S. Senate as a democrat in 1873. Member of Polar Star Lodge No. 79 of St. Louis.


            Jakob Bohme (1575-1624) Also Boehmen, Bohm, Boehme. Leading German theosophist and mystic. In later years some of his disciples who were Freemasons, sought to incorporate his dogmas into Freemasonry and to make the lodges schools of theosophy. The Theosophic Rites of


110 Louis Bonaparte Freemasonry, which prevailed to a great extent in France and Germany can be traced to Bohme's ideas. In 1634 he published Aurora, order die Morgenrote im Auf gang which was condemned as heretical by the church.


            Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) The "George Washington" of South America, who in 20 years of warfare liberated from Spanish tyranny the area which is now Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. b. in Caracas, Venezuela. He joined Freemasonry in Cadiz, Spain and received the Scottish Rite degrees in Paris and was knighted in a Commandery of Knights Templar in France in 1807. While on a diplomatic mission to London in 1810 he was active in Freemasonry in that country. He founded and served as master of Protectora de las Vertudes Lodge No. 1 in Venezuela and in 1824 founded the Lodge Order and Liberty No. 2 in Peru. In 1828, when the anti-Masonic wave was sweeping over the world, Bolivar forbade meetings of Masons in Venezuela. His Scottish Rite collar and apron are on exhibit in the New York Grand Lodge museum. Catholic born, he broke away from the church when, in his liberation movement, he found that the clerics who ruled with an iron hand under the Spanish administration were among his chief opponents. On his death bed in 1830 he returned to Catholicism for spiritual aid. Nevertheless it was as a Freemason that he performed the deeds which established him as one of the greatest liberators of the world.


            Frank C. Bolles Major General, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 25, 1872 at Elgin, Ill. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1896 and promoted through grades to major general in 1935. Served in Spanish American War, Philippine Insurrection and WW1. Wounded twice and gassed once. Commanded 39th Infantry in WW1,later 30th Infantry at Presidio, Calif. Was commanding general of Ft. Russell, Ft. Stotsenburg, Fort Sheridan, Fort Sam Houston and 7th Corps Area. Retired in 1936. President of Union State Bank, South San Antonio, Texas since 1937. Mason and member of National Sojourners.


            Jerome Bonaparte ( 178 4 - 18 60) Brother of Napoleon I q.v. b. Nov. 15, 1784. Served as lieutenant on an expedition to Haiti in 1803 and took refuge from British in United States where in 1803 he married Elizabeth Patterson of Baltimore. The marriage was annulled in 1805 as Napoleon did not recognize it. He later married Princess Catherine of Wurttemberg. He was made King of Westphalia in 1807 by Napoleon and was afterwards known as the Duc de Monfort. At Napoleon's defeat in 1814, he settled in Florence, returning to France in 1848; was made a Marshal of France in 1850 and served as president of the Senate. He was grand master of the Grand Orient of Westphalia. d. June 24, 1860.


            Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844) Eldest of the four brothers of Napoleon who were all Freemasons. b. Jan. 7, 1768. He was a member of the Council of Five Hundred in 1798 and councilor of state in 1799. Napoleon made him King of Naples from 1806-08 and King of Spain from 1803-13. From 1815-32, following Napoleon's defeat he lived in the United States under the name of Comte de Survilliers. He was made a Freemason at the Tuilleries in April, 1805 by a commission composed of "Bros. Cambaceres, Kellerman, Hugh Maret and several others" and in the same year was appointed as grand master of the Grand Orient of France by Napoleon. d. July 28, 1844.


            Louis Bonaparte (1778-1846) Brother of Napoleon I and King of Holland. b. Sept. 2, 1778. Made King of Holland in 1806 by Napoleon, abdicating in 1810, when he assumed the title of Comte de St. Leu. In 1805 he was governor of Paris, and when his brother, Joseph was named grand master of the Grand Orient of France in 1805, he was named deputy grand master. d. July 25, 1846. Father of Emperor Napoleon III.


            Lucien Bonaparte ( 1 7 7 5 - 1 84 0 ) Brother of Napoleon I and a member of the Grand Orient of France. As president of the Council of Five Hundred in 1799, he aided Napoleon in securing dictatorship of France. He was named ambassador to Madrid in 1800 and negotiated a treaty between Spain and Portugal in 1801, but in 1810 was exiled for opposing Napoleon's policies and while on way to United States was captured by the English and held as prisoner of state in England. In 1814 he was given the title of Prince of Canino. b. May 21, 1775. d. June 29, 1840.


            Napoleon Bonaparte See Napoleon I.


            Shadrach Bond (1773-1832) First governor of Illinois. b. Nov. 24, 1773 in Frederick Co., Md. He moved to Kaskaskia (Ill.), then in Indiana territory and was a member of the legislature of the Illinois territory and its first delegate to Congress, serving from 1812-14. In 1814 he was appointed receiver of public monies and when Illinois became a state he was elected its first governor, serving 1818-22. He was initiated in Temple Lodge No. 26, Reisterstown, Md. and affiliated with Western Star Lodge No. 107 at Kaskaskia, Ill. on Dec. 27, 1806, serving as master of the lodge in 1815-18-27-28-29. He was first grand master of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1822, which later became defunct. d. April 12, 1832.


            Thomas Bond (1712-1784) Distinguished early day physician whofounded the Pennsylvania hospital. He was closely associated with Benjamin Franklin and Dr. John Bartram, the botanist, in a literary society of Philadelphia. In 1749 he was deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.


            August (Anshel) Bondi (1833-1907) Compatriot of free-stater John Brown q.v. b. July 21, 1833 Vienna, Austria. An adventurer whose last request was that he be known as a "fighter for freedom," he first saw action at the age of 14 in the Metternich revolution after which he migrated to the United States. He joined a group going to Cuba to fight the Spaniards, but this venture failed. He also attempted to join Perry's first expedition to Japan. Finally settling in Kansas, he joined John Brown and his free-staters and participated in the battles of Blackjack and Osawatomie. At the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the 5th Kansas Cavalry and participated in the battles of Black River, Pine Bluff; and was left for dead on the battlefield at Monticello Cross Roads (Ark.) A few months later he was mustered out of the service. His many business ventures failed, due mainly to his wanderlust. He died Sept. 30, 1907 in St. Louis and was buried in Salina, Kansas with Jewish and Masonic rites.


            William W. Bondurant Educator and college president. b. Rice, Va. Professor of Latin. President of Daniel Baker College, Brownwood, Texas, 1915-16. Superintendent of Texas Military Institute from 1926-47 (emeritus since 1952). Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner.


            Manual Jose Carazzo Bonilla Vice president of Costa Rica (1936-40) under President Castro. Was secretary of state. A brilliant student, he was active in many political fields. Member of Caridad Lodge No. 26. Ygnacio Bonillas (1858-1944) Ambassador from Mexico to United States from 1917. b. Feb. 1, 1858 at San Ygnacio, Sonora, Mexico. Studied at Mass. Inst. of Tech. Mining inspector, state of Sonora 1911-13. Secretary in first Carranza cabinet 1884-88. Member of 23rd Congress, State of Sonora and member of commission to settle difficulties arising from Villa's attack on Columbus, N. Mex. and Pershing expedition. Mason. d. Jan. 31, 1944.


            Nicholas de Bonneville (1760-1828) French writer, bookseller, man of letters and president of one of the Paris districts at outbreak of French Revolution in 1789. b. March 13, 1760 at Evreaux. In 1788 he published a book entitled The Jesuits driven from Freemasonry and their weapon broken by the Freemasons (translation). His theory was that the Jesuits had introduced the history of the life and death of the Templars into the symbolic degrees, and the doctrine of vengeance for the political and religious crime of their destruction. He is best known for his History of Modern Europe. (1792).


            Milton 0. Boone Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. June 15, 1891 at Oakland, N.J. Commissioned in 1917, rising to rank of brigadier general in 1948. Served in A.E.F. during WW1. During WW2 was commanding general of California Quartermaster Depot at Oakland and later of the European command from 1946-48. Retired, 1948. Mason.


            William J. Boone ( 1 8 6 0 -1 9 3 6 ) Founder and president of College of Idaho, 1891-1936. b. Nov. 5, 1860 at Cannonsburg, Pa. Received B.A., M.A., D.D. from Wooster College (Ohio) and LL.D. and S.T.B. from Western Theological Seminary. Ordained Presbyterian minister in 1887. Mason. d. July 8, 1936.


            Ballington Booth (1859-1940) Reformer and founder of The Volunteers of America. b. July 28, 1859 at Brighouse, Yorkshire, England, second son of General William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army. Ballington was in charge of the Salvation Army in Australia from 1885-87 and in the United States from 1887 to 1896 when he withdrew from the army after disagreement with his father on the method of operation in America. He then organized a similar group, The Volunteers of America. His wife, Maud Charlesworth, aided him in founding the Volunteers and directed its prison work. She was one of the founders of the Parent-Teachers Association. Booth was a member of Montclair Lodge No. 144, N.J. about 1899, and later Charter Oak Lodge No. 249, New York City. He was past grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of New York and member of York and Scottish rites as well as Kismet Temple, AAONMS. d. Oct. 5, 1940.


            Charles B. Booth Reformer and welfare worker, head of The Volunteers of America since 1948. Son of Ballington Booth q.v., founder of the Volunteers, and grandson of General William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army. b. Dec. 26, 1887, Brooklyn, N.Y. Was general secretary of the Volunteer Prison League 1906-15 and national field secretary of the Big Brother and Big Sister Federation, 1925-29. Associated with The Volunteers of America since 1930 in Detroit, Pittsburgh and Kansas City, Mo. Western area secretary 1938-39, national field secretary, 1939-45, central area commander, 1945-49, and general commander in chief since 1949. Raised in Montclair Lodge No. 144, Montclair, N.J. and demitted to Morton Lodge No. 63, Hempstead, N.Y.


            Edwin T. Booth (1833-1893) Famous Shakespearean actor of the American stage. b. Nov. 13, 1833 at Belair, Md. Member of a famous stage family, his father was Junius Brutus and his brother, John Wilkes, who assassinated Lincoln on April 14, 1865. Edwin first appeared on the stage in 1849 and by 1855 was a well established actor. His later travels carried him throughout the world. He was greatly admired for his moral strength in rising above periods of poverty and hunger, his father's addiction to drink and periods of insanity, and his brother's act of assassination and death. He was initiated in New York Lodge No. 330 on Sept 11, 1857 and raised Sept. 23. His love of Freemasonry is attested by his bequest of five thousand dollars to the Hall and Asylum Fund, and his statement that ". . . to be worshipful master and to throw my whole soul in that work, with the candidate for my audience, and the lodge for my stage, would be greater personal distinction than to receive the plaudits of the people in the theaters of the world." He was an honorary member of the Masonic Veterans Association of New York, and on at least two occasions gave dramatic recitals in Independent Lodge. While visiting a lodge in Omaha, Nebr. he was called upon to give a short talk and when asked what his favorite hymn was, he answered Jesus Lover of My Soul, and recited it. Asked for his favorite prose, he called the members to stand and repeated The Lord's Prayer. In 1925 Booth was elected to the American Hall of Fame. d. June 7, 1893.


            John L. Booth Broadcasting and newspaper executive. b. June 13, 1907 at Detroit, Mich. Founder, president and owner of Booth Radio & TV Stations, Inc., which includes WJLB, Detroit; WBBC, Flint; WSGW, Saginaw; WBKZ-TV, Kalamazoo-Battle Creek; WSBM-TV, Flint-Saginaw-Bay City-Midland, since 1939. As director of Booth Newspapers, Inc., he is owner and operator of the Grand Rapids Press, Flint Journal, Saginaw News, Bay City Times, Muskegon Chronicle, Kalamazoo Gazette, Jackson City Patriot, and Ann Arbor News. Mason.


            Sir Robert Laird Borden (1854-1937) Prime minister of Canada, 1911-1920. 1:). in Nova Scotia where he was a member of the craft. Member of Parliament from 1896, and leader of Conservative opposition in House of Commons, 1901. Served as delegate to Paris Peace Conference in 1919 and was representative of Canada on Council of League of Nations.


            James B. Boren President of Midwestern University, Wichita Falls, Texas. b. Nov. 16, 1905 at Ennis, Tex. Served as a public school superintendent from 1931-39, organizing and establishing Mangum (Okla.) Junior College in 1937, serving as president until 1939. From 1939-42 he was president of Southwestern Institute of Technology at Weatherford, Okla., and since 1939 has been president of Midwestern University (Hardin College). Mason.


            Gutzon Borglum (John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum) (1871-1941) Sculptor and painter, best known for the gigantic Mt. Rushmore national memorial in the Black Hills of S.D. b. March 25, 1871 in Idaho and educated in public schools of Nebraska. Studied art in San Francisco and Paris. M.A. from Princeton Univ. and L.L.D., Oglethorpe Univ. Painted, studied and traveled in Spain, Europe, England until 1901 when he settled in New York. Among his many marbles and bronzes are Sheridan Equestrian, Washington, D.C. and Chicago, Ill.; colossal marble head of Lincoln in rotunda of Capitol in Washington; bronze group, Mares of Diomedes in Metropolitan Museum; Lincoln, Newark, N.J.; Trudeau memorial, Saranac Lake; Trail Drivers Memorial, Texas. He designed and began carving the Confederate Memorial on the face of Stone Mountain, Ga., but a controversy arose with the association and he destroyed all plans and models. Borglum designed the Confederate half-dollar. His greatest work, however, is the Black Hills carving which he designed and officially started on August 10, 1927, when President Coolidge dedicated it. He lived to see the fourth head unveiled in 1939, but not to complete the work—which was done by his son, Lincoln q.v. in 1941. Borglum was an active Mason, being raised in Howard Lodge No. 35, New York City on June 10, 1904, and serving as its master in 1910-11. In 1915 he was appointed grand representative of the Grand Lodge of Denmark near the Grand Lodge of New York. He received his Scottish Rite Degrees in the New York City Consistory on Oct. 25, 1907, but was suspended in 1921. His lodge possesses the gavel used by him in the form of a bronze lion's paw, holding a stone from Solomon's Temple. He executed the bust of Edward M. L. Ehlers, who was grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of New York, that is now in the grand lodge library. His memorial "Silence" is in the Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial Hospital at the Masonic Home in Utica, N.Y. The cornerstone of his studio on the hills above Stamford, Conn. was laid with Masonic ceremonies by the grand master of New York under special dispensation from Connecticut. d. March 6, 1941.


            Lincoln Borglum Sculptor. b. April 9, 1912 at Stamford, Conn., son of Gutzon Borglum q.v. the famous sculpture under his father for 12 years and also in Europe. With the National Memorial, Black Hills, S.D. since 1932. He was in charge of measurements and enlarging models from 1934-38 and superintendent of the memorial since 1938. Following the death of his father in 1941, he was assigned to complete the memorial. Lincoln was raised in Battle River Lodge No. 92 of Hermosa, South Dakota.


            Ernest Borgnine Stage and screen actor, who in 1956 won an "Oscar" and more honors than any other actor for a single performance (in Marty) . Served ten years in U.S. Navy during WW2 and studied acting under the GI bill. Started on legitimate stage with Barter theater in Virginia and later to New York. With Shakespearean group that gave eleven performances of Hamlet at Kronburg castle, Elsinore and then entertained soldiers in Europe. Back in America he was with a road show, playing the lead in Born Yesterday, winding up on Broadway in Mrs. MeThing with Helen Hayes. Turning to TV he took the part of Captain Video and did some 200 radio and TV shows. The Mob brought him to Hollywood where he made From Here To Eternity and Marty. Borgnine is a member of Abingdon Lodge No. 48, Abingdon, Va.


            Solon Borland (?-1864) U.S. Senator from Arkansas, Confederate brigadier general, minister to Nicaragua. Studied medicine and settled in Little Rock, Ark. Served in Mexican War and taken prisoner. Returning to Arkansas, he was appointed to fill Senator Sevier's unexpired term, 194853. Appointed minister to Nicaragua in 1853, serving until 1854. On his return he declined the governorship of New Mexico offered by President Pierce. Entered Civil War early and rose to rank of brigadier general in Confederate service. d. Jan. 31, 1864.


            Henry V. Borst (1857-1925) Justice of Supreme Court of New York. b. July 6, 1857 at Cobleskill, N.Y. Graduate of Cornell Univ. and Albany (N.Y.) Law School. Admitted to New York bar in 1877 and became justice of Supreme Court of New York, 4th Dist., 1913, serving until his death Nov. 26, 1925. Mason.


            115 Joseph Boruwlaski Joseph Boruwlaski Celebrated dwarf of the 18th century known as "Count Borulaski" who was made a Mason at Warsaw, Poland and raised to the 3rd degree in the City of Chester, England (Feather's Lodge) on Nov. 15, 1783. English records show that he visited many Masonic lodges.


            Frederick W. Boschen (1876-1942) Major General, U.S. Army. b. May 9, 1876 at Brooklyn, N.Y. Entered army as a private in 1898 and advanced through grades to major general in 1936. Served in Spanish American War and in WW1. Was chief of finances, U.S. Army from 1936 until retired. Mason. d. April 1, 1942.


            Sir Alexander Boswell (1775-1822) Antiquarian and poet. Son of James Boswell q.v. the famous biographer of Dr. Johnson. He issued reprints of old poems from his private press and was a Conservative M.P. from 181821. He was ex-officio provincial grand master of Ayrshire and master of Canongate-Kilwinning Lodge No. 2 in Edinburgh when he was killed in a duel in 1822.


            Elmer E. Boswell Hotel executive. b. Feb. 2, 1891 at Canton, Ill. Started as bell boy with Sheraton Hotel Corp. and rose to vice president in charge of all hotel operations and general manager since 1943. Director since 1952. Mason and Shriner.


            James Boswell (1740-1795) Biographer of Dr. Samuel Johnson q.v. A Scottish lawyer who was acquainted with the literary greats of his age such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Wilkes. He met Dr. Johnson in London in 1763, visiting him frequently between 1772 and 1784 and touring the Hebrides with him in 1773. He took voluminous notes of Johnson's conversations. In 1782 he succeeded to his father's estate and was called to the English bar in 1786. He was raised in Canongate-Kilwinning Lodge, Edinburgh, on Oct. 14, 1759 and was master of the lodge in 177375 and deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland from 177678. In Feb. 1777 he was made an honorary member of Lodge of Edinburgh No. 1. d. May 19, 1795. His son Alexander q.v. was active in Freemasonry as well as his uncle, John, q.v.


            John Boswell One of the earliest known speculative Freemasons and ancestor of James Boswell q.v. the famous biographer of Samuel Johnson. Known as the Laird of Auchinleek (laird meaning property holder), he was present at a meeting of the Lodge of Edinburgh on June 8, 1600, and like his operative brethren, attested to the minutes by his mark.


            John Boswell, M.D. Uncle of biog• rapher James Boswell q.v. who was Censor of the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh. He was senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1753-54.


            Giovanni Bottesini (1821-1889) Italian musician and composer reputed to be the world's greatest contrabassist. He was director of the Conservatory at Parma. Among his compositions are the opera Cristoforo Colombo (1887), symphonies, and overtures. He was initiated June 20, 1849 in the Bank of England Lodge No. 263, London, England.


            Karl August Bottiger (1760-1835) Famous German archaeologist and scholar. Initiated in the Lodge of the Golden Apple, Dresden, on November 8, 1781.


            C. A. Bottolfsen Governor of Idaho. b. Oct. 10, 1891 at Superior, Wis. Began as a printer in Fessenden, N. Dak. and became publisher and owner of the Arco Advertiser in 1910. Elected governor of Idaho in 1939, serving two terms until 1945. Was member of the Idaho legislature four terms and speaker of the house in 1931. Served in WW1 as corporal in the army. A member of Arco Lodge No. 48, Arco, Idaho and a past district deputy grand master. Knight Templar and Shriner.


            Raymond V. Bottomly Justice, Supreme Court of Montana. b. July 16, 1885 at Cederville, Kans. Admitted to bar in 1915. Was assistant attorney general of Montana for several years and attorney general from 1942-49. Elected justice of Supreme Court terms 1949-55 and 1955-61. Raised in Gaylord Lodge No. 183, Gaylord, Kansas in 1906 and demitted to become a charter member of Harlam Lodge No. 108, Harlam, Mont. 32° AASR (SJ) at Great Falls, Mont. Member of Algeria Shrine Temple, Helena, Mont.


            Francis E. Bouck (1873-1941) Chief Justice Supreme Court of Colorado. b. Nov. 25, 1873 at New York City. Admitted to Colo. bar in 1896 and practiced at Leadville. Elected justice of Supreme Court of Colorado for term 1933-43 and served as chief justice from 1941 until death on Nov. 24, 1941. Mason.


            Thomas Boude The brick mason for Independence Hall in Philadelphia, which after two centuries is still sound. He was the first secretary of St. John's Lodge in Philadelphia which laid the cornerstone of the hall with Benjamin Franklin as grand master. Boude later became deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.


            Elias C. Boudinot (1835-1890) Indian chief and one of the most noted characters of Indian Territory. b. Aug. 1, 1835 in Cherokee nation near Rome, Ga. Orphaned when young, he was raised by relatives. Settled in Fayetteville, Ark., studied law and admitted to bar in 1858, but soon turned to journalism and became editorialwriter. Elected secretary of the Arkansas secession convention in 1861 and helped General Standwaite raise an Indian regiment. In 1863 he was elected delegate for Indian Territory to the Confederate Congress. Spent his later years in Washington working for his Cherokee nation. He was an advocate of education for the Indian, the breaking up of tribal relations and of allotting the lands in severalty. It is believed that Albert Pike conferred the 32° on him in 1886. He died Sept. 27, 1890 and was buried with Masonic honors by Belle Point Lodge No. 20 of Fort Smith, Ark.


            Louis de Bourbon-Conde (Comte de Clermont) (1709-1771) Elected Grand Master of France Dec. 2, 1743. He made many improvements in Freemasonry during his early years, but in the latter part of his life he delegated the work to others and on his death in 1771 left the craft weaker than when he first took over. It was during his grandmastership that the name was changed from the "English Grand Lodge of France" to the Grand Lodge of France.


            Duchess of Bourbon First grand mistress of the French adoptive Freemasonry. Installed on March 25, 1775 in a fete d' adoption given by the Lodge of Candour under the constitution of the Grand Orient of France. The Duke of Chartres q.v. presided in his capacity as grand master of the Grand Orient. Other female members of note were the Duchess of Chartres, Princess Lambelle, Countess Polignac, Countess Choiseul-Gouffier and the Marchioness of Coutebonne q.v.


            Thomas E. Bourke Major General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. May 5, 1896 at Saverna Park, Md. Commissioned in 1917 and advanced through grades to major general in 1945. Promoted to lieutenant general on retirement in 1946. Served in both World Wars including Virgin Islands, Nicaragua, Pearl Harbor, Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Saipan and Leyte. Mason.


            Augustus 0. Bourn Former governor of hode Island. He was raised May 18, 1860 in What Cheer Lodge No. 21, Providence, R. I.


            Clarence M. Boutelle Author of The Man Of Mount Moriah, a novel with Masonic significance. Was raised in Rochester Lodge No. 21, Rochester, Minn. in 1885.


            Warren E. Bow (1891-1945) President of Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. b. June 2, 1891 at Detroit. Received degrees from Univ. of Illinois, Univ. of Michigan and Battle Creek College. Teacher, principal and dean of schools. Superintendent of the Detroit Public Schools from 1942 and president of Wayne Univ. since 1942. Mason, Knight Templar, AASR and Shriner. d. May 12, 1945.


            Sir Mackenzie Sowell (1823-1917) Prime Minister of Canada. b. at Rockinghall, England, he came to Canada in 1833. Represented North Hastings in Parliament from 1867-96 and served as Minister of Customs 1878-91. In the cabinet of Sir John A. Macdonald q.v. 1891-94 as Minister of Militia and later as Minister of Trade and Commerce. Served as Prime Minister from Dec. 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896, and thereafter for ten years was a member of the Senate and Conservative Party leader. He was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1895. While residing at Belleville, he was editor and publisher of the Belleville Intelligencer. He was raised in St. Lawrence Lodge No. 640 (English const. now No. 14 R.Q.) of Montreal in 1864. On Feb. 4, 1897 he affiliated with Eureka Lodge No. 283 (GL of Canada in Ont.), at Belleville, and was later a charter member of Moira Lodge No. 11 at Belleville.


            John C. Bowen U.S. District Judge, western district of Washington. b. May 12, 1888 at Newbern, Tenn. Degrees from Univ. of Tennessee and Harvard Law School. Practiced in Washington. Member of Columbia River Basin Committee which promoted Grand Coulee Dam and assisted in letting the first construction contract. Was collector of internal revenue for Washington and Alaska 1933-34. U.S. district judge since 1934. Mason.


            John Wesley Edward Bowen Methodist bishop. b. Sept. 24, 1889 at Baltimore, Md. Ordained to ministry of Methodist church in 1917. Held pastorates in Jackson, Miss., Shreveport and New Orleans, La.; dean of Walden College; field agent for Board of Sunday Schools. Editor of the Central Christian Advocate, 1944-48. Resident bishop of the Atlantic Coast Area, Methodist Church since 1948. Served in WW1 as chaplain. Mason.


            Oliver Bowen (?-1800) Commodore of American Navy in the Revolutionary War. A revolutionary patriot of Augusta, Ga., who was successful in the early days of the war in seizing a large quantity of powder stored on Tybee Island, near Savannah, Ga., July 10, 1775. He joined the unsuccessful expedition against Wilmington in 1778. He has been called the "First Admiral of the American Navy." A member of Solomon's Lodge No. 1, Savannah, Ga., he was later suspended for visiting an illegal lodge at Sunbury, Ga.


            Thomas Bartholomew Bowen (1741-1816) One of the founders of the Mother Supreme Council AASR (SJ) at Charleston, S.C. Born in Ireland, he emigrated to Pennsylvania and entered the Continental Army rising to rank of major with various Pennsylvania regiments, serving from April 6, 1776 to Jan. 1, 1781. He was a member of the Society of the Cincinnati. He was raised in Lodge No. 2 at Philadelphia on June 28, 1784 and entered the Scottish Rite the following year. He demitted from his original lodge May 8, 1785 upon moving to Charleston and was named first senior warden of a new lodge (No. 27) chartered by Pennsylvania. He was active in founding the Grand Lodge of South Carolina and in 1792 became its third grand master. As a printer, he published the South Carolina Weekly Messenger and Columbian Herald or Patriotic Courier of North America, and was also printer for the Supreme Council, AASR.


            Oden Bowie Former Governor of Maryland. Member of Centre Lodge No. 108, Baltimore, Md. and reported as such in the grand lodge proceedings of 1895.


            Henry L. Bowles (1866-1932) U.S. Congressman from 2nd Mass. district to 69th and 70th Congresses (192529). b. Jan. 6, 1866 at Athens, Vt. Began in lunch business with $1,000 borrowed capital in 1897 and extended business to ten cities in U.S. and Canada as Bowles Lunch, Inc. Mason. d. May 17, 1932.


            John Bowles President, Rexall division of Rexall Drug Co. b. Nov. 16, 1916 at Monroe, N.C. Graduated from Univ. of N.C. in 1938 and began with Rexall Drug Co. in Los Angeles in 1949 as a stockroom clerk. Successively was field representative, district sales manager, regional sales manager and vice president. Director since 1955 and president of the Rexall division since 1955. Mason.


            William Augustus Bowles (17631805) White man who became war chief of the Five Civilized Tribes. b. in Frederick Co., Md., the son of an English schoolmaster. He ran away when 13 and joined the British army obtaining a commission, later desert-ing at Pensacola, where he joined the Creek Indians and married an Indian woman. He led the Indian contingent at the surrender of Pensacola and was reinstated in the British Army for his service. He turned his Indians against the Spanish as well as the Americans to promote the British cause. On a trip to England, he was "admitted an honorary member" of Prince of Wales Lodge No. 259, London on Jan. 20, 1791. It is thought he was initiated at another place. He was made "Provincial grand master to the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians" by the Grand Lodge of England. Twice captured by the Spaniards, he finally died prisoner in Morro Castle at Havana, Cuba, Dec. 23, 1805.


            Frank L. Bowman (1879-1936) Congressman from 2nd W. Va. district to 69th to 72nd Congresses (1925-33). b. Jan. 21, 1879 at Masontown, Pa. Practiced law at Morgantown, W. Va. in 1905 and served as postmaster and mayor of that city. Mason. d. Sept. 15, 1936.


            Grover C. Bowman President of Massachusetts State Teachers College since 1937. b. Dec. 15, 1884 at Covington, Ind. Degrees from Williams, Yale, Columbia, and Rhode Island College of Education. Taught school in 1906 and since has been associated with schools in supervisory and executive capacities. Mason.


            Robert J. Bowman President of Pere Marquette Railroad since 1942 and Chesapeake & Ohio since 1946. b. April 15, 1891 at Fostoria, Ohio. Began as clerk in N.Y.C. & St. Louis R.R. in 1907. Mason.


            James Bowron (1844-1928) President of Gulf States Steel Co. b. Nov. 16, 1844 in England and became U.S. citizen in 1885. Began in glass trade. Served as president of Gulf States Steel Co. 1913-21 and afterwards as chairman of the board. He built the town of South Pittsburgh, Tenn. which was started by his father. Is credited with having brought Alabama to the front as an active factor in the production of steel. Mason. d. Aug. 25, 1928.


            Sir Leslie Boyce (1895-1955) Lord Mayor of London and corporation executive. b. July 9, 1895 at Taree, N.S.W. Educated at Oxford and called to the bar in 1922. Conservative member of Parliament from Gloucester, 1929-45; high sheriff of Gloucester, 1941-42; alderman, City of London since 1942 and lord mayor of London 1951-52. He is chairman and managing director of the Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. and William Gardner & Sons, Ltd. Chairman and director of numerous other firms. Baroneted in 1952 and Knight Commander, O.B.E. He was senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of England in 1948 and grand scribe N of the Grand Chapter of England in 1952. d. 1955.


            David R. Boyd (1853-1936) University president. b. July 31, 1853 at Coshocton, Ohio. President of Univ. of Oklahoma, 1892-1908 and afterwards president emeritus. President of the Univ. of New Mexico 1912-19. Superintendent of Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 1908-12. Mason. d. Nov. 17, 1936.


            James E. Boyd Former Governor of Nebraska. Member of Capitol Lodge No. 3, Omaha, Nebr.


            Thomas Boyd (?-1779) A lieutenant in the American Revolution whose life was spared by Indian Chief Joseph Brant when the former gave a Masonic sign. Brant turned him over to either Colonel John Butler q.v. or his son Captain Walter Butler who allowed the Senecas to torture and kill him when he refused to give information on the movements of General Sullivan's q.v. army. Boydwas probably a member of Military Lodge No. 19 under warrant from the grand lodge of Pennsylvania (now Montgomery No. 19, Philadelphia). It was this lodge that gave his remains Masonic burial.


            William L. Boyden (1866-1939) Masonic librarian and author. b. Jan. 6, 1866 at Washington, D.C. Served as librarian for Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction for many years and wrote extensively on Masonic subjects. Raised in Osiris Lodge No. 26, Washington, D.C. in 1891. Was charter member, secretary and master of Albert Pike Lodge No. 36, Washington. d. Dec. 1, 1939.


            Jean Pierre Boyer ( 1776 - 1850 ) President of Haiti from 1818-43. b. Feb. 28, 1776 at Port au Prince. He was a free mulatto and first became known in the revolution of 1792, fighting first against the planters and then against the negros. He fled to France but returned to Haiti with Gen. Victor Leclere to fight for the restoration of the colony to France. Afterwards he joined Petion and Christophe in the revolution to establish a republic. He succeeded Petion in 1818 as president of the southern portion and after the death of Christophe in 1820, the entire island was brought under his presidency. His maladministration caused the revolution of 1843 and brought his fall. He emigrated to Jamaica and thence to France, dying in Paris on July 9, 1850. He was grand commander of the Supreme Council AASR of Haiti, 33° and "Protector of the Order." According to the Magazine of American History (Vol. 13, p. 259, 1885) he was a frequent visitor to Somerset Lodge No. 34, Norwich, Conn.


            Frank W. Boykin Congressman from 1st Alabama district 74th to 84th Congresses (1935-56). b. Feb. 21, 1885 at Bladon Springs, Ala. Started own business manufacturing railroad crossties and now identified extensively with real estate, farming, livestock, timber, lumber and naval stores in southern Alabama with headquarters at Mobile. Mason, AASR member, Shriner and Eastern Star.


            Emerson R. Boyles Justice of Supreme Court of Michigan. b. June 29, 1881 in Eaton Co., Mich. Admitted to bar in 1903 and began practice in Charlotte, Mich. Served as probate judge, deputy attorney general of Michigan, member of Michigan Public Utilities Commission and legal advisor to the governor. Justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan since 1940. Mason and Knight Templar.


            James S. Boynton Former Governor of Georgia. Reported as a member of St. John's Lodge No. 45, Jackson, Ga. in the grand lodge proceedings of 1862.


            Paul Boynton (1848-?) Famous swimmer and adventurer. b. June 29, 1848 in Dublin, Ireland. Raised in Lodge of Friendship No. 206, London, England on May 21, 1875. With Gen. Pedro Martinez in revolution in Sonora, Mexico, followed by life-saving service on Atlantic coast where in years 1867-69 he saved 71 lives. He then served in the Franco-Prussian war and afterwards to African diamond fields. In 1874 he made a spectacular leap from a ship off the coast of Ireland in a storm and by means of a rubberized, inflated suit he had invented, gained land 40 miles away. He gained world wide renown with his suit, propelling himself feet forward with a double-bladed paddle. Among his exploits were: crossed English channel in 24 hours (1875); paddled Rhine 430 miles (1875); Alton, Ill. to St. Louis, Mo. on the Mississippi (1876) and same year Bayou Goula to New Orleans, 100 miles in 24 hours; 400 miles on the Danube insix days (1876); navigated all important rivers of the continent, passed through canals of Venice and crossed the straits of Gibraltar; returned to the U.S. and floated from Oil City, Pa. to the Gulf of Mexico-2,342 miles in 80 days. His longest voyage was in 1881 when he started at Cedar Creek, Mont. and ended at St. Louis, Mo., 3,580 miles. In 1880-81 he was a commander of the Peruvian torpedo service, captured by the Chilians and ordered executed, but escaped by sea.


            John Bracken Leader of Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and former premier of Manitoba. b. June 22, 1883 at Seeley's Bay, Ont. An agriculturist, he was professor of field husbandry at the Univ. of Saskatchewan, 1910-20 and president of Manitoba Agricultural College, Univ. of Manitoba, 1920-22. Member of Manioba legislature and premier of Manitoba 1922-42. Elected to Canadian House of Commons, 1945. Leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, 1942-48. Mason.


            Hugh H. Brackenridge (1748-1816) Justice, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania from 1799-1816. b. near Campbelton, Scotland. Brought to United States when five years old. Graduated from Princeton in 1771 in same class as James Madison. Went to Philadelphia in 1776 and edited the United States Magazine. Served as a chaplain in the Revolution. d. June 25, 1816. Member of Lodge No. 45, Pittsburgh, Pa.


            Theophilus Bradbury (1739-1803) Justice, Supreme Court of Massachusetts. b. Nov. 13, 1739 in Newbury, Mass. Graduated at Harvard in 1757 and studied law while teaching at Falmouth (now Portland) Maine. Practiced law in Falmouth until 1779 when he returned to Newbury, served in both houses of the state legislature and twice elected to U.S. Congress, but resigned in 1797 to accept appointment of judge on the Massachusetts Supreme Court. Mason and member of Newburyport Commandery K.T. d. Sept. 6, 1803.


            Thomas Bradford (1745-1838) Son of Col. William Bradford, known as the "patriot printer of 1776." b. May 4, 1745 at Philadelphia. He entered his father's printing office and became his partner and associate editor of the Pennsylvania Journal which he changed to the True American in 1801. It was printed in the same building occupied by his great-uncle, Andrew (8 Front St.) who published the American Weekly Mercury, the first newspaper in Philadelphia (1719) in which Benjamin Franklin q.v. first worked as a compositor. Thomas became captain of a military company in Philadelphia in 1775 and later was commissary-general of the Pennsylvania division of the Continental Army. After founding of federal government, he became printer to Congress. He was a member of Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia as was his brother, William, Jr. q.v. d. May 7, 1838.


            William Bradford, Jr. (1755-1795) Son of Col. William Bradford who was known as the "patriot printer of 1776," and brother of Thomas q.v. b. Sept. 14, 1755 at Philadelphia. Graduated from Princeton in 1772 and studied law. Served in the Revolutionary War as lieut. colonel. In 1780 was appointed attorney general of Pennsylvania and justice of supreme court of Pennsylvania in 1791. On Jan. 8, 1794 he succeeded Edmund Randolph q.v. as the second attorney general of the United States and served until his death on Aug. 23, 1795. Member of Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia.


            Henry D. Bradley President of the St. Joseph News-Press-Gazette Corp. b. Jan. 10, 1893 at Detroit, Mich. Was with the Toledo Blade (Ohio) from1906-23 and in 1923 was with Lord Beaverbrook on the London Express (Eng.) in advisory capacity. From 1924-26 he was general manager of Norristown Times-Herald (Pa.) and president and general manager of the Times-Star at Bridgeport, Conn. He was publisher of the News Press and Gazette at St. Joseph from 1939 and president from 1950. He has recently turned the active managership over to his son, David. He is a member of Sanford L. Collins Lodge No. 396 of Toledo, Ohio, and a KCCH in the St. Joseph (Mo.) Consistory AASR (SJ).


            Joseph S. Bradley Major General, U.S. Army. b. June 9, 1900 at Vancouver, Wash. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy, 1919 and advanced through grades to major general in 1944. Served with American occupation forces following WW1 and with infantry regiments in U.S., China and Philippines. With 32nd Division in S.W. Pacific in 1942. Now chief of training group, War Department General Staff, G-2. Mason.


            Omar N. Bradley General of the Army (5-star). b. Feb. 12, 1893 at Clark, Mo. Graduated from West Point in 1915; Infantry School, 1925; Command and General Staff School, 1929; and Army War College, 1934. He has since received honorary LL.B. and other degrees from 20 institutions of higher learning. Advanced from 2nd lieut. in 1915 to brigadier general, 1941; major general, 1942; lieut. general, 1943; general, 1945 and general of the army, 1950. In WW2 he commanded the 2nd Corps in the Northern Tunisian and Sicilian campaigns; the 1st U.S. Army in the Normandy campaign and the 12th Army Group in France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg and Germany. He was chief of staff, U.S. Army 1948-49 and chairman U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 194953. In 1945-47 he was administrator of Veterans Affairs. Since 1953 he has been chairman of the board of Bulova Research and Development Labs., Inc. He was raised in West Point Lodge No. 877, Highland Falls, N.Y. in 1923.


            Willis W. Bradley (1884-1954) Naval officer, governor of Guam, U.S. Congressman. b. June 28, 1884 at Ransomville, N.Y. Graduated U.S. Naval Academy, 1907. Commissioned in Navy, 1907 and advanced through grades to captain in 1933, retiring in 1946. Governor of Guam 1929-31. Member of Congress from 18th dist. of California 1947-49. Awarded Congressional Medal of Honor in WW1 and Silver Medal from Pope Pius XI. Mason, 32° AASR, Knight Templar and Shriner. Past national president of National Sojourners. d. Aug. 27, 1954.


            Aaron Bradshaw Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. July 1, 1894 at Washington, D.C. Graduated U.S. Military Academy, 1917 and commissioned, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1943. Recipient of many decorations including Papal Lateran Cross. Editor of Coast Artillery Journal, 1936-40. Mason.


            De Emmett Bradshaw Former president of Woodmen of the World Life Insurance Society and now chairman of the board. b. Jan. 5, 1869 in Izard Co., Ark. Practiced law since 1894, first in Arkansas and later in Nebraska. General attorney for Woodmen 1916-32 and president, 1932-43. Director of Omaha National Bank and Western Union Telegraph Co. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.


            John Bradstreet (1711-1774) British Major General of the French-Indian Wars. b. in Horbling, England. Sent to America as a young officer and remained here the rest of his life. Served in the expedition against Louisburg in 1745 as lieut. colonel of Pepperell's regiment. Made captain in 1745 and the following year appointedlieutenant governor of St. John's, Newfoundland. Defeated a strong party of French between Oswego and Albany, N.Y. Participated in the attack on Ticonderoga in 1758 and was made quartermaster general with the rank of colonel. In Aug. 1758 he captured Fort Frontenac, which he razed to the ground and served under Amherst in his expedition against Crown Point and Ticonderoga in 1759. He was advanced to major general in 1772 and fought in Pontiac's war, negotiating a treaty of peace in Detroit in 1764. He was a member of the craft in Nova Scotia. d. Sept. 25, 1774 in New York City.


            John M. Bradstreet American lawyer and businessman, who, in 1849 established Bradstreet's Improved Mercantile Agency, which in 1876 was called the Bradstreet Co. In 1933 it merged with the R. G. Dunn and Co. to form Dunn and Bradstreet, Inc., a firm furnishing financial data and credit ratings of American businesses and businessmen. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, New York City.


            Hugh Brady (1768-1851) Major General in War of 1812. b. in Northumberland Co., Pa. Joined the army as an ensign in March, 1792 and served in the western expedition under General Wayne. In War of 1812 he led the 22nd Infantry in Battle of Chippewa and distinguished himself in battles of Lundy's Lane and Niagara. Made brigadier general in 1822 and major general in 1848. Initiated June 9, 1797 in Lodge No. 22, Sunbury, Pa. and withdrew Jan. 15, 1805. d. April 15, 1851.


            James H. Brady (1862-1918) U.S. Senator from Idaho. b. June 12, 1862 in Indiana Co., Pa. Moved to Idaho in 1894 and became governor of the state from 1909-11. Elected U.S. Senator in Jan. 1913 for term 1913-15 and again in 1914. Mason. d. Jan. 13, 1918.


            James T. Brady (1815-1869) Famous criminal lawyer. b. April 9, 1815 in New York City. Admitted to the bar in 1836. It was said that he never lost a case in which he was before the jury for more than a week. At one time he successfully defended four clients charged with murder in a single week, and all without fee or reward. Made a Mason at sight by the grand master of New York in 1866 in Ivanhoe Lodge No. 610. d. Feb. 9, 1869.


            David L. Brainard (1856-1946) Arctic explorer and brigadier general, U.S. Army. b. Dec. 21, 1856 in Norway, N.Y. Entered army as a private in 1876 and rose to brig. general in 1918. Served in Sioux, Nez Perce and Bannock campaigns (1877-78). Detailed for duty with Howgate Arctic exploring expedition in 1880. He was with Lady Franklin Bay Arctic expedition under Lt. Greely from 188184 and was one of the seven survivors rescued by Comdr. W. S. Schley. On May 13, 1882, he with two others reached the most northerly point attained up to that time (83°, 24', 30"). Received many awards and decorations for his services in the Arctic. Member of Marathon Lodge No. 438, Marathon, N.Y. in 1885. d. March 22, 1946.


            William G. Bramham (1874-1947) Baseball executive. b. July 13, 1874 at Hopkinsville, Ky. Admitted to N.C. bar in 1905 and practiced at Durham. President and treasurer of the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues, 1933-46 and from 1946 until death, consultant to the president of the National Association. He also served as president of the following professional baseball clubs: South Atlantic, Piedmont League, Eastern Carolina League, Virginia League. Mason and Shriner. d. July 8, 1947.


            Thomas E. Bramlette (1817-1875) Governor of Kentucky. b. Jan. 3, 1817 in Cumberland Co., Ky. Admitted to bar in 1837 he was judge of the sixth district in 1856 but resigned in 1861 to raise the 3rd Kentucky Infantry, and became its colonel. He was elected governor of Kentucky as a Union man in 1863 and by re-election until 1867. He was past master of Albany Lodge No. 260, Albany, Ky. and a Knight Templar. d. Jan. 12, 1875.


            Cardinal Brancafarte Casanova, in his Memoirs wrote of him: "The first day of the year, 1772, I presented myself to the Cardinal Brancafarte, Legate of the Pope, whom I had known at Paris 20 years previously when he was sent by Benoit (Benedict XIV) to carry the blessed linen clothes to the new-born Duke de Bourgoyne. We had been together in a Lodge of Freemasons for the members of the Sacred College who thundered against the Freemasons and knew well that their anathemas impressed only the weak, whom a too lively light might dazzle.”


            John Branch (1782-1863) Secretary of the Navy, Governor of North Carolina, Governor of Territory of Florida, U.S. Senator. b. Nov. 4, 1782 at Halifax, N.C. Studied law and became judge of the superior court and was state senator from 1811-17, 1822, 1834. Elected governor in 1817 and was U.S. Senator from 1823-29, resigning when appointed Secretary of the Navy by Pres. Jackson. In 1844-5 he was governor of the territory of Florida, serving until the election of a governor under the state constitution. Member of Royal White Hart Lodge No. 2, Halifax, N.C. d. Jan. 4, 1863.


            James T. Brand Justice, Supreme Court of Oregon. b. Oct. 9, 1886 at Oberlin, Ohio. Degrees from Oberlin College, Harvard and Willamette Univ. Began private law practice in 1914 after three years as a forest ranger. Served as circuit judge 192741 and since that time has been associate justice of the Supreme Court of Oregon and chief justice in 195152. He was appointed judge of the military tribunal for trial of major war criminals at Nurnberg, Germany in 1947. Mason.


            William A. Brandenburg (18691940) President of Kansas State Teachers College, 1913-40. b. Oct. 10, 1869 at Clayton Co., Iowa. Teacher and school superintendent in Iowa, Oklahoma and Kansas. Mason. d. Oct. 29, 1940.


            Rodney H. Brandon Organizer of Loyal Order of the Moose. b. Sept. 21, 1881 at Monroe Co., Ind. One of the founders of the Loyal Order of the Moose in 1906 and an official in it until 1929. In 1913 he supervised the construction of Mooseheart and established Moosehaven, Fla. in 1922. Organizer of the Progressive Party in Indiana in 1912, moving to Illinois in 1913 where he was delegate to state constitutional convention in 1919. From 1929-33 he was director of Department of Public Welfare of Ill. In 1926 he was special investigator for U.S. of child welfare conditions in Europe. Lecturer in criminology, social hygiene and medical jurisprudence, Univ. of Illinois since 1933. Mason.


            William W. Brandon (1868-1934) Governor of Alabama. b. June 5, 1868 at Talladega, Ala. Admitted to bar in 1892 and practiced at Tuscaloosa. Became successively a member of state house of representatives, clerk of Alabama constitutional convention, state auditor and probate judge. Served as governor from 1923-27. A major in Spanish American War, he was brigadier general and adjutant general of the Alabama national guard from 1898-1907. d. Dec. 7, 1934. Member of Rising Virtue Lodge No. 4 at Tuscaloosa.


            Samuel Brannan (1819-1889) Mormon pioneer of California. b. in Saco, Me., he was an editor and printer and elder in the Mormon church, editing Mormon journals. He was leader of the Mormon colony that arrived in San Francisco in July, 1846 on the ship Brooklyn from New York. The discovery of gold in 1848 led to the dissolution of the Mormon community in California and a little later to Brannan's apostasy from the Mormon church, an event that followed a quarrel with Brigham Young and other Utah leaders. Brannan was practically first in everything in the San Francisco area. He preached the first Protestant sermon in California and solemnized the first Protestant marriage in the state. He was the subject of the first jury trial and organized the first newspaper, The California Star in San Francisco (2nd in the state). He brought the first gold from Coloma and thereby started the first stampede from that village to the new diggings on the American River. He was the first to offer a resolution to exclude slavery from California. He was California's first millionaire, built the first flour mill in San Francisco and was a member of California Lodge No. 1, of San Francisco.


            Melvin A. Brannon (1865-1950) College president and biologist. b. Sept. 11, 1865 at Lowell, Ind. Taught science and biology 1890-1914. Organized School of Medicine, Univ. of North Dakota in 1905. President of Univ. of Idaho 1914-17 and Beloit College 1917-23. Chancellor University of Montana 1923-33. Mason. d. March 26, 1950.


            John Brant (1794-1832) Indian chief of the Mohawks and son of the more famous Joseph Brant q.v. His Indian name was Ahyouwaighs. b. Sept. 27, 1794 at Mohawk Village, Upper Canada. Served the British with distinction in the War of 1812. Visited England in 1821 in effort to settle differences between the Mohawks and the government of Upper Canada and correspondence shows that he was also commissioned by the grand lodge at Niagara to place the state of the Craft before the English Masonic authorities. He succeeded his father, the noted Joseph, as principal chief of the Six Nations in 1807. He died in Sept. 1832 of Asiatic cholera, having been elected to the parliament of Upper Canada only shortly before. It is supposed that he was initiated about 1815 in Union Lodge No. 24 which first met in Flamborough Village and afterwards at Dundas and Ancaster. He received his second degree on May 10, 1818. On Nov. 7, 1818 he was acting secretary of the lodge and was elected junior warden on Dec. 27, 1819.


            Joseph Brant (1742-1807) Mohawk Indian chief and later principal chief of the Six Nations. He was the first Indian-Freemason of which there is record and the most famous Indian of the Revolutionary period. b. on the banks of the Ohio river in 1742. Sir William Johnson q.v. became interested in him and educated him in Eleazar Wheelock's school. Johnson also was the common-law husband of Brant's sister, Molly. In 1771 Brant became chief sachem of the Six Nations at the age of 29. He fought with Johnson in Battle of Lake George (1755); Niagara campaign (1759) and Pontiac's War (1763). He became secretary to Guy Johnson q.v., superintendent of Indian affairs and nephew of Sir William, in 1774. Sent to England in 1775 where he was made a Freemason in Hiram's Cliftonian Lodge No. 417, London, early in 1776. Returning to America, he participated as a colonel in the Cherry Valley massacre (1778); Minisink, Fort Stanwixand Oriskany (1779). At the war's end in 1783, he settled with his Mohawks on a six square mile grant on the Grand River in Ontario (Upper Canada). During the war Brant was credited with saving the lives of several Freemasons who appealed to him Masonically. They were: Col. John McKinstry (May 20, 1776); Lt. Johnathan Maynard (May 30, 1778); Major John Wood (July 19, 1779); Lt. Thomas Boyd (Sept. 13, 1779) who was later killed by the whites (q.v. each of the above names). In 1785 Brant again visited England in connection with a land grant and in 1796 was present at the first meeting of Barton Lodge No. 10, being listed as a member. In 1798 a charter was issued to Lodge No. 11, Brantford, Mohawk Village and named Joseph Brant as first master. He died Nov. 24, 1807 at the Brant mansion in Wellington Square, Ont. and his son John (Ahyouwaighs) was named principal chief as his successor q.v.


            Charles W. Brashares Methodist Bishop. b. March 31, 1891 at Williamsport, Ohio. Attended Ohio Wesleyan, Boston Univ., Harvard and Cornell, receiving degrees of A.B., D.D., LL.D. Ordained Methodist Episcopal church in 1917 and served as pastor in Mass., Maine, Ohio, and Mich. from 1917-44. Bishop of Des Moines area from 194452 and bishop of Chicago area since 1952. Mason. Raised in Harmony Lodge No. 38, Gorham, Me. about 1918 and received AASR degrees in Dayton, Ohio. Demitted.


            Alva J. Brasted Chief of chaplains, U.S. Army. b. July 5, 1876 at Findley Lake, N.Y. Ordained to Baptist ministry in 1905 and held pastorates in N. Dak., Minn., and Iowa until 1913 when commissioned chaplain in U.S. Army, rising to rank of colonel and chief of chaplains 1933-47. Now retired. Raised in Wauconda Lodge No. 298, Wauconda, Ill. and presently member of Sojourners Lodge No. 51, Washington, D.C. 32° AASR (SJ) in Fargo, N. Dak. in 1916.


            Sam G. Bratton U.S. Senator from New Mexico and federal judge. b. Aug. 19, 1888 at Kosse, Texas. Educated in public schools and admitted to Texas bar in 1909, moving to Clovis, N. Mex. in 1915. Judge of the district court, 5th judicial dist. of N. Mex. 1919-22; associate justice supreme court of New Mex. 1923-24; U.S. Senator from N. Mex. 1925-33. Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals, 10th circuit since 1933. Member of Clovis Lodge No. 40, Clovis, New Mexico, 32° AASR (SJ) in Valley of Santa Fe; Ballut Abyad Shrine Temple, Albuquerque, N.M. and Honorary Legion of Honor, Order of DeMolay.


            Mason Brayman (1813-?) Major General in Civil War (Union). b. May 23, 1813 in Buffalo, N. Y. Brought up as a farmer, but became a printer and edited the Buffalo (N. Y.) Bulletin, later studying law and taking up practice in Monroe, Mich. in 1838. In 1842 he opened a law office in Springfield, Ill. In 1845-46 he was special attorney to prosecute offenses growing out of the Mormon difficulties and negotiated a peace between the followers of Joseph Smith q.v. and their enemies at Nauvoo, Ill. Joined volunteer army in 1861 and was major in the 29th Illinois regiment, being promoted to major general at the close of the war. After war he engaged in railroad enterprises, edited the Illinois State Journal and moved to Wisconsin in 1873 and in 1876 was appointed as governor of the Territory of Idaho for four years, later returning to Wisconsin and practicing law at Ripon. Mason. Member Springfield (Ill) Lodge No. 4.


            David Brearley (1745-1790) Revolutionary soldier, member of Constitutional Convention, chief justice of New Jersey and first grand master of New Jersey. b. June 11, 1745 near Trenton, N.J. He practiced law in Allentown and took an early part in the controversy with England for which he was arrested for high treason but set free by a mob of his fellow citizens. He was a member of the first convention to frame a constitution prior to 1781, and was an officer in the Revolutionary War. Elected chief justice of New Jersey in 1779, he served until 1789, when he was appointed U.S. District judge. He was one of the compilers of the Protestant Episcopal prayer-book of 1785 and was first grand master of New Jersey, serving from 1786 until his death on Aug. 10, 1790. Mason.


            John Breathitt (1786-1834) Governor of Kentucky. b. Sept. 9, 1786 near New London, Va., he moved to Kentucky with his father in 1800 where he was a surveyor, teacher, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1810. A Jacksonian Democrat, he served several years in the legislature and was lieut. governor of Kentucky in 1828-32 and governor in 1832-34. He was a member of Russellville Lodge No. 17 and Russellville Chapter No. 8, R.A.M.


            Daniel Breck (1788-1871) Judge, Supreme Court of Kentucky and U.S. Congressman. b. Feb. 12, 1788 at Tops-field, Mass. Graduated at Dartmouth in 1812, studied law and began practice in Richmond, Ky. in 1814. He became judge of the Richmond County court, was a member of the Kentucky house of representatives from 1824-29 and a judge of the supreme court of Kentucky from 1834-49. He served in the 31st Congress from 1849-51. A past master of Richmond Lodge No. 25, he served as grand master of Kentucky in 1827-28.


            John Cabell Breckinridge (18211875) 14th Vice President of the United States, U.S. Senator, major general in Confederate army and secretary of war of the Confederate states. b. Jan. 21, 1821 near Lexington, Ky. A grandson of John Breckinridge, U.S. Senator and attorney general. Educated at Centre College and Transylvania Institute, he resided in Burlington, Iowa for a short time before settling at Lexington, Ky. where he practiced law. While in Burlington he petitioned Des Moines Lodge No. 41 (now 1) on Feb. 7, 1842 and on Dec. 5, 1842 was elected senior warden of the lodge, and re-elected on June 5, 1843. Served as a major in the war with Mexico in 1847, returning to Kentucky to be elected first to the house of representatives and then to the U.S. Congress in 1851 and again in 1853. Elected vice president of the U.S. in 1856, serving from 1857-1861. As a presidential candidate in 1860 he received 72 electoral votes. The same year he was elected U.S. Senator from Kentucky to succeed John J. Crittenden q.v. At the beginning of the Civil War, he defended the south in the Senate and soon entered the Confederate service for which he was expelled from the senate on Dec. 4, 1861. On Aug. 5, 1862 he was made major general and for the next two years fought in many battles. He was secretary of war in Jefferson Davis's cabinet from Jan. 1865 until the close of the conflict when he fled to Cuba and then to Europe. He returned to the states in 1868 determined to have no further part in politics. He became a member of Good Samaritan Lodge No. 174 at Lexington, Ky. by affiliation; was suspended in 1861 and reinstated on Nov. 16, 1871. He was a member of Temple Chapter No. 19, R.A.M., Webb Commandery No. 2, K.T., both of Lexington and received the 33° AASR (SJ) on March 28, 1860. d. May 17, 1875 at Lexington, Ky. and was buried with Knight Templar services.


            Robert Jefferson Breckinridge (1800-1871) Clergyman, lawyer, author and principal author of the public school system of Kentucky. b. March 8, 1800 at Cabell's Dell, Ky. Attended Princeton and practiced law for eight years, but in 1829 he determined to enter the ministry and was licensed to preach in 1832. Held several Presbyterian pastorates including Martimore and Lexington, Ky. Served four years in Kentucky legislature. Edited several religious magazines and wrote a number of books. He was opposed to slavery even though his nephew John C. Breckinridge q.v. was secretary of war in Jefferson Davis's cabinet. He presided over the national Republican convention in 1864 which renominated Lincoln. His nephew, John C., was Lincoln's closest contender in the previous election. Member of Lexington Lodge No. 1 and Lexington Chapter No. 1 of Lexington, Ky. d. Dec. 27, 1871.


            William C. P. Breckinridge (18371904) Member U.S. Congress (188495) from 7th Kentucky district. First cousin of John C. Breckinridge q.v. vice-president of the United States. b. Aug. 28, 1837 at Baltimore, Md. son of Robert J. Breckinridge q.v. Although his father was opposed to slavery, William entered the Confederate army as a captain in 1861 and became colonel of the 9th Kentucky cavalry and commanded the brigade when it surrendered. Became professor of equity jurisprudence in Cumberland Univ., Term. A member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Ky., he delivered the oration at the cornerstone laying of the Masonic Temple in Richmond, Virginia in 1888.


            Ernest R. Breech Chairman of the board of Ford Motor Company. b. Lebanon, Mo. Feb. 24, 1897. Began as an accountant with Fairbanks, Morse & Co. in 1917. Assistant treasurer of General Motors Corp., 1929-33 and vice president, 1933-42; chairman of board of North American Aviation 1933-42; president of Bendix Aviation Corp., 1942-47. Executive vice president and director of Ford Motor Co. from 1946-1955 and chairman of the board since. Holds directorates of several large corporations. Raised in Austin Lodge No. 850, Chicago, Ill. in 1924. AASR (NJ) at Detroit and sovereign grand inspector general, 33°, since Sept. 1956.


            R. E. Breed (1866-1926) Organizer and president of American Gas & Electric Co. b. March 17, 1866 at Pittsburgh, Pa. Director of many corporations. Mason. d. Oct. 14, 1926.


            Robert G. Breene Major general, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 17, 1894 at Dayton, Ohio. Graduated with B.S. in M.E. from Purdue Univ. in 1917. Commissioned in 1917 and advanced through grades to major general in 1943. Mason.


            Edmund Breese (1871-1936) Actor. b. June 18, 1871 at Brooklyn, N.Y. On the legitimate stage from 1896. Played lead roles in Neil Gwynn, Marie Stuart and Frou Frou. With James O'Neil in Merchant of Venice (1898); all star cast of Monte Cristo (1899), Romeo and Juliet (1899), Ransom's Folly (1904), Strongheart (1905). Originated "John Burkett Ryder" in The Lion and the Mouse which he played in New York and London. Later played "Richard Brewster" in The Third Degree. Star of The Earth in 1909. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 6, Norwalk, Conn. d. April 6, 1936.


            Sidney Breese (1800-1878) U.S. Senator from Illinois and chief justice, Supreme Court of Illinois. b. July 15, 1800 at Whitesboro, N.Y. Moved to Illinois in 1821 where he became assistant secretary of state the following year and advanced tostate attorney, U.S. attorney, circuit judge and in 1841 elected to the supreme court of that state. From 184349 he was U.S. Senator from Illinois. In 1857 he was again elected to the supreme court and in 1873 became chief justice, holding that position until his death. Served in the Black Hawk War; a regent of the Smithsonian Institution; one of the organizers of the Illinois Central Railroad. He was a member and past master of Scott Lodge No. 79, Carlyle, Ill. d. June 27, 1878.


            Walter E. Brehm U.S. Congressman from 11th Ohio district 78th to 81st Congresses (1943-51). b. May 25, 1892 at Somerset, Ohio. Practiced dentistry at Logan, Ohio 1917-42. Served in Ohio legislature two terms. Initiated in Somerset Lodge No. 76 in 1915 and presently member of Mingo Lodge No. 171, Logan, Ohio. Exalted in Somerset Chapter No. 61, R.A.M. presently member of Logan Chapter No. 75. Took his council and commandery work at New Lexington, Ohio and presently member of those bodies at Logan. Member of Consistory (32°) AASR (NJ) at Columbus and Aladdin Shrine at Columbus. Has served as master of his lodge, high priest of chapter, commander of commandery and also secretary of lodge.


            Sereno E. Brett (1891-1952) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Oct. 31, 1891 at Portland, Oreg. Commissioned in 1916 and rose to brigadier general in 1942. A pioneer in tank warfare, he organized and commanded the 327th Battalion Tank Corps in June 1918, and as a major led the first American tank attack with the 326th battalion at St. Mihiel, Sept. 12-15, 1918. Commanded 1st American Tank Brigade throughout Meuse-Argonne. He was chief of staff of the Armored Force in 1940-41 and commanded the Fifth Armored Division from 1942 until retirement Oct. 31, 1943. Member of Hancock Lodge No. 311, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, Hawaiian Chapter No. 9 of National Sojourners and Lafayette Chapter No. 7, Heroes of '76 at Baltimore. d. Sept. 9, 1952.


            Basil Brewer Newspaper and radio executive. b. July 22, 1884 at Rush Hill, Mo. With Scripps-Howard papers from 1908-21 in Cincinnati, Cleveland and Omaha, Nebr. Now publisher and controlling owner of New Bedford (Mass.) Standard-Times and Cape Cod Standard-Times, Hyannis, Mass. and radio stations WNBH, WFMR and WOCB in Mass. Mason.


            Earl LeRoy Brewer ( 1869 - 1942 ) Governor of Mississippi. b. Aug. 11, 1869 in Carroll Co., Miss. Received LL.B. from Univ. of Mississippi in 1892 and practiced law at Water Valley, Miss. 1882-1901. Member of Mississippi state senate 1895-99 and governor of the state from 1912-16. Ma-on. d. March 10, 1942.


            Few Brewster Justice, Supreme Court of Texas. b. May 10, 1889 at Corn Hill, Texas. Graduate of Howard Payne College (Texas) and Univ. of Texas. Admitted to bar in 1915 and held offices of county attorney, district attorney, district judge and judge of court of appeals. Has been associate justice of the supreme court of Texas since 1945. Served as 2nd lieutenant of Infantry in WW1. Raised in Killeen, Texas in 1910.


            Owen Brewster Governor of Maine and U.S. Senator. b. Feb. 22, 1888 at Dexter, Me. Graduated from Bowdoin College, Harvard and Univ. of Maine. Member of the Maine house of representatives, 1917-19, 1921-23 and of the state senate in 1923-25. He served two terms as governor of Maine, 1925-29 and was a member of the 74th to 76th Congresses from Maine 3rd district (1935-41). Elected U.S. Senator, serving from 1941-53. Member of Penobscot Lodge No. 39, Dexter, Maine, as was his father and grandfather, before him; St. John's Chapter No. 25, R.A.M. and DeMolay Commandery, K.T. both of Dexter. 32° AASR (NJ) and member of Anah Shrine Temple, Bangor, Maine. When Harry S. Truman, a fellow-senator, was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, Brewster spoke at the grand lodge session at Truman's request.


            Charles R. Brice Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New Mexico. b. Aug. 6, 1870 at Terrell, Texas. Admitted to Texas bar in 1893, moving to Carlsbad, N. Mex. in 1903. Served as justice of the supreme court of New Mexico from 1935 to 1951, being chief justice in 1941-42, 1947-51. Returned to private practice in Roswell, 1951. Mason and 32° AASR.


            Jean Joseph Brice English strong man. Member of St. James Union Lodge No. 177, London on Dec. 12, 1866.


            John W. Bricker Governor and U.S. Senator from Ohio. b. Sept. 6, 1893 in Madison Co., Ohio. A.B. and LL.B. from Ohio State Univ. Admitted to bar in 1917 and became assistant attorney general of Ohio in 1923, serving until 1927. Became attorney general in 1933 serving until 1937. Elected governor of Ohio in 1939 and re-elected two more terms until 1945. In 1944 he was the Republican candidate for vice president of the United States. Was elected to the U.S. Senate from Ohio in Nov. 1945 and has served continuously since that time. An active Mason, Bricker is a member of Mt. Sterling Lodge No. 269, Mt. Vernon, Ohio, Community Chapter No. 227, R.A.M., Columbus Council No. 8, R. & S.M., Mt. Vernon Commandery No. 1, Scioto Consistory (AASR-NJ), receiving honorary 33° in 1942, and Aladdin Temple AAONMS.


            Mead L. Bricker Banker and former vice president of Ford Motor Co. b. April 24, 1885 at Youngstown, Ohio. Began as a machinist in 1904 and became vice president and director of manufacturing of Ford Motor Co., resigning to become director of City Bank of Detroit and director of several corporations. Raised in Friendship Lodge No. 417, Detroit, Mich. in May, 1914 and is life member of the lodge. Is president of the Detroit Masonic Temple Building Fund and member of Grand Lodge of Michigan foreign relations committee. Member of King Cyrus Chapter No. 133, R.A.M. of Detroit and 33° AASR (NJ), Detroit; Moslem Shrine Temple; St. Clement Conclave No. 39, Red Cross of Constantine and The Royal Order of Scotland.


            Styles Bridges Governor of New Hampshire and U.S. Senator. b. Sept. 9, 1898 at West Pembroke, Me. Graduate of Univ. of Maine and Dartmouth with LL.D. degrees from several universities. Began as instructor in Sandhurst Academy, Ashfield, Mass. 1918, later county agent and extension specialist for Univ. of New Hampshire. Later of Granite Monthly magazine and director of New Hampshire Investment Co. Governor of New Hampshire, 1935-37 and U.S. Senator since 1937. Republican leader of Senate in 1952 and president pro tern in 1953. Received his degrees in Morning Sun Lodge, Conway, Mass. and is member of Eureka Lodge, No. 70, Concord, N.H. Member of Trinity Chapter No. 2, Concord, N.H. and Mt. Horeb Commandery, as well as Bektash Shrine Temple, all of Concord.


            Ansel W. Briggs (1806-1881) Inaugurated first governor of the newly constituted State of Iowa on December 3, 1846. His Masonic membership is obscure. He was often in the company of many active Masons, Robert Lucas q.v., the first territorial governor, being among them. The confused records of Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Bellevue, Nebr. which was organized in 1854, gives him as a charter member in one official account issued by the Grand Lodge of Illinois (from whence the charter came) and in another his name does not appear. At this time Briggs was at a hamlet on the Missouri River called St. Mary's not far south of where Omaha now stands and opposite the town of Bellevue in the Territory of Nebraska.


            Asa G. Briggs (1862-1945) Director U.S. Chamber of Commerce (193034). b. Dec. 20, 1862 at Arcadia, Wis. Admitted to Minn. bar in 1887. An officer of the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence Tidewater Assn. and St. Paul Chamber of Commerce and director on the national board for Camp Fire Girls. Mason and Shriner. d. Aug. 31, 1945.


            Eugene S. Briggs President of Phillips University, Enid, Okla. since 1938. b. Feb. 1, 1890 in Howard Co., Mo. B.S. Central College (Mo.); B.S., M.A. and Ph.D. Univ. of Missouri. High school principal in Missouri and Okla. 1913-23. President State Teachers College, Durant, Okla. 1928-33; director adult education Mo. State Dept. of Education 1934-35; president of Christian College, Columbia, Mo. 1935-38 and president of Phillips Univ. since 1938. Elected to Oklahoma Hall of Fame in 1951. Member of Garfield Lodge No. 501, Enid, Okla. and Enid Commandery No. 13, K.T., Enid. Member of Trenton Chapter No. 66, R.A.M. and Trenton Council No. 37, R. & S.M., both of Trenton, Mo. Member of Akdar Shrine Temple of Tulsa. Charter member and first president of High Twelve at Okmulgee and past president of the Enid High Twelve Club. Member of DeMolay Legion of Honor. Brother of Frank P. Briggs q.v.


            Frank A. Briggs Former Governor of North Dakota. Was 32° AASR and KCCH in Scottish Rite, being buried Masonically.


            Frank P. Briggs U.S. Senator from Missouri and newspaper owner. b. Feb. 25, 1894 at Armstrong, Mo. Graduate of Univ. of Missouri 1914. Edited newspapers in Fayette, Moberly, Trenton, Mo. and Shawnee, Okla. Editor and owner of the Macon Chronicle-Herald (Mo.) since 1924. Member of Missouri state senate from 1933 to 1945, serving as president 1941-45. Appointed U.S. Senator from Mo. Jan. 18, 1945 to fill unexpired term of Harry S. Truman q.v. by Governor Donnelly q.v. Member of Missouri Conservation Commission since 1947. Past grand high priest of the Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons of Missouri and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri (1957). Raised in Fayette Lodge No. 47, Fayette, Mo. on Aug. 17, 1915; later a member of Trenton Lodge No. 111, Trenton, Mo. (1917-24) and presently member of Censer Lodge No. 172, Macon. Member of Macon Chapter No. 22, R.A.M. and past high priest; Centralia Council No. 34, R. & S.M. and past master, and Emmanuel Commandery No. 7, Macon. Ararat Shrine Temple of Kansas City.


            Leon E. Briggs Treasurer of Ford Motor Co. b. Jan. 31, 1892 at Syracuse, N.Y. Started with Ford Motor Co. as a stenographer in 1914, advancing as branch auditor, branch comptroller, traveling auditor, assistant general auditor, general auditor and treasurer since 1946. He is vice president and treasurer of the Ford Motor Co. Fund. Served in navy in WW1. Mason.


            Elbert S. Brigham U.S. Congressman, 69th to 71st Congresses (192531) from first district of Vermont. b. Oct. 19, 1877 at St. Albans, Vt. President of the National Life Insurance Co., Montpelier, Vt. retiring in 1948 and is now president of the Franklin Co. Savings Bank & Trust Co. of St. Albans. Member of Franklin Lodge No. 4, St. Albans, Vt. and 33° AASR (NJ) at Burlington, Vt.


            Howard R. Brinker Episcopal bishop. b. Oct. 20, 1893 at Nashotah, Wis. Graduate of the Univ. of Pennsylvania (1918) and ordained priest in the Episcopal Church in 1919. Served as rector in Wyoming and Illinois and dean of the Chicago South Deanery, 1935-39. A member of the diocesan council 1924-40, chairman of department of publicity, 1939 and chairman department of missions 1930-38. Bishop of Nebraska, 1943, provisional bishop of Missionary District, Western Nebraska, 1943 and bishop of reunited diocese and district since 1946. Raised in Ashlar Lodge No. 10, Douglas, Wyo. about 1920 and presently a member of Nebraska Lodge No. 1, Omaha, Nebr.


            George F. Briston Composer. Member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2, New York City.


            Marquis de Britigney Served as a colonel in the American Revolution. Member of St. Johns Lodge No. 3, New Bern, North Carolina.


            James L. Britt (1861-1939) U.S. Congressman to 64th and 65th Congresses (1915-19) from 10th North Carolina district. b. March 4, 1861 at Johnson City, Tenn. Practiced law at Asheville, N.C. Special attorney for department of justice 1906-9 and special assistant to attorney general in 1910 for prosecution of civil cases for Post Office dept. Minority leader of N.C. senate in 1909. Mason. d. Dec. 26, 1939.


            Edwin F. Britten, Jr. President of Monroe Calculating Machine Co. b. Feb. 2, 1885 at Jersey City, N.J. Graduated from Cornell Univ. 1907. Employed as a mechanical engineer and executive from 1907-17 by several companies. In 1917 he became vice president in charge of manufacture of the Monroe Co. and has been president since 1937. Holds many patents on calculating and office machines. Mason.


            Daniel Broadhead ( 1736 - 1809 ) Revolutionary soldier. In 1775 he raised a company of riflemen who served in the battle of Long Island. He was appointed colonel of the 8th Pennsylvania regiment, and in April 1778, led a successful expedition against the Muskingum Indians. He made two important treaties with the Indians and received the thanks of Congress, being made brigadier general after the war. He was a member of Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia, Pa. d. Nov. 15, 1809.


            James 0. Broadhead First president of the American Bar Association, congressman and diplomat. When the American Bar Association was founded in 1878, James 0. Broadhead of St. Louis was chosen its first president. His original membership is not known, but at his death in 1898, he was a member of Tuscan Lodge No. 360 of St. Louis, Mo.


            Glen P. Brock President of Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroad. b. Nov. 22, 1896 at Alden, Ia. Graduated from Univ. of Illinois in 1922. Started with the Illinois Central Railroad in 1912, going to the Gulf and Mobile in 1923 as assistant to general manager. Was general manager from 1934; vice president and general manager from 1940. President since June, 1957. Raised in Palestine Lodge No. 849, Palestine, Ill. in 1921. 32° AASR in Mobile, Ala. and member of Abba Shrine Temple of Mobile.


            William Brockmeier (1866-1947) Conducted 5,586 Masonic funeral services. Member of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 40, St. Louis, Mo. He started keeping records of the funerals in 1911, although he had attended many before that time. The dignity and eloquence he developed through the years resulted in requests from other lodges for his services and he eventually represented 48 lodges, serving each without remuneration. As a stationary engineer with the American Brake Co., he worked a night shift and thus had free time in the day. He attended his last funeral on May 29, 1947 at the age of 81—it was his own.


            Charles Brockwell English clergyman, who it is claimed, delivered the first recorded Masonic sermon on Dec. 27, 1749 at Christ Church, Boston, Mass.


            Edward E. Brodie (1876-1939) U. S. Envoy and Minister to Siam and Finland. b. March 12, 1876, at Fort Stevens, Oreg. A newspaper man, he began with the Morning Enterprise, Oregon City in 1901 and later became owner and publisher until 1935. Became Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Siam in 1921, resigning in 1925. In 1930 he was E.E. and M.P. to Finland, serving until 1933. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. June 27, 1939.


            William A. Brodie Laid the foundation stone of the Statue of Liberty in New York harbor on August 5, 1884 as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York.


            Kazimierz Brodzinski (1791-1835) Polish epic poet and scholar. Was professor of Polish literature at Warsaw from 1826. A Freemason. His best known work was Wieslaw, written in 1820.


            Samuel Broers President Firestone International Co. b. Jan. 1, 1892 in Amsterdam, Holland, coming to the U.S. in 1909. Began career as shipping clerk in 1910 and started with Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio as an export clerk in 1914, rising through field manager, export manager, and in charge of all overseas operations since 1934. Raised in Adoniram Lodge No. 517, Akron, Ohio in 1922.


            Willis J. Brogden (1877-1935) Justice, Supreme Court of North Carolina. b. Oct. 18, 1877 at Goldsboro, N.C. Admitted to bar in 1907 and practiced at Durham. Elected associate justice of the supreme court in 1926. Mason. d. Oct. 29, 1935.


            Henry P. H. Bromwell (1823-1903) Masonic author. b. Aug. 26, 1823 in Baltimore Co., Md. Moved to Illinois, studied law and became judge of the circuit court of Fayette Co. He later edited a newspaper and served in the state legislature from 1865-69. A member of the Illinois Constitutional Convention in 1869. He was raised in Temperance Lodge No. 16, Vandalia, Ill. in 1854, master in 1856 and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1864. Was grand orator of the grand lodge four times; high priest of Edgar Chapter No. 32, R.A.M. in 1858, knighted in Elwood Commandery No. 6, 1861 and received the AASR from A. G. Mackey in 1877. Moved to Colorado and became active in the Grand Lodge of Colorado, affiliating with Denver Lodge No. 5. Grand orator of Colorado in 1874. Author of the ponderous volume Restorations of Masonic Geometry and Symbolism. d. Jan. 9, 1903.


            Green C. Bronson (1789-1863) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New York. b. in Oneida, N.Y. Practiced law at Utica, N.Y. and elected attorney general in 1829. At this time he came under attack for being a "high Mason" by the Anti-Masonic Enquirer published at Rochester. Became chief justice of supreme court in 1945 and two years later one of the judges of the court of appeals, just organized. He left the bench and practiced law in New York City. d. Sept. 3, 1863. Chief justice in 1845.


            John R. Brooke (1838-1926) Major General, U.S. Army. b. July 21, 1838 in Montgomery Co., Pa. Enlisted in -the 4th Pennsylvania Infantry in 1861. Participated in Civil War battles of Cold Harbor, Gettysburg, Spottsylvania Court-House and Tolopotomy and made brigadier general for gallantry. Resigned from volunteer service and entered regular army as lieutenant colonel, rising to major general in 1897. Was head of the military commission and governor general of Puerto Rico and governor general of Cuba. Retired in 1902. Mason and member of Columbia Chapter No. 21, R.A.M. Philadelphia, Pa. d. Sept. 5, 1926.


            Laurens Brooke Surgeon and medical officer to John Paul Jones q.v., father of the American Navy. Was a member of Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, Va. He served on Jones' ships Ranger and Bon Homme Richard.


            Robert Brooke Governor of Virginia from 1794-96. He also served as attorney general of Virginia • from 1798-1800 and it was during this period that Henry Clay q.v. studied in his law office. At the outbreak of the Revolution he was a medical student at the University of Edinburgh and returned to America to serve as a first lieutenant of cavalry. A member and past master of Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, he became grand master of Virginia on Nov. 23, 1795.


            Walker Brooke (1813-1869) U.S. Senator from Mississippi. b. Dec. 13, 1813 in Virginia. Graduated from Univ. of Virginia in 1835, studied law, emigrated to Kentucky where he taught school two years and then took up practice in Lexington, Miss. Elected senator and served from March, 1852 to March, 1853. He was a member of the Mississippi seceding convention of 1861. He was a member of the Confederate congress, but was defeated for the Confederate senate. He was a member of Hill City Lodge No. 121, Vicksburg, Miss. past high priest of Lexington Chapter No. 9, Lexington, Ky. and the second grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Mississippi (1848). He demitted from the chapter in 1858. d. Feb. 19, 1869.


            Bryant B. Brooks (1861-1944) Governor of Wyoming. b. Feb. 5, 1861 at Bernardston, Mass. A livestock grower in Wyoming from 1882, was president of Consolidated Royalty Oil Co. and Wyoming National Bank, serving in the Wyoming legislature in 1892. He was a presidential elector in 1900 and governor of Wyoming from 190511. He was a member of Ashlar Lodge No. 10 at Douglas, Wyo. and later of Casper Lodge No. 15, Casper, of which he was past master. In 1940 he was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Wyoming. d. Dec. 7, 1944.


            C. Wayland Brooks ( 1897 - 1957 ) U.S. Senator from Illinois. b. March 8, 1897 in West Bureau Co., Ill. Student at Wheaton College and Univ. of Chicago, receiving LL.B. from Northwestern Univ. in 1926. Admitted to bar in 1926 and practiced in Chicago. Elected U.S. Senator in 1939 and reelected in 1942 for six-year term. Served with Marines in WW1 and was wounded seven times, receiving D.S.C. from both Army and Navy and was retired at age of 21. Member of Wheaton Lodge No. 269, Wheaton, Ill., being raised Jan. 24, 1920. Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1946. 33° AASR (NJ), York Rite Mason and member of St. John's No.1, Red Cross of Constantine. d. Jan. 14, 1957.


            Henry L. Brooks U.S. District Judge (Ky.). b. Dec. 9, 1905 at Louisville, Ky. Graduate of Univ. of Wisconsin and Jefferson School of Law. Admitted to bar in 1928 and practiced at Louisville. Judge of Jefferson Circuit Court, 1946-48 and U.S. District Judge since 1954. Member of Louisville Lodge No. 400, Louisville, Ky. AASR in Valley of Kentucky (KCCH).


            John Brooks (1752-1825) Governor of Massachusetts. First elected in 1816 and re-elected seven years in succession, finally declining to again be a candidate. b. May 31, 1752 at Medford, Mass. Studied medicine under Dr. Simon Tufts and settled at Reading, Mass. as a physician. Drilled a company of minute-men and was present at the Battle of Lexington. Participated in Fort Stanwix expedition and Battle of Saratoga. He was then promoted to colonel (1778) and was associated with Baron von Steuben q.v. in training the Continental Army. A friend of Washington, he was major general of the militia for many years, practicing law at Medford, Mass. From 1812-15 he was adjutant general of Mass. He received his E.A. degree in American Union Lodge (Military) on Aug. 28, 1779 and later a member of Washington Lodge No. 10 (Military) under Grand Lodge of Mass. d. March 1, 1825.


            Overton Brooks U.S. Congressman from 4th Louisiana district, 75th to 81st Congresses (1936-51). b. Dec. 21, 1897 at East Baton Rouge, La. Received LL.B. from Louisiana State Univ. 1923, practicing law at Shreveport. Served in WW1 in 1st Division field artillery. Raised on Joppa Lodge No. 362, Shreveport, La. about 1921. 32° AASR (SJ), Shriner and honorary member of National Sojourners.


            Samuel P. Brooks ( 1863 - 1931 ) President of Baylor University, 19021931. b. Dec. 4, 1863 at Milledgeville, Ga. Graduate of several universities, including Baylor, Yale and Univ. of Chicago. Was vice president of the Southern Baptist Convention in Baltimore, 1910 and president of the Baptist General Convention of Texas, 1914-17. A Mason, he was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Texas in 1914 and 1922. d. May 14, 1931.


            Stratton D. Brooks ( 1869 - 1949 ) University president b. Sept. 10, 1869 at Everett, Mo. Principal of high schools from 1890-99 in Illinois and Michigan; assistant professor of education and high school inspection, Univ. of 1899-1902; assistant superintendent of schools, Boston, 1902-06; superintendent of schools, Cleveland, 0., 1906; superintendent of schools, Boston, 1906-12; president of Univ. of Oklahoma, 1912-23; president of Univ. of Missouri, 1923-31. Educational director, Order of DeMolay from 1931. Member of Norman (Okla.) Lodge No. 38; Columbia (Mo.) Chapter No. 17, R.A.M. (1923); St. Graal Commandery (Mo.) No. 12, K.T. (1924). d. Jan. 18, 1949.


            Wiley G. Brooks College president. b. Oct. 24, 1886 at Adelphia, Ohio. Superintendent of schools in Idaho, Nebraska and Iowa from 191037. President and trustee of Illinois Wesleyan Univ. 1937-40 and president of Nebraska State Teachers College, Chadron, since 1941. Mason, 32° AASR, Knight Templar.


            Jacob Broom (1752-1810) Signer of Federal Constitution in 1787. One of the delegates from Delaware to the Philadelphia convention meeting on May 14, 1787 and was among the signers of Sept. 17. He was a member of the Delaware legislature from 1784-88 and the first postmaster of Wilmington in 1790-92. He was aschool teacher, real estate dealer and surveyor. Two weeks before the Battle of Brandywine, he drew a map of this area for the use of General Washington. An early member of Lodge No. 14, Christiana Ferry (Wilmington) Del., he was elected secretary and treasurer on June 24, 1780, junior warden June 25, 1781 and again treasurer in 1783. d. April 25, 1810.


            Joseph J. Broshek Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Nov. 1, 1886 at New Bedford, Mass. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1908 and Columbia Univ. in 1915. Commissioned ensign in 1910, advancing through grades to rear admiral in 1942 and retired in 1946. Served on U.S.S. George Washington in WW1 and was head of maintenance, Bureau of Ships, Navy Dept. to retirement in 1946. Member of Mistletoe Lodge No. 647, Brooklyn, N.Y. Deceased.


            Henry Peter Brougham (Baron Brougham and Vaux) (1778-1868). Lord High Chancellor of England from 1830. b. Sept. 19, 1778 at Edinburgh, Scotland. With Sydney Smith and Jeffrey, founded the Edinburgh Review in 1802. Practiced at English bar in 1808 and member of parliament in 1810. He carried the measure making slave trade a felony and defended Queen Caroline as her attorney general in trial (1820). He was a founder of London Univ. in 1828 and by a famous speech in 1831 helped pass the Reform Bill. He was the original "learned friend" in Peacock's Crochet Castle. The brougham (carriage) is named for him. He was initiated, passed and raised in Fortrose Lodge, Stornoway, Scotland on Aug. 20, 21, 1799 and on June 24, 1800 affiliated with Canongate Kilwinning Lodge in Edinburgh. d. May 7, 1868.


            John Brougham (1810-1880) Actor and playwright. b. May 9, 1810 in Dublin, Ireland. Orphaned early in life, he was raised by an eccentric uncle. Studied medicine, but took to the stage to make a living, first appearing in the Tottenham theatre in Dublin in July, 1830. His first hit was as O'Slash in The Invincibles. His first 20 years were passed in Dublin and the remainder was divided between runs in New York and London. Made his first appearance on the American stage as O'Callaghan in His Last Legs on Oct. 4, 1842 at the Park theatre in New York City. In addition to acting he wrote about 100 plays. Misfortune struck him in later years and a benefit performance was given at the New York Academy of Music which netted $10,279 with which his friends bought him an annuity. He was a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, New York City. d. June 7, 1880 in NYC. Member of Antiquity Lodge No. 11, N.Y.C.


            William E. Brougher Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 17, 1889 in Miss. Commissioned 2nd lieut. in 1911 and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1941 (advanced by Gen. MacArthur for leadership in Philippines). Served in WW1 as major of infantry. Served through Bataan campaign, Philippines and taken prisoner by Japanese and liberated in Aug., 1945. Became commanding general of Ft. McClellan, Ala. in 1946 and later Camp Gordon, Augusta, Ga. Mason, 32° AASR.


            J. M. Broughton Former Governor of North Carolina. Member of Wake Forest Lodge No. 282, receiving his degrees on Oct. 17, 1909 and Jan. 18 and Feb. 1, 1910.


            Aaron V. Brown (1795-1859) Postmaster General of U.S. and Governor of Tennessee. b. Aug. 15, 1795 in Brunswick Co., Va. Graduated from Chapel Hill (N.C.) in 1814 and moved with parents to Tennessee in 1815 where he studied law and became the partner of James K. Polkq.v. From 1821-32 he was almost continuously a member of the state legislature. He was elected to Congress in 1839, 1841 and 1843. From 1845-47 he was governor of Tennessee. As postmaster general in Buchanan's cabinet q.v. he shortened the oceanic mail route to California and the routes from St. Louis westward before the construction of the railroads. A member of Pulaski Chapter No. 7, R.A.M., Tenn. he was junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1825. d. March 8, 1859, and buried Masonically at Nashville on March 14.


            Albert G. Brown (1813-1880) Governor of Mississippi and U.S. Senator. b. May 31, 1813 in Chester Dist., S.C. Was made brigadier general in Mississippi state militia when only 19 years old. A lawyer, he was a member of the state legislature from 1835-39 and member of the U.S. Congress from Miss. in 1840-41; from 1841-43 he was circuit judge, and governor of Mississippi from 1843-1848. He was again a member of Congress from 1848-54 and U.S. Senator from 1854-58. Reelected in 1859 for six years, he resigned in 1861 to join the Confederate forces with his colleague of the senate, Jefferson Davis. d. June 12, 1880. Member of Gallatin Lodge No. 25, Gallatin, Miss. and later Silas Brown Lodge, U.D.


            Anthony Brown (see 6th Viscount Montagu) Charles W. Brown ( 1858-1928 ) President of Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. from 1916. b. June 14, 1858 at Newburyport, Mass. Was master mariner in charge of vessels in Chinese and Australian trade for six years. Was identified with the manufacture of plate glass from 1898 until his death, Mar. 6, 1928. Mason and Knight Templar.


            Clarence J. Brown U.S. Congressman from 7th Ohio dist., 76th to 84th Congresses (1939-1956). b. July 14, 1893 at Blanchester, 0. Purchased first newspaper in 1917 and has been in publishing business since that date. President of The Brown Publishing Co. Was lieut. governor of Ohio from 1919-23 and secretary of state, 192733. Was a member of the Hoover commission for organization of the executive branch of the Federal government. Mason, 33° AASR (N.J.).


            Clarence J. Brown Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Jan. 15, 1895 at Plum City, Wis. Received B.S. from Univ. of Wisconsin in 1915 and M.D. from Washington Univ. in 1917, entering Navy Medical Corps in 1917, advancing to rear admiral in 1946, and retired as vice admiral in 1954. Assistant chief, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery of Navy 1947-49 and general inspector, 1949; deputy surgeon general of the Navy from 1950 and presently chief of medical services, State of California, Youth Authority. Raised in Maiden Rock Lodge No. 196, Maiden Rock, Wis. in 1916; member of Mt. Horeb Chapter No. 6, Pensacola, Fla. and Coeur le Leon Commandery No. 1, Pensacola.


            D. Russell Brown (1848-1919) Governor of Rhode Island, 1892-95. b. March 28, 1848 at Bolton, Conn. Publisher of the Evening News in Providence, R.I. Mason. d. Feb. 28, 1919.


            Egbert B. Brown (1816-?) Union Brigadier General in Civil War. b. Oct. 24, 1816 in Brownsville, N.Y. Elected mayor of Toledo, Ohio in 1849. Spent four years in the Pacific on a whaling vessel returning to St. Louis, Mo. as a railway manager from 1852-61. He was instrumental in saving the city of St. Louis from southern hands at start of Civil War. Was severely wounded at Battle of Springfield (Mo.) in 1863. Servedthrough Civil War in Missouri, Arkansas and Texas. From 1866-68 he was U.S. pension agent at St. Louis, retiring to a farm near Hastings, Ill. in 1869. Member of Toledo Lodge No. 144, Toledo, Ohio.


            Everett C. Brown ( 1863 - 1937 ) Livestock commission man and Olympic committee member. b. Oct. 14, 1863 at Oneida, Ill. Started in livestock industry, Chicago, 1881 and later general manager of Brown-St. John Commission Co. In 1918-19 he was chairman of the Price Control Commission of Live Stock, U.S. Food Administration; president of the Chicago Live Stock Exchange 1916-20 and 1923-28; president of the National Live Stock Exchange 1918-23. Member of the Chicago Plan Committee. President of the National Amateur Athletic Union in 1910. Member of the executive committee of American Olympic Committee in charge of Olympic teams to London in 1908, Stockholm, 1912, Antwerp, 1920 and Paris, 1924. Mason and Knight Templar. d. April 11, 1937.


            Fred H. Brown Former U.S. Senator from New Hampshire. A Mason and Knight Templar.


            Gustavus R. Brown One of the physicians called into consultation during the last illness of George Washington. He was one of the organizers of St. Columbia Lodge No. 10, Port Tobacco, Md., and was the fifth grand master of Maryland (1797).


            Guy L. Brown Head of Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. b. Aug. 22, 1893 at Boone, Ia. Locomotive fireman and engineer on the C. & N.W. Railroad from 1909-1945 when he assumed office in the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers; assistant grand chief engineer 1950-53 and grand chief since that date. Raised in Mount Olive Lodge No. 79, Boone, Iowa in 1941. Member of Tuscan Chapter No. 31, R.A.M.; Gebal Council No. 5, R. & SM.; Excalibar Commandery No. 13, K.T. all of Boone, Iowa. 32° AASR (NJ), Cleveland, Ohio and Al Koran Shrine Temple of Cleveland.


            Harvey W. Brown (1883-1956) International president of International Association of Machinists. b. Oct. 28, 1883 in Schuylkill Co., Pa. After serving as a machinist apprentice from 1902-05, he became business representative for International Association of Machinists for Anthracite Coal Region in 1911; general vice president in 1921 and president in 1938. Elected international president in 1940. Member of American Federation of Labor executive council, 1940-43. Member of Roseville Lodge No. 143, Newark, N.J. d. Sept., 1956.


            Jacob Brown (1775-1828) Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Army (1821-28) and major general in War of 1812. b. May 9, 1775 in Bucks Co., Pa. Taught school and did surveying in Ohio until 1798 when he moved to New York and settled at present town of Brownsville. Having had military experience as secretary to Alexander Hamilton q.v. he was made colonel of militia in 1809 and advanced to brigadier general in 1810. In command of a 200 mile section along Canadian border in 1812 and repulsed several attacks from superior British forces including fights at Ogdensburg, Sackets Harbor, Chippewa and Lundy's Lane. Made brigadier general of regular army in 1813 and major general in 1814. At the close of the war he commanded the northern division of the army and on March 10, 1821 became generalin-chief of the U.S. Army. He was initiated in Ontario Lodge at Sackets Harbor, N.Y. on Jan. 2, 1806 and was probably raised there. He later became a member of Watertown Lodge No. 49, Watertown, N.Y. d. Feb. 24,1828 and buried in Congressional cemetery, Washington, D.C.


            James W. Brown President of Editor and Publisher, 1912-52 and chairman of the board since 1953. b. Oct. 20, 1873 at Detroit, Mich. With Detroit News and Tribune 1891-95; Chicago Journal, Chicago American and Chicago Tribune 1895-1903. General manager of the Louisville Herald 1903-11. Raised April 29, 1907 in Louisville Lodge No. 400, Louisville, Ky. and at present a member of Publicity Lodge No. 1000, New York City. Member of DeMolay Commandery, K.T. No. 12 of Kentucky.


            James W. Brown, Jr. Newspaper executive. b. Jan. 1, 1902 at Chicago, Ill. With Editor and Publisher for 23 years and was president, member of the board and chairman of the executive committee 1941-48, and general manager since 1953. With Chicago Tribune-N.Y. Daily News Syndicate as sales manager 1948-51. Member of Publicity Lodge No. 1000, New York City and master in 1937. Member of Jerusalem Chapter No. 8, R.A.M. and Coeur de Leon Cornmandery No. 23, K.T., both of New York City.


            Joe E. Brown Stage and screen star. b. July 28, 1892 at Holgate, Ohio. Began as a circus acrobat in 1902 and was with burlesque and vaudeville from 1916-19. From 1919-27 was with musical comedies including Lis- ten Lester, Greenwich Village Follies, Captain Jinks and others. Leading roles in movies of which Crooks Can't Win was his first "silent" and Painted Faces his first talking. Made the "Elmer" films famous. Member of Rubicon Lodge No. 237, Toledo, Ohio and of Al Malaikah Shrine in Los Angeles.


            John Brown (1800-1859) American abolitionist fanatic, regarded by some northern sympathizers as a martyr. Brown's cause was glorified by the famous marching song, John Brown's Body. He was a Freemason who later turned anti-Mason. b. May 9, 1800, he was executed on Dec. 2, 1859 in Charlestown, Va. From 1856 on, he was obsessed with the idea of abolishing slavery by force. When a pro-slavery massacre occurred at Lawrence, Kans., Brown killed five slavery adherents at Pottawatomie, Kans. in retaliation. He next made a heroic stand at Osawatomie, Kans. against a raid by pro-slavery forces from Missouri. He conceived a plan of establishing a new state as a refuge for negroes. With help from Massachusetts abolitionists, he seized the government arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Va. in 1859, intending the action as a signal for a general insurrection of slaves. Overpowered and convicted of treason, he was hanged Dec. 2, 1859. Brown was raised in Hudson Lodge No. 68, Hudson, Ohio, on May 11, 1824, serving as junior deacon in 1825-26. His uncle was the first master of the lodge. Shortly after 1826 he moved to Pennsylvania and with the anti-Masonic movement, he renounced Freemasonry and continued to do so on every possible occasion. His son, John Brown, Jr. became a Freemason and was buried with Masonic honors. His daughter, Sarah, once told a biographer that Brown had stated that "the forms of the initiatory ceremonies of the Masons struck him as silly," and in a negro newspaper Brown wrote, "another of the few errors of my life is that I have joined the Freemasons, Oddfellows, Sons of Temperance, and a score of other secret societies instead of seeking the company of intelligent, wise and good men.”


            John Brown (1757-1837) First U.S. Senator from Kentucky and last survivor of the Continental Congress. b. Sept. 12, 1757 at Staunton, Va. Was a student at Princeton when the Revolutionary army retreated through N.J. and he joined it, serving until the close of the war. Admitted to bar in 1782, he practiced at Frankfort, Ky. He was elected to the Virginia legislature from the district of Ky. and from the same district to the Continental Congress of 1787-88. Later he was congressman from this district (1789-92) and became the first U.S. Senator from Kentucky, serving from Nov. 5, 1792 until March 3, 1805. He took a prominent part in the Indian warfare, the admission of Kentucky into the union and in securing navigation of the Mississippi for the west. Member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, Ky. and Lexington Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. d. Aug. 29, 1837.


            John C. Brown (1827-1889) Major General, C.S.A. and twice governor of Tennessee. b. Jan. 6, 1827 in Giles Co., Tenn. Joined the Confederate army at start of war and rose to major general. Left almost destitute at close of war, he was employed as a railroad surveyor and rose to president of the Nashville Railroad. He later had charge of the Texas Pacific's construction to the Rio Grande and was receiver of the entire property. President of the constitutional convention of Tennessee, he was twice governor (in 1870 and 1875). A member of Pulaski Lodge No. 101, Pulaski, Tenn., he served three terms as master and was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1869. Received his Royal Arch degree in Pulaski Chapter No. 20 on Mar. 28, 1871 and Knight Templar in Pulaski Commandery No. 12 on April 26, 1871. d. Aug. 16, 1889.


            John H. Brown (1820-1895) Early Texas newspaper editor, soldier. b. Oct. 20, 1820 in Pike Co., Mo. Moved to Texas in 1840 with his uncle, Dr. James Kerr, and worked on the Texas Sentinel. As first sergeant of the "Minute Men" he engaged in several Indian campaigns and after being wounded in the Battle of Salado in 1842 was discharged in 1843. Worked on the Victoria Advocate and accepted a position of colonel in state militia. In 1854 he bought an interest in the Galveston Civilian and in 1858 became editor of the Belton Democrat. Attended the Secession Convention of 1861 and served in the Confederate army until 1862 when he was named adjutant general. Following the war he went to Mexico and became commissioner of immigration under Maximilian, returning to Texas in 1871. Represented Dallas in legislature in 1873 and member of the 1875 Convention. He was revising editor of the Encyclopedia of the New West and wrote History of Dallas County, Life and Times of Henry Smith, History of Texas (2 volumes) and Indian Wars and Pioneers of Texas. Was raised in Clarksville Lodge No. 17, Clarksville, Mo. March 1, 1845 (on a visit to his old state), demitting the same date and became one of the original signers for a charter of Victoria Lodge No. 40, Victoria, Tex. d. May 31, 1895.


            Louis M. Brown President of Eberhard Faber Pencil Co. b. Aug. 25, 1896 at Atlanta, Ga. Started with Eberhard Co. in 1923, successively Canadian representative, advertising manager, assistant sales manager, sales manager, general manager, vice president and president since 1952. Mason.


            Mordecai P. C. Brown (1876-1949) Elected to Baseball's Hall of Fame in 1949. b. Oct. 19, 1876 at Nyesville, Ind. Full name was Mordecai Peter Centennial and was called "Three Fingered" as he lost two digits of his pitching hand in an accident during his coal mining days. His two fingerstumps helped give his pitches strange and baffling twists and curves. Throwing right handed, he was aswitch batter. Was the ace hurler of Chance's Chicago Cubs and for six straight seasons (1906-11) won 20 or more games for the Cubs. His lifetime major league record was 239 wins against 130 losses. A good hitter, he was one of the best fielding pitchers of all time. In 1908 he accepted 108 chances without an error. The same year he hurled four shutout games in a row—the first major league pitcher to perform such a feat. He was often pitted against the other pitching star of that era—Christ/ Mathewson q.v. and their duels were classics. In 24 meetings Brown was victorious over Mathewson 13 times. He was a member of Edward Dobbins Lodge No. 164, Lawrenceville, Ill. receiving his degrees on March 24, May 19 and July 7, 1925. At the time his petition was presented it was referred to the DDGM, Byron R. Lewis, for determining whether the loss of two fingers would disqualify him for Masonic membership. d. Feb. 14, 1949.


            Norris Brown Former U.S. Senator from Nebraska. A Mason, he served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Nebraska.


            Prentiss M. Brown U.S. Senator from Michigan, lawyer, business executive. b. June 18, 1889 in St. Ignace, Mich. Graduate of Albion College and Univ. of Michigan. Practiced law since 1914. Member of 73rd and 74th Congresses (1933-37) from 11th Mich. district. Appointed to U.S. Senate in 1936 and elected for term 1937-43. Administrator, Office of Price Administration, 1943. Chairman of the board of the Detroit Edison Company since 1944. Chairman of the Mackinac Bridge Authority. President, vice president and director of many corporations. Member of St. Ignace Lodge No. 369, St. Ignace, Mich. he received the 33° AASR (NJ) in October, 1955.


            Rex I. Brown President of Mississippi Power and Light Co. b. Aug. 22, 1889 at Lowell, Mich. Began with Little Rock Railway & Electric Co. in 1880 as clerk. With Arkansas Power & Light Co. 1927-32. In 1932 he became vice president and general manager of the Mississippi Power & Light and president since 1936. Member of Trinity Lodge No. 694, Little Rock, Ark.; Union Chapter No. 2, R.A.M.; Occidental Council No. 1, R. & S.M. and Hugh de Payens Cornmandery No. 1, K.T., all of Little Rock, Ark. 32° AASR (SJ) at Little Rock April 23, 1925. Member of Wahabi Shrine Temple, Jackson, Miss.


            Roy H. Brown University president, Presbyterian missionary. b. May 2, 1878 at Girard, Kans. Ordained Presbyterian minister in 1903 and from that date was a pioneer missionary in the Philippines, establishing 79 churches and receiving over 2,500 members. Held pastorates in U.S. from 1922-32, but returned to the Philippines to be president of Silliman Univ., the largest theological evangelical institution in the islands. Interned prisoner by the Japanese for 3% years and freed by U.S. troops during WW2. Mason and 32° AASR.


            Thomas Brown Former Governor of Florida. Raised in Hiram Lodge No. 59 of Virginia in August, 1807, he became a member of Jackson Lodge No. 1, Tallahassee, Fla. serving as secretary in 1833 and master in 1855 and was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Florida in 1849. He was also grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of Florida in 1834-35. He assisted in the formation of the grand lodge in 1830. A member of Florida Chapter No. 1, Tallahassee and Mackey Council No. 1 of the same city, he was grand treasurer of the grand chapter in 1848-59 and grand high priest in 1851.


            Wallace E. Brown ( 1868 - 1939 ) Methodist bishop. b. Oct. 30, 1868 at Chittenango, N.Y. Ordained Methodist minister in 1894, holding pastorates in New York state until 1924 when ordained bishop. He was director of the Epworth League of the church and member of the general conferences of 1912-16-20-24 and the Ecumenical conference of London in 1921. Mason. d. Nov. 18, 1939.


            Wilfred J. Brown Railroad executive. b. Aug. 10, 1893 at Plymouth, Mass. Graduate of Harvard, 1917. President and director of Consolidated Railroads of Cuba and The Cuba Railroad Co., 1941-48 and chairman of the board from 1948 until retirement in 1954. Served in Navy during WW1. Mason.


            William A. Brown Bishop, Protestant Episcopal Church. b. Jan. 3, 1878 at Albemarle Co., Va. Ordained in 1901, serving churches of Virginia until ordained bishop in 1938, serving Diocese of Southern Va. Mason.


            Wm. Moseley Brown Educator, explorer, army officer, linguist and personnel consultant. b. Feb. 27, 1894 at Lynchburg, Va. B.A. from Washington and Lee Univ. in 1914; M.A. from Washington and Lee, Columbia, and Ph.D. from Columbia. Professor of language, biology and psychology in Washington and Lee from 1913-29. President of Atlantic Univ. (Va.) 1929-32. Personnel director of Vick Chemical Co. 1937-42 and personnel consultant since 1947. Served in WW1, advancing from private to 2nd It. In WW2 as major and lt. colonel, 194247. Independent Republican candidate for governor of Virginia in 1929 and to Congress in 1932. Was U.S. representative on Ulrich expedition to interior of Brazil in 1931-32 and "Rio Brown" discovered and so named for him by the Brazilian government. Also representative on similar expedition to interior of Brazil in 1933-34. 33° AASR (SJ), past grand master of Grand Lodge of Virginia, past high priest of Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Virginia and past grand commander, Grand Commandery, K.T. of Virginia. As president of the National Sojourners, his name was placed on the black list of the Vichy French government during WW2. Author of many volumes including Character Traits as Factors in Intelligence Test Performance (1923), Best Books on the Choice of a Career (1926), History of Freemasonry in Virginia (1935), Temp/ary in the Old Dominion (1937), The Making of a Mason (1949), German Psychological Warfare (1941), Highlights of Templar History (1943).


            Charles F. Browne (1834-1867) (originally "Brown") American humorist who wrote under the pseudonym of "Artemus Ward." b. in Waterford, Maine. Learned the printer's trade at age of 14 on a Maine newspaper and later employed by the Plain-dealer in Cleveland, 0. where his first series of Artemus Ward's Sayings were printed. When the Vanity Fair was established in New York he was asked to be a contributor, and later its editor. He then gave humorous lectures throughout the country, 186 1 - 1866, and an English tour, 1866-1867. He died in Southampton, England of tuberculosis on March 6, 1867. He received his degrees in Manhattan Lodge No. 62, New York City on Sept. 4, 25, and Oct. 2, 1863.


            Edward E. Browne ( 1868 - 1945 ) U.S. Congressman, 63rd to 71st Congresses (1913-31) from 8th Wis. district. b. Feb. 16, 1868 at Waupaca, Wis. Graduate of Univ. of Wisconsin. In law practice at Waupaca from 1892. Mason and 32° AASR (NJ).


            Jefferson B. Browne (1857-1937) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Florida. b. June 6, 1857 at Key West, Fla. Received LL.B. from Univ. of Iowa in 1880. In Key West he was successively city attorney, postmaster and collector of customs. Member of Florida state senate from 1891-95 and en-officio lieut.-governor 1891-93. Was chief justice of Supreme Court of Florida from 1917-23 and associate justice 1923-25, resigning to become judge of 20th judicial circuit. Mason, Knight Templar and 32° AASR (SJ). d. May 4, 1937.


            J. Lewis Browne (1866-1933) Organist. b. May 18, 1866 at London, Eng., coming to America in 1875. Studied in U.S. and Europe. Was soloist at Royal Academy of St. Cecilia in Rome, 1901. Organist at Wanamaker's Egyptian Hall, Philadelphia 1908-10 and the St. Louis and Jamestown world fairs. Organist and choirmaster of St. Patrick's Church, Chicago from 1912. Faculty member, Univ. of Notre Dame. Designed the great organ in Medinah Shrine Temple, Chicago and conducted symphony concerts there. Director of music public schools of Chicago from 1928. Composed the opera La Corsicana (1923) which was produced in the Chicago Playhouse. His Ecce Sacerdos Magnus was produced by the Paulist Choristers of Rome in 1912. In 1921 he wrote Missa Immaculatae Co n c e p tionis B.V.M. for the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the Catholic Diocese of Cincinnati. Also wrote more than 60 songs, pieces for organ, orchestra, piano, etc. Mason and 32° AASR (NJ). d. Oct. 23, 1933.


            John Browne Englishman who in 1798 published in London one of the first ciphers of the Masonic ritual. It was entitled: The Master Key Through All the Degrees of a Freemason's Lodge, to Which Is Added, Eullogiums and Illustrations Upon Freemasonry. In 1802 he published a second edition under a much lengthier title. The works are now very rare. Browne claimed to have been past master of six lodges, and his ciphers are considered to be a very complete representation of the monitorial Prestonian lectures. He stated that he printed them not as an offensive expose, but as a means of giving Freemasons instruction and the key to the cipher was only given personally.


            John M. Browne (1831-1894) Surgeon General of U.S. Navy. b. May 10, 1831 at Hinsdale, N.H. Graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1852, entering Navy following year as assistant surgeon. Sent to Calif. in 1954, he served aboard the storeship Warren at Sausalito and was then transferred to the Mare Island Navy Yard. In the Civil War he saw much service in Atlantic waters and was surgeon on the U.S.S. Kearsarge in its engagement with the Alabama in 1864. According to one account in the files of Naval Lodge, he was also surgeon in the battle between the ironclads, the Merrimac and the Monitor. Following the war, Browne was back at Mare Island where he was Medical Inspector in 1871 and Director in 1878. His next promotion was to surgeon-general, the highest medical rank in the Navy. He retired as commodore in 1893 at the age of 62. Browne was initiated just 24 days after he was 21 in Philesian Lodge No. 40, Winchester, N.H., receiving all the degrees the night of June 3, 1852 by special dispensation. In 1866, on returning to California after the Civil War, he affiliated with Naval Lodge No. 87 of Vallejo. He was elected master in 1870. In 1871 he was named grand orator of the Grand Lodge of California and in 1875 was elected grand master for the first of the four terms he was to serve (1875-79). A member of Naval Chapter No. 35, R.A.M., he served as grand high priest of Calif. in 1878; a member of California Commandery No. 1, K.T. (knighted in 1867). In the Scottish Rite he received his 33° on Oct. 20, 1880 and on Oct 18, 1886 was elected treasurer general of the Supreme Council (S.J.). His wife was a daughter of Francis Scott Key, author of the national anthem. d. Dec. 7, 1894.


            Thomas C. Brownell (1779-1865) Protestant Episcopal Bishop. b. Oct. 19, 1779 at Westport, Mass. Ordained deacon in 1816. Consecrated bishop of Connecticut in 1819. First president of Washington (now Trinity) College in 1829. During his last 12 years, he was by seniority the presiding bishop of the United States. He retired in 1851. Received his degrees in Ade1phi Lodge No. 63, New Haven, Conn. in 1824. d. Jan. 13, 1865.


            Gordon Browning Governor of Tennessee. b. Nov. 22, 1889 in Carroll Co., Tenn. Admitted to bar in 1915 and began practice at Huntingdon. Member of 68th to 73rd Congresses (1923-35) from 7th Tenn. dist. Governor of Tennessee in 1937-39 and again in 1949-51. In WW1 he served ten months overseas and in WW2 served three years in European theater. Member of Huntingdon Lodge No. 106, Huntingdon, Tenn., receiving his degrees on Aug. 8, Oct. 6, 1919 and Aug. 24, 1920. Was officially received in the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1952. 32° AASR in Valley of Tennessee (SJ) and member of Al Menah Shrine Temple.


            Charles B. Brownson U.S. Congressman from 11th Indiana dist. to 82nd, 83rd, 84th Congresses. b. Feb. 5, 1914 at Jackson, Mich. Established Central Wallpaper and Paint Corp., in Indianapolis, 1936. In WW2 he served as infantry lieutenant and later as executive officer to assistant chief of staff, G-1, 1st Army in the invasion planning staff of the Normandy invasion, European campaign and the Philippines. Raised in Mystic Tie Lodge No. 398 of Indianapolis, Ind. in 1950. 32° AASR (NJ) at Indianapolis and Murat Shrine Temple of same city.


            Nathan Brownson ( 1742 - 1796 ) Member of the Continental Congress, Revolutionary surgeon and Governor of Georgia. b. May 14, 1742 at Woodbury, Conn. Graduated from Yale in 1761 and studied medicine, practicing in Liberty Co., Ga. An early supporter of the American cause, he was for some time a surgeon in the Revolutionary army. He was a member of the provincial congress of 1775 and was a delegate to the Continental Congresses of 1776 and 1778. As speaker of the Georgia legislature, he was chosen by that body as governor of the state in 1781. He was again speaker in 1788 and president of the state senate in 1789-91. In 1789 he was a member of the convention that framed the state constitution. He was a member of North Star Lodge of Manchester, Vt. d. Nov. 6, 1796.


            Eli Bruce Resident of Lockport, N.Y. and sheriff of Niagara Co. at the time of the William Morgan affair. He aided in releasing Morgan to unknown persons for which Governor DeWitt Clinton q.v. removed him from office and he was later sent to prison for "aiding and abetting the unlawful abduction." Bruce later wrote a book on the Morgan episode. He was a member of Lockport Lodge No. 73 and Ames Chapter No. 88, both of Lockport, N.Y.


            James Bruce (1730-1794) Scottish explorer. Explored Africa, and was known as "The Abyssinian Traveller." Was British consul at Algiers from 1763-65. In 1770 he rediscovered the source of the Blue Nile. Author of Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1790 in 5 vols.) Raised in Can-ongate Kilwinning Lodge, Edinburgh, Scotland on Aug. 1, 1753.


            James Bruce Executive and former U.S. Ambassador to Argentina (1947-49). b. Dec. 23, 1892 at Baltimore, Md. Served as officer overseas in WW1 with 2nd Infantry Division; special aide to President Wilson; military attache in Italy and representative at Versailles Peace Conference. In 1949-50 he was the first director of the Mutual Defence Assistance Program. Has served as vice president of several banks, including Chase National, Atlantic Exchange and president of Baltimore Trust Co. He is a director of many large corporations including Revlon, American Airlines, American-Hawaiian Steamship, AVCO Mfg., Fruehauf Trailer and Technicolor, Inc. Mason and 32° AASR.


            Robert le Bruce (1274-1329) King and liberator of Scotland. Opposed to Edward I of England as King of Scotland in 1296 and fought against him in 1298, but adhered to him during invasion of 1302-4. He murdered John Comyn in 1306 and was crowned as Robert I, King of Scotland, at Scone in 1306. In the same year he was defeated by the English and took refuge on the coast of Ireland, excommunicated and outlawed. He returned the following year and in two years wrested most of Scotland from the English, routing Edward II's army at Bannockburn in 1314. He repulsed the English time after time until Edward III recognized the independence of Scotland and Bruce's right to rule by the treaty of 1328 at Northampton. He died of leprosy. He is traditionally said to have introduced Freemasonry into Scotland and in 1314 established the Order of Herodom for the reception of those Knights Templar who had taken refuge in his dominions from the persecutions of the Pope and King of France. As part of a combined order, he is said to have established the Royal Order of Scotland at the Battle of Bannockburn in recognition of the Freemasons who helped him defeat the English. His descendant, Lord Elgin q.v., is present head of the Royal Order of Scotland and the possessor of the great sword of Robert le Bruce.


            Wallace Bruce (1844-1914) Poet, author and orator. b. Nov. 10, 1844 at Hillsdale, N.Y. Engaged in literary work from 1868 on. Was U.S. consul at Edinburgh, Scotland 1889-93. Was poet and orator at numerous centennial and memorial occasions in U.S., Scotland and England, delivering the Burns anniversary addresses at Ayr, Edinburgh and Kilmarnock. Among his writings were The Land of Burns (1878), The Yosemite (1879), The Hudson, (1882), Old Homestead Poems (1887), Leaves of Gold (1907), and Wanderers (1907). Member of Hudson Lodge No. 7, Hudson, N.Y. d. Jan., 1914.


            Walter Bruchhausen U.S. District Judge for eastern district of New York since 1953. b. May 29, 1892 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Graduate of New York U. in 1912 and admitted to bar in 1919, practicing in New York City. Mason and 32° AASR (N.J.).


            Wilber M. Brucker Secretary of Army, Governor of Michigan. b. June 23, 1894 at Saginaw, Mich. Received LL.B. from Univ. of Michigan in 1916. Admitted to bar in 1919 and began practice at Saginaw. Attorney general of Michigan 1928-30 and governor of the state from 1931-33. Named general counsel of Department of Defense, Washington in 1954 and on June 23, 1955 President Eisenhower appointed him Secretary of the Army. Filed his Masonic petition on his 21st birthday and was raised in Salina Lodge No. 155 on Sept. 15, 1915, later serving as its master. A member of King Cyrus Chapter No.133, R.A.M. of Detroit and Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T., he served the latter as commander in 1943 and was grand commander of Michigan in 1951. He belongs to Detroit Consistory AASR (NJ) and Moslem Shrine Temple.


            Henry Bruckner (1871-1942) U.S. Congressman from N.Y. 63rd to 65th Congresses from 22nd N.Y. dist. b. June 17, 1871 in New York City. President of Bruckner Bros., manufacturers. Member of New York Assembly 1900-01, and commissioner of public works for New York from 1902-06. Mason. d. April 14, 1942.


            James Bruff Commandant of Upper Louisiana Territory shortly after the U.S. took over the Louisiana purchase. In the Revolutionary War he was a 1st lieutenant with the 7th Maryland regiment. A close associate of General James Wilkinson q.v., governor of the Louisiana Territory, he no doubt received his appointment as commandant through his influence. He signed a petition to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, asking for a dispensation for a lodge in St. Louis, Mo., signing "J. Bruff, R.A.M." His original lodge is unknown. He is listed as a visitor to American Union Lodge and as being "from Baltimore." He was present on Dec. 27, 1799 at Morristown, N.J. when a petition was filed nominating General Mordecai Gist q.v. to represent the lodge at a convention to select a grand master of the United States (to be Washington, but he declined). (1734-1815) Member of Lodge No. 7, Chestertown, Md.


            Clement Brumbaugh ( 1863 - 1921 ) U.S. Congressman 63rd to 66th Congresses (1913-21) from 12th Ohio dist. b. Feb. 28, 1863 at Greenville, 0. Founder and principal of Van Buren Academy, 1887. Admitted to bar in 1900 and practiced at Columbus. Mason. d. Sept. 28, 1921.


            David E. Brumbaugh U.S. Congressman 79th Congress (1945-47)  from 22nd Pa. dist. b. Oct. 8, 1894 at Martinsburg, Pa. In insurance, lumber and banking fields since 1914. Served as enlisted man in WW1. Member of Woodbury Lodge No. 539 at Roaring Spring, Pa.; 32° AASR (NJ) at Altoona, also past potentate of Jaffa Shrine Temple; Royal Order of Jesters and DeMolay Legion of Honor.


            Martin G. Brumbaugh (1862-1930) Governor of Pennsylvania. b. April 14, 1862 in Huntington Co., Pa. Received the degrees of B.E., M.E., M.S., A.M., Ph.D. from Juniata College and Univ. of Pa. He was president of Juniata College from 1895-1906 and again from 1924 until death. He was superintendent of Philadelphia schools 1906-15; first commissioner of education for Puerto Rico (1900-02). Elected governor of Pennsylvania serving 1915-19. Author of many educational books. Member of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 300, Huntington, Pa. d. May, 1930.


            Avery Brundage Amateur sportsman who was president of the U.S. Olympic Association and Committee from 1939-45 and president of the Cimite Internationale 0 1 ympique since 1952. b. Sept. 28, 1887 at Detroit, Mich. Graduated in engineering from Univ. of Illinois in 1909. Was American all-around amateur champion in 1914, 1916 and 1918. President of Avery Brundage Co. builders 191547, chairman Roanoke Real Estate Co. since 1932; president Roanoke Hotel Corp., 1939-45. A collector of Oriental art, he is a trustee of the Art Institute of Chicago. Received many foreign decorations for his devotion to amateur athletics. Member of North Shore Lodge No. 937, Chicago, Ill. 32° AASR (NJ) at Chicago and member of Medinah Shrine Temple, Chicago.


            Guillaume M. A. Brune (1763-1815) French army officer who was Marshal of France in 1804. Was murdered by a royalist mob during the White Ter-ror at Avignon on Aug. 2, 1815. In 1814 he was grand administrator of the Grand Orient of France.


            Albert, Prince of Brunswick-Luneburg Prussian Major General. Initiated in the Lodge "Jonathan" at Brunswick in 1744.


            Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (1721-1792) Prussian Field Marshal. b. in Wolfenbuttel, son of Ferdinand Albert II. Entered Prussian service in 1740 and fought with Frederick the Great, who was for many years his close companion. He rendered distinguished service at Hohenfriedeberg in 1745 and was one of the ablest commanders of the Seven Years' War. Was governor of Madgeburg in 175557 and 1763-66, when in the latter year he became estranged from Frederick and resigned from his service, devoting himself to Freemasonry. Initiated in 1740 in the Lodge of Three Globes, Berlin, he received his Master's degree in 1743 at Breslau. Became protector of the Lodge St. Charles, Brunswick in 1764 and English past grand master of Brunswick in 1770. In 1771 he was protector of Von Hund's Strict Observance and in 1772 was declared grand master of the Scottish lodges. He was present in 1782 at the convent at Wilhelmsbad when the Templar system was supposedly disbanded and while there was declared general grand master of the assembled lodges. When presiding at the St. John's festival at Brunswick in 1792, he proudly stated that he had been a Freemason for 50 years.


            Maximilian, Prince of Brunswick Youngest son of Duke Charles I. Educated at the Collegium Carolinum and went to Italy in 1775. Admitted in the Saint Charles Lodge, Brunswick in 1770, becoming its protector. Served Frederick the Great with honors.


            William, Prince of Brunswick Third son of Duke Charles I of Brunswick who joined the Lodge St. Charles in 1769. Died, 1770. His brothers, Maximilian and Frederick Augustus q.v. were prominent members of the Craft.


            Alvin G. Brush Business executive. b. Sept. 16, 1896 at Dunton, N.Y. In accounting field from 1919-32 when he became president of R. L. Watkins Co., mfgrs. of Dr. Lyons tooth powder until 1934. President of Affiliated Products Co., cosmetics mfgr. until 1935 and chairman of the board of American Home Products, mfgrs. of drugs and household items since 1935. Raised in Garden City Lodge No. 1083, Garden City, L.I., N.Y. in Nov., 1917.


            George W. Brush (1842-1927) Congressional Medal of Honor winner, physician. b. Oct. 4, 1842 at West Hills, L.I., N.Y. Served in U.S. Volunteers, 1861-65 from private to captain, receiving Medal of Honor in 1897. First practiced dentistry and later went into medicine. Retired from medical practice in 1906 to devote his time to civic betterment. Served terms in both N.Y. houses of legislature. Mason. d. Nov. 18, 1927.


            Henry Brush (1778-1855) Judge of Supreme Court of Ohio and member of Congress from Ohio (1818-21). b. in June, 1778 in Dutchess Co., N.Y. Member of Scioto Lodge No. 2, Chillicothe, 0., he was grand master of Ohio. d. Jan. 19, 1855.

 Louis H. Brush (1872-1948) Newspaper publisher. b. Jan. 24, 1872 at Alliance, 0. Purchased the Salem News in 1897; East Liverpool Review in 1901; and with others the Marion Star, 1923; Steubenville Herald-Star, 1926; Canton Repository, 1927; Portsmouth Times, 1930. In 1927 he organized the Brush-Moore Newspapers, Inc. of which he was president. Ma-son, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. June 24, 1948.


            Nathaniel Brush Revolutionary War colonel who headed the Bennington (Vt.) militia at the battle of Bennington in Aug. 1777 which later proved to be the turning point in the Revolution. He was a charter member and first master of North Star Lodge, Manchester, Vt., formed in 1785.


            William Bryan Brigadier General of militia in the Revolutionary War. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 3, New Bern, North Carolina.


            William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) Secretary of State, U.S. Congressman and presidential nominee three times. b. Mar. 18, 1860 at Salem, Ill. Admitted to bar in 1883 and began practice at Jacksonville, Ill. moving to Lincoln, Nebr. in 1887. Was member of 52nd and 53rd Congresses (189195) from 1st Nebr. dist. Edited Omaha World-Herald in 1894-96. As a delegate to the Democratic convention of 1896 he wrote the famous "silver plank," of its platform and was nominated for President, but defeated by McKinley 176 to 271 electoral votes. In the Spanish-American war he was colonel of the 3rd Nebraska regiment. Was again defeated for President by McKinley in 1900 155 votes to 292. Nominated for third time for President in 1908, he was defeated by Taft, 162 votes against 321. As secretary of state in Wilson's cabinet (1913-15) he negotiated 30 treaties. He was raised in Lincoln Lodge No. 19, Lincoln, Nebr. on Apr. 15, 1902 and later affiliated with Temple Lodge No. 247, Miami, Fla. d. in Miami July 26, 1925.


            Joseph R. Bryson (1893-1953) U.S. Congressman 76th to 82nd Congresses (1939-53) from fifth S. Car. Dist. b. Jan. 18, 1893 at Brevard, N.C. Graduate of Furman Univ. and Univ. of South Carolina. Member of state legislature 1921-24 and senate 192932. Mason, 32° AASR, (SJ) and Shriner. d. March 10, 1953.


            Charles William, Duke of Buccleuch (See Earl of Dalkeith) Francis, 2nd Duke of Buccleuch (See Earl of Dalkeith) Earls of Buchan Henry David, 10th Earl was the 10th Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1745-46. David, 11th Earl was 34th Grand Master Mason 1782-83 and Henry David, 12th Earl was 59th Grand Master Mason, 1832-33.


            James Buchanan (1791-1868) Fifteenth President of the United States (1857-61). b. April 23, 1791 near Mercersburg, Pa. He was U.S. minister to Russia from 1832-34, U.S. senator from Pennsylvania 1934-45, secretary of state in Polk's cabinet 1845-49 and U.S. minister to England 1853-56. His undated petition to Lodge No. 43, Lancaster, Pa. stated that he resided in the borough of Lancaster, age 25 and was an attorney at law. One of the signers was Malton C. Rogers q.v. who was later secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and for 25 years a justice of the supreme court of that state. Buchanan was initiated Dec. 11, 1816 by John Reynolds, passed and raised Jan. 24, 1817 by George Whitaker. On Dec. 13, 1820 he was elected junior warden and on Dec. 7, 1822 unanimously elected master. On Dec. 27, 1823 he was appointed as the first district deputy grand master of that district. On March 10, 1858 he donated $100 to the lodge and was elected an "honorary" member, the record book being changed from "life" to "honorary." On May 15, 1865 he attended a special meeting of No. 43 which was his last attendance. A history of Perseverance Lodge No. 21, Harrisburg, Pa. states that Buchanan never failed to visit Perseverance during the earlier daysof his life if in town. He was exalted to the Royal Arch degree in Chapter No. 43 at Lancaster. On Feb. 22, 1860 he assisted in the Masonic dedication of the George Washington statue in Washington Circle, Washington, D.C. and delivered the dedicatory address. d. June 1, 1868 and was given Masonic burial by his home lodge at Lancaster on June 4. Four thousand persons attended the funeral.


            James T. Buchanan (1853-?) Business executive and authority on Masonic history, literature and doctrines. b. Aug. 3, 1853 at Hamilton, Ont., Canada, settling in Pennsylvania in 1877. He was at one time president of the Pittsburgh Trust Co., and Pittsburgh Terminal Warehouse & Transfer Co. Raised in Strict Observance Lodge at Hamilton, Ont. on Aug. 17, 1875. Knighted in Talbot Commandery No. 43, K.T., Oil City, Pa. on July 23, 1883 and received council degrees in Mt. Moriah Council No. 2, R. & S.M. at Pittsburgh on Dec. 3, 1883. At time of his death he was dean of the Northern Supreme Council AASR.


            John P. Buchanan Former Governor of Tennessee. Member of Charles Fuller Lodge No. 412, Rutherford Co., Tenn. which was later Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 18, of Murfreesboro.


            George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (1628-1687) b. Jan. 30, 1628. A questionable character whom Dryden described as the "epitome of mankind" and Dr. Anderson stated was the grand master of England in 1674. He joined the Royalists in 1640 and served under Prince Rupert, later joining Lord Holland's rising in Surrey in 1648. He engaged in a series of intrigues and caused much scandal by his personal immorality. He was attacked in parliament as a promoter of popery and arbitrary government, and dismissed from office in 1674. Remembered as Simri in Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel and a figure in Scott's Peveril of the Peak. A poet and author, himself, his best known is the burlesque, The Rehearsal (1671). d. April 16, 1687.


            James T. Buckley President of Philco Corp. b. Oct. 13, 1896 at Philadelphia, Pa. Began as a laboratory assistant with Philco in 1912, rising as chief draftsman, assistant engineer, general purchasing agent, treasurer and president from 1939-43. Chairman of executive committee since 1943 and chairman of the board since 1949. Member of Palestine Lodge No. 470, Philadelphia; Germantown Chapter No. 208, and 32° AASR (NJ) all of Philadelphia.


            Alexander Buckner ( 1785 - 1833 ) U.S. Senator from Missouri and first grand master of Indiana in 1818. b. in Jefferson Co., Ky., he practiced law in Charlestown, Ind. as early as 1812. He was probably raised in Union Lodge No. 29, Madison, Ind. for he demitted from there on May 6, 1816, affiliating with Blazing Star Lodge No. 3, Charleston, Indiana Territory and by 1818 was a past master of that lodge. Shortly after serving as the first grand master of Indiana (1818) he moved to Missouri. While grand master he engaged in a duel with another Ma son, Col. Thomas H. Blake. In Missouri he became the first master of Unity Lodge No. 6, Jackson, Mo. He was a member of Missouri's state constitutional convention of 1820 and served several terms in the state legislature. Was U.S. Senator from 1831 until his death on June 6, 1833.


            Simon Bolivar Buckner (1823-1914) Lieutenant General in Confederate Army and Governor of Kentucky. b. in Hart Co., Ky. April 1, 1823. Served with distinction in war with Mexico being advanced from 2nd lieut. to captain. Taught at West Point, re-signing from U.S. Army in 1855. He was inspector general of Kentucky from 1860-61 and at start of Civil War was made brigadier general, advancing through major general to lieutenant general in 1864. Was prisoner of war for two months in 1862. Governor of Kentucky in 1887-91. He was a candidate for vice president of the United States on the "Gold Ticket" in 1896. d. Jan. 8, 1914. Listed as a Freemason in the Grand Lodge of Kentucky proceedings of 1891.


            Frederick G. Budlong (1881-1953) Protestant Episcopal bishop of Connecticut. b. July 10, 1881 at Camden, N.Y. Ordained deacon and priest in 1907, serving churches in St. Paul, Minn., Winnetka, Ill., Chicago, Pittsburgh and Greenwich, Conn. until 1931 when he was consecrated bishop-coadjutor of Connecticut and bishop in 1934. Mason. d. Sept. 25, 1953.


            Buffalo Bill (See William F. Cody)


            Howard Buffett U.S. Congressman, 78th to 80th Congresses (1943-49) from 2nd Nebr. dist. b. Aug. 13, 1903 at Omaha, Nebr. Began as journalist and bond salesman. President of Buffett & Co. since 1931 and South Omaha Feed Co. since 1938. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. Raised in Covert Lodge No. 11, Omaha, Nebr. in 1930; 32° and KCCH in AASR (SJ) at Omaha and past master of Mt. Moriah Lodge of Perfection. Past president of Omaha Square and Compass Club, member of Tangier Shrine Temple, Omaha.


            Charles H. Buford President of C.M. St.P. & P. Railroad. b. Feb. 5, 1886 at Newport, Ark. Graduated from Univ. of Arkansas in 1907. Started with the C.M. St.P. & P. as engineer of track elevation in 1907 and worked way up to presidency in May, 1947. Was vice president of Operations and Maintenance Dept. of the Association of American Railroads from 1939-46. Member of Ottumwa Lodge No. 16, Ottumwa, Ia.; 32° AASR (SJ) at Sioux City, Ia. and member of Zorah Shrine Temple, Terre Haute, Ind.


            Rivers H. Buford Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Florida. b. Jan. 18, 1878 at Pulaski, Tenn. Admitted to Florida bar in 1900. Served in many public capacities as prosecuting attorney, state's attorney, and attorney general of the state (1921-25), resigning to be appointed supreme court justice and has served on the court since that date. Was chief justice from 1931-33 and 1943-45. Mason and Shriner.


            Johann Gottlieb Buhle (1753-1821) Professor of philosophy in the University of Gottingen, who, although not a Freemason, published a work in 1804 entitled Origin and the Principal Events of the Order of Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry. His theory was that Freemasonry was invented in the year 1629 by John Valentine Andrea q.v.


            William F. Bulkley Protestant Episcopal Archdeacon for Utah, (1924-49). Now retired. b. April 21, 1881 at Tashua, Conn. Ordained deacon in 1908 and subsequently, priest, and general missionary. Raised in Wasatch Lodge No. 1, Salt Lake City, Utah in 1916 and presently member of Story Lodge No. 4, Provo, Utah. Member of Utah Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. and past grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of Utah in 1927; Utah Council No. 1, and past grand illustrious master in 1942; Utah Commandery No. 1, K.T. and past grand generalissimo of Grand Commandery of Utah in 1928. Served as master of his lodge, president of Order of High Priesthood, master of Order of Silver Trowel; prior of K.Y.C.H. and presently prelate of national K.Y.C.H.  Member of El Kalah Shrine Temple; 32° AASR (SJ) at Salt Lake City.


            Chief Crazy Bull Great grandson of Sitting Bull is said to have been a member of Suffolk Lodge No. 60, Port Jefferson, N.Y.


            Daniel F. Bull President of the Cream of Wheat Corp. b. at Grand Forks, N.D. in 1886. Graduated from Univ. of North Dakota in 1906. In engineering from 1908-18 when he became associated with the Cream of Wheat Corp. as assistant general manager and has been president and general manager since 1940. Director of a number of large corporations. Mason.


            Harold R. Bull Lieutenant General, U.S. Army. b. Jan. 6, 1893 at Springfield, Mass. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1914. Served in WW1 with 3rd Division, A.E.F. In WW2 he was with the Allied Force Headquarters in North Africa (1943), commanding general of the III Corps (1943); assistant chief of staff, G-3, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, 1943-45; deputy chief of staff and chief of staff U.S. Forces, European theater ( 1945 -46 ) . Received rank of lieutenant general in 1949. Mason and National Sojourner.


            Ole B. Bull (1810-1880) Famed Norwegian violinist. b. Feb. 5, 1810 in Bergen, Norway. Studied under Spohr and Paganini and toured as virtuoso throughout the world. Made five tours through North America (1843-79) and eventually spent each summer in America and the winters in Norway. In 1852 he attempted to found a Norwegian colony in Pennsylvania, but he had been deceived by land titles and lost a fortune. His own lodge is not known, but he was a visitor to St. Cecile Lodge No. 568 of New York City in March, 1868 and the Lodge of St. Andrew in Massachusetts. His business manager in this country was Fred Widdows, past master of Clinton Lodge No. 453, N.Y. On Oct. 30, 1845 Bull gave a concert for the Masonic Hall and Asylum Fund of the Grand Lodge of New York which netted $1,400. d. Aug. 18, 1880.


            Egbert F. Bullene Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Jan. 25, 1895 at Salinas, Calif. A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy in 1917, he was commissioned that year and advanced through grades to general officer in 1943. During WW1 he was a battalion commander in 4th Division. In 1944 he commanded a joint American-British secret Army-Navy project. Served in European and Pacific theaters in 1945. He was a member of the military commission that tried and convicted General Yamashita. Mason.


            H. Edmund Bullis b. July 24, 1888 at Manlius, N.Y. Engaged in chamber of commerce organization 1910-17. Sent by General Leonard Wood q.v. on special mission to rulers of Indo-China, Siam,' Malay, Borneo 1922-23. Chief of Organized Reserve Section, General Staff, U.S. Army, 1924-27. Active in associations for mental hygiene, dementia praecox and human relations. Served in both world wars. In WW2 he was on claims commission for England, French Morocco, North Africa, Sicily, Italy. Author of several volumes including The Land of Masonic Romance and Human Relations in Action. Raised in Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, of Va. in 1910; member of Lake Ontario Chapter No. 165, R.A.M. at Oswego, N.Y. and Lake Ontario Commandery, K.T. of same city. 32° AASR (NJ) in Wilmington, Del.; Media Shrine Temple of Watertown, N.Y.; past president of DuPont Chapter of National Sojourners; organizing president of Rockefeller Square Club in N.Y.C. (1935); served as ceremonial director for Afifi and Nile Shrine Temples in the Philippines in 1922-23.


            Archibald Bulloch ( 1730-1 777 ) President of Georgia, holding that office in 1776-77 just before the state constitution came into existence. b. in Charleston, S. Car. he studied law, was admitted to the bar and settled in Georgia. In 1772 he became speaker of the commons house and in 1775 was elected a member of the provincial congress, and became its president. The next year he was again elected and presided over the second provincial congress and was sent as a delegate to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. He missed signing the Declaration of Independence as he was in Georgia at the time. His son, William B. q.v. was later a U.S. Senator from Georgia. Member of Solomons Lodge No. 1, Savannah.


            William B. Bulloch (1776-1852) U.S. Senator from Georgia. b. in Savannah, he was the son of Archibald Bulloch q.v. Became a prominent lawyer and in 1809 was elected mayor of Savannah. Subsequently he was collector of the port. Served in War of 1812 in Savannah heavy artillery. Appointed U.S. Senator to fill a vacant term and served in year 1813. His lodge is not known, but probably was Solomon's No. 1, Savannah. He wrote an address on Masonry about 1810-15 and the original copy is in the House of the Temple, Washington.


            Edward G. E. Bulwer-Lytton (18031873) First Baron Lytton of Knebworth and brother of Sir Henry Bulwer. English novelist and politician. His first novel was Faulkland (1827) followed by Pe/ham (1828). He was a member of Parliament from 183141 during which time he produced three plays, The Lady of Lyons, Richelieu and Money. Returning to politics he was a member of parliament from 1852-66 and colonial secretary 1858-59. Created baron in 1866. Among his historical and romantic novels are Eugene Aram (1832), The Last Days of Pompeii (1834) and Rienzi (1835) on which Wagner's opera of the same name is based. Among his poems is The World May Rail at Masonry. Mason.


            Alfred L. Bulwinkle U.S. Congressman, 67th to 70th Congresses (1921-29) and 72nd to 81st Congresses (1931-51) from 11th N. Car, district. b. April 21, 1883 at Charlestown, S. Car. Admitted to bar in 1904. Served overseas as major in WW1. Member of executive board of United Lutheran Church in America. Mason.


            Horace A. Bumby Manufacturing executive. b. Aug. 22, 1890 at Burnett, Wis. President and general manager of Speed Queen Corp., Ripon, Wis. since 1940. President and director of Ripon Foods, Inc., since 1930. Officer and director of several corporations. Mason.


            Edward Buncombe (?-1777) Colonel in American Revolution, b. in the West Indies, he was educated in England and inherited a large estate. Came to America in 1776, settling in Tyrrel Co., N. Car. He raised and commanded the 5th N. Car. regiment and fought in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown, being wounded and taken prisoner in the latter, dying of wounds at Philadelphia. In 1791 his name was given to a county in N. Car. The Americanism "speaking for Buncombe," signifying any speech made solely to please a constituency, is derived from a congressional representative from that county who was in the habit of making speeches to which no one listened. One day, observing many members were leaving the house, he declared that he did not care how many left—he was not speaking to them, but to Buncombe! Buncombe was a member of Unanimity Lodge No. 7 at Edenton, N. Car. His degree dates were May 16, May 26, June 3, 1776.


            Charles E. Bunnell First president of University of Alaska. b. Jan. 12, 1878 at Dimock, Pa. Received A.B., A.M. and LL.D. from Bucknell Univ. Arrived in Alaska in 1900 and taught school, being admitted to bar in 1908. Appointed judge of U.S. District Court, 4th Division, serving 1915-21. First president of Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines (now Univ. of Alaska) from 1922-35 and president of the Univ. of Alaska from 1935. Mason.


            George A. Bunting President of Noxzema Chemical Co. b. April 3, 1870 at Bishopville, Md. A.B. and A.M. from Washington College, Md. and Ph.G. from Univ. of Maryland School of Pharmacy. First with public schools of Bishopville, Md. as principal then proprietor of Bunting's Drug Store in Baltimore (1902-22) where he originated the Noxzema formula in 1914. Established the Noxzema Co. in 1917 and was president until 1949, being chairman of the board since that time. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.


            John Bunyan (1628-1688) Preacher and most celebrated allegorical writer of England. b. at Elstow, near Bedford, he served in the Parliamentary army from 1644-46. Moved by two devotional books of his wife's, he gave up amusements and swearing and joined the nonconformist church in Bedford in 1653. He began to preach in 1657 and published his first writings against the Quakers in 1656. Served 12 years (1660-72) in prison for preaching without a license. Wrote nine books while in prison. During a short imprisonment in 1675 he is supposed to have written the immortal Pilgrim's Progress, published in 1678. Although it is not known whether he was a Freemason or not, his little-known work Solomon's Temple Spiritualized contains so much Masonic phraseology and dogma that it would be hard to believe that he did not have some knowledge of the Craft.


            Luther Burbank (1849-1926) Horticulturist and naturalist. b. March 7, 1849 at Lancaster, Mass. Spent his boyhood on the farm and became interested in plant life at an early age. He moved to Santa Rosa, Calif. in 1875 where he established Bur-bank's Experimental Farms. The first practical result of his experiments was the Burbank potato. Others were a rapid-growing, edible, thornless cactus; 11 types of plums and four types of prunes; a new fruit, the "plumcot"; Peachblow, Burbank and Santa Rosa roses; gigantic forms of amaryllis, tigridian, the Shasta daisy and various new apples, peaches, nuts, berries, trees, fruits, flowers, grasses, grains and vegetables. Burbank was raised in Santa Rosa Lodge No. 57 on August 13, 1921 and coroneted an honorary 33° AASR (SJ) on Oct. 20, 1925. d. April 11, 1926.


            Henry Burbeck (1754-1848) Founder of West Point, soldier of the Revolution and War of 1812. b. June 8, 1754 at Castle William in Boston harbor. His father, William, was commanding officer of Castle William and as senior grand warden of St. John's Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston, he had signed the warrant for American Union Lodge. Henry was commissioned as lieutenant of artillery in May, 1775 and his commission was signed by Joseph Warren q.v. He served under such famous artillerymen (and Masons) as Gridley, Knox and Crane q.v. In the Revolution he was at the battles of Long Island, Brandywine and Germantown, wintering at Valley Forge. He was stationed at West Point and commanded the troops that took over New York City from the British on Nov. 25, 1783. He was discharged from service in 1784 but re-entered the army and was in command of his birthplace, Castle William in 1786. He served again at West Point, building Ft. St. Tammany and was with Wayne in the Northwest Territory in 1792. In 1800 he was named Chief of Artillerists and Engineers and recommended the establishment of a military school for training cadets that later developed into the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. When the Corps of Engineers was created in 1801, Burbeck was its first chief. In the War of 1812 he commanded the harbor defenses of New York, New London and Newport. It is no doubt that under his instructions volunteer working parties of Freemasons marched to those several sites where earthworks were raised under the name of Fort Hiram, Fort Masonic, etc. Burbeck retired in 1815 as a brigadier general. He was a member of St. John's Lodge, Boston, as was his father. In the spring of 1792 he commanded a force sent to Fort Recovery, Ohio to bury over 200 Americans that had fallen there on Nov. 4 of the preceding year under General St. Clair when the Miami Indians overwhelmed them. At his direction they were all buried in a common grave and both military and Masonic ceremonies were given over the grave. d. Oct. 2, 1848.


            Thomas G. Burch (1869-1951) U.S. Congressman, 72nd to 77th Congresses (1931-43) from 5th Virginia dist. b. July 3, 1869 in Henry Co., Va. In banking business. U.S. Marshal Western Dist. of Va. from 1914-21. Mason and Shriner. d. March 20, 1951.


            Clark Burdick (1868-1948) U.S. Congressman 66th to 72nd Congresses (1919-33) from 1st R.I. dist. b. Jan. 13, 1868 at Newport, R.I. Practiced law at Newport from 1894. Served as city solicitor, mayor, and in the state house and senate. Mason and 32° AASR. d. Aug. 27, 1948.


            Usher L. Burdick U.S. Congressman 74th to 78th and 81st to 84th Congresses from North Dakota at large. b. Feb. 21, 1879 at Owatonna, Minn., he was raised among the Sioux Indians. Received law degree from Univ. of Minnesota and admitted to N. Dak. bar in 1904. He has been a member of the N. Dak. house, speaker of the house, lieutenant governor, states attorney and assistant federal attorney of N. Dak. Author of several books including The Last Battle of the Sioux Nation (1928), Tragedy in the Great Sioux Camp (1939), and Tales from Buffalo Land (1940). Member of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 51, Williston, N. Dak. Dimitted from York and Scottish Rite.


            Gottfried A. Burger ( 174 7- 1794 ) German romantic poet and writer of ballads. Translated Homer and Shakespeare. His ballad Lenore (1773) is considered to be his masterpiece. Also wrote Die Kuh (1784), Der Wilde Jager (1785), Der Kaiser und der Abt (1785) and Lenardo und Blandine. Edited the first German version of Baron Munchausen. Was initiated in 1775.


            William 0. Burgin (?-1946) U.S. Congressman 76th to 78th Congresses (1939-45) from 8th N. Car. dist. b. at Marion, N. Car. Practiced law in Lexington. Served in N. Car. house and senate. Mason. d. April 11, 1946.


            Father Jose Burgos (?-1872) Catholic priest, who although not a Freemason, had a Scottish Rite chapter of Rose Croix named for him—Burgos Chapter, Manila, Philippines. A liberal-minded native priest, he campaigned vigorously for reforms in religion and government in the Philippines in the second half of the 19thcentury. In opposing the despotic powers of the Spanish friars, he was on the side of many Masons, who while they were in accord with the spiritual side of the Catholic Church, resisted the subjugation of the people under the cloak of religion. For this, he with two other priests were put to death Feb. 17, 1872 by garroting.


            Andrew H. Burke Former Governor of North Dakota. Mason, 33° AASR (SJ).


            Edmund Burke (1729-1797) British statesman and orator who gained fame by favoring the cause of the American colonies. b. in Dublin of Protestant father and Catholic mother, he was brought up a Protestant. He abandoned legal studies for writing. Became a member of Parliament in 1765 and gained high position among the Whigs through his eloquence on the American question. Delivered a nine-day speech for the impeachment of Warren Hastings. Advocated abolishment of the slave trade, advocated free trade with Ireland and emancipation of Catholics; denounced use of Indians in American war. He was thought to be a member of Jerusalem Lodge No. 44, Clerkenwell, London which was sometimes referred to as "Burke's Lodge." Burke championed John Wilkes q.v. when he was imprisoned for libel, writing the political pamphlet Th.oughts on the Present Discontents in his defense. It is significant that members of Jerusalem Lodge No. 44 went to the King's Bench Prison on March 3, 1769 and made John Wilkes a Mason. d. July 9, 1797.


            Edward R. Burke Former U.S. Senator from Nebraska. Member of Omaha Lodge No. 288, Omaha, Nebr. receiving his Scottish Rite (SJ) in 1927 and KCCH on Oct. 17, 1933.


            Haslett P. Burke Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Colorado. b. April 28, 1874 in Monona Co., Iowa. Admitted to bar and moved to Colorado in 1896. Served as clerk in district court of Logan Co. and then as district judge from 1907-19. Served as judge of the supreme court from 1919 until voluntary retirement in 1949. He was chief justice in 1927, 1937, 1938. Declined appointment as U.S. Senator in 1941. Served in Spanish American War. Self educated, the first time he ever set foot on a campus of higher learning was to deliver the commencement address, and the first time he entered the door of a law school was as a teacher of constitutional law. Raised in Sterling Lodge No. 34 in 1903 and elected master three months later. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado in 1920-21. Received 32° AASR (SJ) in 1905, KCCH in 1909; 33° in 1914 and GCCH in 1939. Appointed deputy in Colorado in 1940; crowned active member in 1941 and in 1955 elected as lieutenant grand commander of the Southern Jurisdiction. d. 1957.


            Elmer J. Burkett (1867-1935) U.S. Senator from Nebraska. b. Dec. 1, 1867 in Mills Co., Iowa. LL.B. and LL.M. from Univ. of Nebraska and entered law practice in 1891 at Lincoln, Nebr. Member of the Nebraska lower house for one term and U.S. Congressman, 56th to 59th Congresses (1899-1905) from 1st Nebr. dist. U.S. Senator 1905-11. Mason and 32° AASR. d. May 23, 1935.


            Edwin C. Burleigh (1843-1916) U.S. Senator and Governor of Maine. b. Nov. 27, 1843 at Linneus, Me. Taught school and was land surveyor in early life, later publisher of the Kennebec Journal (1887 on). He was state treasurer from 1885-88 and governor of Maine 1889-92. A member of the U.S. Congresses, 1897-1911 from 3rd Maine dist. and U.S. Senator 1913 until death on June 16,1916. Member of Augusta Lodge No. 141, Augusta, Me.


            Albert S. Burleson (1863-1937) Postmaster General of U.S. b. June 7, 1863 at San Marcos, Tex. Received degrees from Baylor Univ. and Univ. of Texas and admitted to bar in 1885. Member of 56th to 62nd Congresses (1899-1903) from 9th Texas dist. Also congressman from 10th dist. in 190313. Resigned from 63rd Congress to accept postmaster generalship in cabinet of President Wilson, serving from 1913-21. Member of the Masonic bodies of Austin, Texas. d. Nov. 24, 1937.


            Edward Burleson Vice President of Republic of Texas. Member of Clinton Lodge No. 54, Bolivar, Tenn. Initiated March 22, 1826.


            Anson Burlingame ( 1820 - 1 87 0 ) U.S. Minister to China. b. Nov. 14, 1820 in New Berlin, N.Y. Graduated from Harvard law school in 1846 and practiced in Boston, serving in the state senate and a member of the state constitutional convention. U.S. Congressman to 34th, 35th and 36th Congresses, he was one of the founders of the Republican party in 1855. He gained national fame when he denounced the assault by Preston S. Brooks on Senator Sumner over the slavery question, and when Brooks challenged him to a duel, he promptly accepted, naming rifles as the weapons and the place to be Navy island above Niagara Falls. Brooks backed down. President Lincoln appointed him as minister to Austria, but the government refused to receive him as he had spoken in favor of Hungarian independence. He was then named minister to China in which capacity he served with distinction and in 1867 Prince Kung, regent of China, named him as special envoy to the United States and European powers to frame treaties of amity with those nations. It became known as the "Burlingame Treaty." He died in St. Petersburg, Russia on Feb. 23, 1870 while completing his mission for China. He was made a Freemason in Amicable Lodge, Cambridge, Mass. on Jan. 5, 1854.


            David G. Burnet (1788-1870) President of Texas, soldier of fortune, lawyer, jurist b. April 1, 1788 at Newark, N.J., son of Dr. William Burnet, first master of Nova Caesarea Lodge No. 10, Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1806 he joined the liberator Miranda q.v. on the ship Leander in an attempt to free Venezuela, and was with him again in 1808 on another attempt. Afterwards studied law at Newark. On Nov. 24, 1813 he petitioned St. John's Lodge of Newark and the minutes of Dec. 8, 1813 state that his petition was laid over for further consideration. Failing in health, he drifted to the plains in 1817 and lived with the Comanches for two years. He returned to Ohio where his family lived and then to Louisiana where he practiced law for six years. He migrated to Texas in 1826 and in 1833 he wrote the document sent by the convention of American settlers to the Mexican government. In 1834 he was appointed one of the first three district judges of Texas. When Texas declared her independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836, Burnet was chosen as the first president of the Republic to serve until the adoption of a constitution which took place on Oct. 22, 1836. During his eight months as president many important events occurred including the Battle of the Alamo, Goliad and San Jacinto as well as the capture of Santa Anna q.v. In 1838 he was elected vice president, and was president in 1840 during the illness of President Lamar. It was while vice president that he was initiated in Holland Lodge No. 1 of Houston the dates being Jan. 18, Jan. 24, and May 21, 1839. He de-mitted April 13, 1842 and there is no later Masonic record of him. He was defeated for presidency in 1841 by Sam Houston q.v. and was first secretary of state under Governor Henderson q.v. He then retired to his farm and died Dec. 5, 1870. His brother Jacob q.v. was U.S. Senator from Ohio and deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio.


            Jacob Burnet (1770-1853) U.S. Senator from Ohio, pioneer jurist and political figure. b. Feb. 22, 1770 at Newark, N.J., son of Dr. William q.v. and brother of David G. q.v. Graduated at Princeton in 1791 and in 1796 was admitted to the bar and settled in Ohio where he became a leading citizen. In 1799 he was appointed to the legislative council of the Northwest Territory and was active in forming the state government. In 1812 he was a member of the state legislature and judge of the supreme court in 1821-28. From 1828-31 he served Ohio as U.S. Senator. He was first president of the colonizing Society of Cincinnati. In 1799-1801 he was master of Nova Caesarea Lodge No. 10 (now N.C. Harmony, No. 2) at Cincinnati. His father was first master of this lodge. He also is listed in the grand lodge proceedings as a past master of Scioto Lodge No. 6. A Royal Arch Mason, he was deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio in 1810-12 and at one time served as grand orator of that body. d. May 10, 1853.


            William Burnet (1730-1791) Pioneer physician, member of Continental Congress of 1776. b. Dec. 13, 1730 at Newark, N.J., he was the son of a physician who came from Scotland. Two of his six sons became famous, David G. q.v. being the first President of Texas and Jacob q.v., U.S. Senator from Ohio. He graduated from Princeton in 1749—the school's second year. He was a member of Congress in 1780-81. From 1776 until the close of the war, he was surgeon general of the eastern district of the United States. When the grand lodge of New Jersey chartered Nova Caesarea Lodge No. 10 at Cincinnati on Sept. 8, 1791 he was named as first master. Shortly after this (Oct. 7, 1791) he died.


            George H. Burnett ( 1853 - 192 7 ) Justice, Supreme Court of Oregon from 1892-1911. b. May 9, 1853 in Yamhill Co., Oreg. Practiced law at Salem, Oreg. 1876-92 and then served as district attorney, court reporter and circuit judge. Mason. d. Sept. 10, 1927.


            James Burnett (Lord Monboddo) q.v. (1714-1799) Scottish judge and pioneer anthropologist. Samuel Johnson visited him in 1773. He was the author of The Origin and Progress of Language (1773-92) which brought man into affinity with orangutans and traced elevation of man to a social state as a natural process. The Bulletin of the International Masonic Congress (1917) states that he was a Freemason.


            Henry E. Burnham ( 1844 -1917 ) U.S. Senator from New Hampshire. b. Nov. 8, 1844 at Dumbarton, N.H. Graduate of Dartmouth in 1867 and admitted to bar in 1868. Held several political offices and was U.S. Senator from 1901-13. A member of Washington Lodge No. 61, Manchester, he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire in 1885. A 33° AASR (NJ). d. Feb. 8, 1917.


            George Burnham (1868-1939) U.S. Congressman, 73rd and 74th Congresses (1933-37). b. Dec. 28, 1868 in London, England. Came to United States in 1881 and naturalized in 1890. Began as a clerk in store, became engaged in ranching and real estate and banking. From 1917-27 was vice president of the Southern Truce & Commerce Bank; from 1927-30, vice president of Bank of Italy; and from 1930-32, vice president of its successor, the Bank of America. Past grand commander, Grand Commandery, K.T. of Calif. d. June, 1939.


            Lord Burnham (Edward Frederick Lawson) English peer and managing director of the London Daily Telegraph, founded by his family. He was educated at Eaton and Oxford and served with distinction in WW1, receiving the D.S.O. In WW2 he was recalled to service as a major general and appointed director of public relations in 1941 at the War Office. He was senior military adviser to the Ministry of Information, remaining in that capacity long after the end of the war. As Edward Frederick Lawson, he succeeded his father to the barony in 1943 at the latter's death. In 1942 he was junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of England and since 1944 Masonic ruler of the Province of Buckinghamshire.


            Wilbur H. Burnham Artist and designer of stained glass windows. b. Feb. 4, 1887 at Boston, Mass. Studied both at home and abroad, beginning as designer of stained glass in 1906. Has designed scores of church, cathedral and memorial windows including Cathedral of St. John the Divine, Washington Cathedral, Riverside Church (N.Y.), Princeton Univ. Chapel, Rollins College (Fla.) Chapel, Univ. of Southern Calif. Chapel, Belleau Chapel, France, American Church of Paris. Mason.


            Bob Burns (1890-1956) Actor and humorist. b. Aug. 2, 1890 at Van Buren, Ark. Attended the Univ. of Arkansas but did not graduate. Started his professional career on vaudeville stage in 1911, but gained his fame through homely philosophy in movies and particularly radio. His famous homemade musical instrument the "bazooka" was immortalized in WW2 with the infantry rocket launcher being given that name. Mason. d. Feb. 2, 1956.


            Gilbert Burns (?-1827) Brother of Scottish poet, Robert Burns q.v. who together farmed 118 acres at Mossgiel, Scotland. Raised in St. James Lodge, No. 178 Tarbolton on March 1, 1786. d. April 27, 1827.


            Robert Burns (1759-1796) Scottish national poet. b. Jan. 25, 1759 at Alloway, near Ayr, the son of a gardener. He first worked as a farm laborer and from 1784-88 farmed with his brother Gilbert q.v. on 118 acres at Mossgiel where he wrote some of his best poems. Constantly plagued with financial trouble and affairs of the heart, he determined to go to Jamaica as a plantation overseer, but when the edition of poems he published to raise his fare became a success, he decided to stay and moved to Edinburgh where he was lionized by literary circles. He was made a Freemason in St. David's Lodge No. 174 at Tarbolton, Scotland being initiated on July 4, 1781 and passed and raised Oct. 1, same year. He was one of those who withdrew from the lodge in 1782 and constituted St. James Lodge No. 178 in the same town. On July 27, 1784 he was made deputy master of the lodge and held that office until 1788. He was made an honorary member of St. John's Lodge No. 22, Kilmarnock, Scotland on Oct. 26, 1786. He was also a member of the Loudoun Kilwinning Lodge No. 51, Newmilns, Scotland. On Feb. 1, 1787, he became a member of the famous Lodge Canon-gate Kilwinning No. 2 at Edinburgh and was made poet laureate of the lodge on March 1, 1787. While on a visit to St. Andrew's Lodge No. 179, Dumfries, Scotland on Dec. 27, 1788 the brethren "assumed" him as a member of that lodge. On May 19, 1787 he received the Royal Arch de-gree in St. Ebbe Lodge at Eyemouth, Scotland.• Although Robert Ainslie who was exalted at the same time paid one guinea dues, the minutes testify "but on account of R. Burns' remarkable poetical genius, the encampment unanimously agreed to admit him gratis" and considered themselves "honoured by having a man of such shining abilities as one of their Companions." He wrote several Masonic poems including "Farewell to the Brethren of St. James Lodge, Tarbolton" and "The Freemasons' Apron." d. July 21, 1796.


            Robert E. Burns President of College of the Pacific. b. July 26, 1909 at Flat River, Mo. Received A.B. and A.M. from College of the Pacific and LL.D. from Willamette Univ. Began as field secretary of College of the Pacific in 1931, later becoming alumni and placement secretary, registrar, assistant to president "and has been president since 1946. Raised Jan. 20, 1945 in San Joaquin Lodge No. 19, exalted Oct. 29, 1952 in Stockton Chapter No. 28, R.A.M.; greeted in Stockton Council No. 10, R. & S.M. Oct. 29, 1952 and knighted in Stockton Commandery No. 8, K.T. Dec. 1, 1953. Received 32° AASR (SJ) Nov. 18, 1945. Served as grand chaplain, Grand Lodge of California in 1955 and grand high prelate, Red Cross of Constantine, 1956-57.


            Aaron Burr (1756-1836) American Revolutionary officer; third vice-president of the United States. He fell into disrepute by killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel (1804) and later by conspiring to seize territory from Spanish America to create a new republic in the Southwest. In spite of the fact that many authorities have claimed he was a Mason, there is not a shred of proof as to his membership. It is true that many of his close associates were Freemasons. He is often confused with another contemporary "Aaron Burr" who was a member of Union Lodge No. 40, Danbury, Conn., being initiated June 13, passed July 3 and raised Sept. 13, 1806. That summer Burr was in New Jersey with his daughter and left for the Southwest in Sept. of that year. There is also a record of "Aaron Burr" visiting Western Star Lodge No. 107 at Kaskaskia, Ill. on April 4, 1812. At this time he was either in England or aboard the ship Aurora which reached Boston in May, 1812. During the Anti-Masonic period, those opposed to the Craft associated Burr's name with the fraternity as a traitor who used the Craft to further his plans. The following from an address in 1829 before a citizens meeting in Philadelphia is indicative of the times: "It was the key of the Royal Arch degree which was used by the celebrated Aaron Burr, in conducting his correspondencies, during his treasonable conspiracies against our liberties. That arch intriguer travelled over the United States; visited the Lodges and Chapters; communicated his private designs where the members were bound by oath to conceal the disclosures of their brethren." d. Sept. 14, 1836.


            Jonathan Burrall (1753-1834) Revolutionary soldier. Joined the northern army under Schuyler in 1776. He soon became assistant paymaster and at the close of the war he was on the commission to settle the accounts of the commissary and quartermaster departments. He was later assistant postmaster general and cashier of the U.S. branch bank of New York and manager of the New York state lotteries. Admitted to Masters' Lodge No. 2 at Albany, N.Y. in 1778. d. Nov. 18, 1834.


            George Burrington (?-1759) Twice colonial governor of North Carolina under the British. First appointed on Jan. 15, 1724 because his father hadbeen active in support of British on accession of George I. He was removed and succeeded by Sir Richard Everard on April 7, 1725 as being "ignorant and profligate." He was ordered tried for his actions but did not appear at the trial and left for England. Although removed in 1730, he was again sent to North Carolina as governor, in Feb., 1731. Again he conducted himself with want of prudence and when he learned that the chief justice of the colony had been sent to England to protest against him, he left in April, 1734 for the British Isles. Shortly after his arrival, he was found murdered one morning in St. James' Park, London. He was a member of the lodge at the "King's Arms on New Bond Street" in London and his name also appears on the list of members of "Bear and Harrow in Butcher Roe," London in 1730. Murdered in London, Feb. 22, 1759.


            Harry E. Burroughs ( 1890-1 946 ) Lawyer and founder of the Burroughs Newsboys Foundation, a charitable organization for the benefit of newsboys, shoeblacks, etc. b. April 15, 1890 in Kashoffka, Russia. Received degrees from Suffolk Law School and Boston Univ., being admitted to Mass. bar in 1912 taking up practice in Boston. Mason and 32° AASR. d. Dec. 18, 1946.


            Julius C. Burrows (1837-1915) U.S. Senator from Michigan. b. Jan. 9, 1837 at Northeast, Pa. Began law practice in Kalamazoo, Mich. in 1861. Member of 43rd, 46th, 47th and 49th to 54th Congresses. U.S. Senator from 1895 to 1911. Was temporary chairman of the Republican National Convention in Chicago, 1908. Past master of Anchor Lodge of Strict Observance No. 87 at Kalamazoo and member of Kalamazoo Chapter, R.A.M. No. 13 and Peninsular Commandery No. 8, K.T. of same city. d. Nov. 16, 1915.


            160 Robert Burton Lansing Burrows (1843-1919) Soldier and clergyman. Secretary of Southern Baptist Convention from 1881-1914. b. April 10, 1843 at Philadelphia, Pa. and educated in Richmond College (Va.), Wake Forest College (N.C.), Princeton, Madison, Univ. Bethel College (Ky.). Served with C.S.A., enlisting in 1861, captured at Winchester, Va. in 1864. Ordained to Baptist ministry in 1867 serving churches in Mo., N.J., Ky., Ga. and Tenn. d. Oct. 17, 1919. Mason.


            Calvin C. Burt Achieved prominence in the Rite of Memphis, but was expelled from his lodge in Michigan, said expulsion being confirmed by the Grand Lodge of Michigan when appealed.


            Harold H. Burton Associate Justice, Supreme Court of United States. b. June 22, 1888 at Jamaica Plain, Mass. Educated in Bowdoin College and Harvard Univ., practicing law in Cleveland, Ohio from 1912. Served as an officer in 91st Infantry Div. in WW1 in France and Belgium. Acting mayor of Cleveland in 1931-32 and mayor from 1935-40. Member of the Ohio house of representatives in 1929 and U.S. Senator from Ohio from 1941-45. Associate Justice of Supreme Court of U.S. since Oct. 1, 1945. Member of Pythagoras Lodge No. 682 of Cleveland; 33° AASR (NJ) and member of Al Koran Shrine Temple, Cleveland.


            Hutchins G. Burton ( ?-1836) Former Governor of North Carolina. Grand master of North Carolina in 1826-27. Was governor in 1824-27. His lodge memberships are not clear. In 1803 there was a H. G. Burton as a member of Hiram Lodge No. 24, Williamsborough, N.C.; said brother represented this lodge at grand lodge in 1817. However there was another H.G. Burton a member of Phalanx Lodge No. 31, Charlotte, N.C. in 1813. Abrother of the same name represented Mount Morris Lodge No. 27 of Iredell Co., N.C. as well as Phalanx Lodge No. 31 at the grand lodge in 1809. A brother of the same name is listed in the proceedings of 1805 as a representative of Philantropic Lodge of Tennessee (in Grand Lodge of Kentucky proceedings). To further complicate the matter, there was an "H. G. Burton" listed as a member of Royal White Hart Lodge No. 2 at Halifax, N.C. in the proceedings of 1836.


            John Hill Burton (1809-1881) Scottish historian. He achieved fame with his Life of David Hume in 1846 and was editor with Sir John Bowring, of Bentham's works. Made a Freemason in Glenkindil Lodge No. 333, Scotland on Aug. 17, 1827.


            Sir Richard F. Burton (1821-1890) British explorer and writer. He joined the Indian army in 1842 and recorded his experiences in Scinde, or the Unhappy Valley in 1851. In 1853 he made a pilgrimage to Mecca disguised as Pathan, which he described in Personal Narrative (1855). With Speke, he explored Somaliland in 1854, Lake Tanganyika region in 1858 and accompanied Capt. Cameron to the Gold Coast in 1881. His First Footsteps in East Africa was published in 1856. He was British consul at Fernando Po, Damascus and Trieste from 1861-82. Member of Hope Lodge, Kurrachee, Scinde, India.


            Robert Burton (1747-1825) Quartermaster General of militia in American Revolution and member of the Continental Congresses from North Carolina from 1787-88. b. in Mecklenburg, Va. Oct. 20, 1747, he was a planter, removing to Granville, S. Car. about 1775. In 1801 he was a member of the commission to fix the boundary between the Carolinas and Georgia. Member of Hiram Lodge No. 24 of Williamsborough, N. Car.


            Theodore E. Burton ( 1851 -1929 ) U.S. Senator and Congressman from Ohio. b. Dec. 20, 1851 at Jefferson, Ohio. Graduate of Oberlin, being admitted to bar in 1875 and practicing at Cleveland. Served in 51st, and 54th to 60th Congresses from 21st Ohio dist. Resigned from 61st Congress to be U.S. Senator from Ohio from 1909-15. Again served in 67th to 70th Congresses (1921-29) from 22nd Ohio dist. Member of Iris Lodge No. 229, Webb Chapter, R.A.M., Orion Commandery, K.T. and Al Koran Shrine Temple, all of Cleveland. d. Oct. 28, 1929.


            William Burton Governor of Delaware for term starting 1861. Member of Temple Lodge No. 9 and deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Delaware from 1851-52.


            Harlan J. Bushfield ( 1882 - 1948 ) U.S. Senator and Governor of South Dakota. b. Aug. 6, 1882 at Atlantic, Iowa. Graduate of Dakota Wesleyan Univ. and Univ. of Minn. Admitted to S. Dak. bar in 1904 and began practice in Miller. Served as governor of S. Dak. from 1938-42 and U.S. Senator from 1943. He was a member of St. Lawrence Lodge No. 39 at Miller, Oriental Consistory AASR at Yankton, La-Co-Tah Commandery K.T. No. 6 at Huron and El Riad Shrine at Sioux Falls. d. Sept. 27, 1948.


            Asa S. Bushnell (1834-1904) Governor of Ohio. b. Sept. 16, 1834 at Rome, N.Y., moving to Cincinnati in 1845. Received a common school education and rose from a dry goods clerk to president of Warder, Bushnell & Glessner Co. mower and reaper manufacturers. Served as company commander in 152nd Ohio volunteer infantry in Civil War. Elected governor of Ohio for two terms, 1895-99. Was made a Mason "at sight" and received the 33° AASR (N.J.).


            George E. Bushnell Associate Jus- tice, Supreme Court of Michigan and Sovereign Grand Commander of Scottish Rite, Northern Jurisdiction. b. Nov. 4, 1887 at Roanoke, Va. Graduate of Virginia Poly. Inst. and Detroit College of Law with honorary LL.D. degrees from Detroit College of Law, Wayne Univ., Boston Univ., and Univ. of Michigan. His early years were spent as an advertising salesman from Denver, Colorado to London, England. Later he was supervisor for Canada Life Assurance Co. of Toronto. In 1915 he was admitted to the Virginia bar in the following year to the Michigan bar. In 1933 he was elected justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan, and reelected until he resigned in 1954 to accept the chieftainship of the Northern Jurisdiction of the AASR, upon the retirement of Melvin M. Johnson q.v. He was raised in Taylor Lodge No. 23 at Salem, Va. in 1909 and served as master of Sojourners Lodge No. 483 of Detroit in 1925. He received his 33° in 1924. Bushnell was a member of the Masonic Service Association European Committee sent abroad in 1945 to investigate the state of the Craft in Europe following the war.


            Anastasio Bustamante (1780-1853) President of Mexico and soldier. b. in Jiquilpan, Michoacan, he fought in the Spanish army against revolution.. ists as early as 1808, but in 1821 supported Iturbide q.v. and his plan for government. He was vice-president of the republic under Guerrero q.v. in 1829, but joined Santa Anna q.v. in a revolt against him. He was president of Mexico from 1829-32, but was driven out by Santa Anna. After the latter's downfall in 1836, Bustamante again became president from 1837-39. He was a Royal Arch Mason.


            Benjamin F. Butler (1818-?) Union Major General in Civil War and lawyer. b. Nov. 5, 1818 at Deerfield, N.H. Practiced law at Lowell, Mass.



            John Butler Entered war in 1861 as brigadier general of militia and promoted to major general the same year. He occupied Baltimore with 900 men and later commanded Fort Monroe in Virginia. He captured Forts Hatteras and Clark on the North Carolina coast and then formed an expedition for the Gulf of Mexico. On May 1, 1862 he took possession of New Orleans. After he hanged a man for pulling down the U.S. flag, issued "Order No. 28" to prevent women from insulting soldiers and confiscated $800,000 from the Dutch consul, he was recalled and placed in command of the department of Virginia and N. Carolina. In North Carolina he issued general order No. 38 which had to do with the care of Confederate Masonic property at New Bern. In 1865 Grant removed him from command and he returned to Massachusetts where he engaged in politics and practiced law. In Lowell, Mass. he was a member of Pentucket Lodge, Mt. Horeb Chapter, and Pilgrim Commandery. He was made a 33° honorary of the AASR (NJ) on March 16, 1864.


            Burridge D. Butler ( 1868 -1948 ) Publisher. b. Feb. 5, 1868 at Louisville, Ky. Founded Omaha Daily News in 1899, St. Paul Daily News in 1900, Minneapolis Daily News in 1900. Sold these properties in 1909. Became owner and publisher of The Prairie Farmer in 1909, also president of WLS Agricultural Broadcasting Co., Chicago. Mason. d. March 30, 1948.


            Charles C. Butler (1865-1946) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Colorado. b. Feb. 6, 1865 at Milwaukee, Wis. Graduate of Univ. of Michigan in 1891 and admitted to Colorado bar same year. Practiced at Denver. Judge of Colorado district court 191327 and justice of supreme court 192737, being chief justice part of that time. Initiated in Union Lodge No. 7, Denver on April 27, 1935. d. Nov. 16, 1946.


            David Butler First Governor of Nebraska. Governor when Nebraska was admitted to statehood on March 1, 1867. Butler affiliated with Pawnee Lodge No. 23 at Pawnee City in 1879. His original lodge is not known.


            Hugh A. Butler (1878-1954) U.S. Senator from Nebraska. b. Feb. 28, 1878 at Missouri Valley, Iowa. Became engineer for C.B. & Q. Railroad in 1900 and in 1908 a grain miller at Curtis, Nebr. and was associated with the grain trade the rest of his life. Elected U.S. Senator from Nebraska in 1941, serving until 1952. He was raised in Wellsville Lodge No. 194, Wellsville, Mo. and later became a member of St. John's Lodge No. 25 of Omaha, Nebr. 32° AASR. d. July 1, 1954.


            John Butler (1728-1794) Colonel in the British service during the American Revolution. b. in New London, Conn. At outbreak of war he recruited a force of Indians and rangers known as "Butler's Rangers." An expert in Indian tactics, he participated in many battles with them including Oriskany, the Wyoming massacre and raids on the Schoharie and Mohawk settlements. Many atrocities have been attributed to him. He was a close friend of Joseph Brant q.v., the famous Indian chief. After Brant had saved the life of Lt. Thomas Boyd on Sept. 13, 1779 near Genessee when Boyd had given a Masonic sign, he was turned over to either Col. Butler or his son, Walter, who in turn let the Indians torture and kill him. Previous to the war he had been made deputy superintendent of Indian affairs in New York and after the war when he removed to Canada he was special Indian agent. He was probably raised in Union Lodge No. 1, Albany, N.Y. and became the first secretary of the famous St. Patrick's Lodge No. 8 at Johnstown, N.Y. which first met on August 23, 1766. In Canada, after the war, he became a charter member of St. John's Lodge of Friendship No. 2 and served as its master. He became the first grand senior warden of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Upper Canada. Barton Lodge No. 6 (then 10) had many of his former rangers as members, and Brant himself was at one time a member of this lodge.


            Richard Butler (1743-1791) Major General, U.S. Army. b. April 1, 1743 at Dublin, Ireland, coming to America with his parents before 1760. A lieut. colonel in the Pennsylvania line at the beginning of the Revolution; with Morgan's rifles in 1777. While with Lafayette's detachment near Williamsburg, Va. in 1781, he attacked Simcoe's rangers and defeated them. Promoted to colonel in the 9th Pennsylvania regiment at close of war. Was Indian agent in Ohio in 1787, and in the St. Clair's expedition against the Indians, he commanded the right wing with the rank of major general. He was killed in the attack on Ft. Recovery on Nov. 4, 1791, tomahawked and scalped. He was initiated in Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia on April 14, 1779, passed April 20 and raised April 27. He later affiliated with Pennsylvania-Union Lodge —a lodge of the Pennsylvania line and on January 9, 1787 is recorded as having been admitted to Lodge No. 45 of Pittsburgh. Lodge records show that he visited St. George's Lodge of Schenectady, N.Y. in June, 1779 and later American Union Lodge (military).


            Robert Butler General in War of 1812. On the roll of the Grand Lodge of Alabama when it was organized on June 3, 1825 and member of Jackson Lodge No. 23, Tallahassee, Fla. He was charter member and master for four years, being grand master ofthe Grand Lodge of Florida in 1833.


            William Morgan Butler Former U.S. Senator from Massachusetts. Although his membership is not known he is listed in a Masonic publication of 1925 as "prominent in Masonic circles." b. Jan. 29, 1861. d. March 29, 1937. Received degrees in Star In The East Lodge of New Bedford, Mass. in 1886.


            Isaac Butt (1813-1879) Irish lawyer and nationalist leader. Formed coalition between Irish Protestants and other nationalists and inaugurated home-rule movement in 1870. Member of Lodge No. 2, Dublin.


            George C. Butte (1877-1940) Acting Governor General of Philippines and Puerto Rico. b. May 9, 1877 at San Francisco, Calif. Educated home and abroad. Practiced law in Oklahoma and Texas. Attorney general of Puerto Rico 1925-28. Vice governor of Philippines 1930-32. Acting governor of Puerto Rico three times. Associate justice supreme court of Philippines 1932-36. In WW1 served as chief of foreign intelligence section of the General Staff, U.S. Army. Mason. d. Jan. 18, 1940.


            John S. Buttles (1877-1949) Justice, Supreme Court of Vermont. b. Jan. 20, 1877 at Troy, N.Y. Admitted to Vermont bar in 1906. Member of Vermont house of representatives in 1919, superior judge 1926-37; associate justice supreme court, 1937-49. Retired. Mason, Knight Templar and Shriner. d. May 18, 1949.


            Harold Bye Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Jan. 16, 1886 at St. Paul, Minn. Enlisted in U.S. Navy in 1907 and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1947, retiring from service that year. Raised in Bremerton Lodge No. 117, Bremerton, Wash. in 1922. Received 32° AASR (SJ) at Honolulu in 1935; member of Aloha Shrine Temple of Honolulu and was president of the Shrine Club at Sandpoint, Idaho in 1953.


            Clovis E. Byers Lieutenant General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 5, 1899 at Columbus, Ohio. Graduated U.S. Military Academy in 1920, advancing through grades to major general in 1944. With War Dept. General Staff 1940-42, chief of staff, 77th Div. 1942; chief of staff 1st Corps 1942-43; chief of staff 8th Army, 1944; commanding general 82nd Airborne Div. from 194849; chief of staff, G1 Dept. of Army 1949-51; commanding general X Corps in Korea, 1951, XVI Corps, Japan, 1952. Presently military adviser to assistant secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs). Received EA degree on April 1, 1923 in Laredo Lodge No. 547, Laredo, Texas and the FC on Nov. 2, 1925. MM degree in Star of the East Lodge No. 650 in Yokahama, Japan on Nov. 3, 1947.


            Harry C. Byrd President, University of Maryland. b. Feb. 12, 1889 at Crisfield, Md. Graduated from Univ. of Maryland in 1908 and after law studies at several universities returned to his alma mater in 1912 as English and history instructor, later serving as director of athletics, football coach, assistant to president, vice-president, acting president and president since 1936. Raised in Harmony Lodge No. 17, Washington, D.C. in 1914. Member of chapter, council and commandery (Hyattsville) and 32° AASR (SJ) at Washington; Tall Cedars, Shrine and Jesters.


            Harry F. Byrd Governor and U.S. Senator from Virginia. b. June 10, 1887 at Martinsburg, W. Va., he is a brother of Admiral Richard E. Byrd q.v. the explorer. Started with the Winchester (Va.) Star at the age of 15 and now owns the paper as well as the Harrisonburg Daily News Record. Actively interested in peach and apple culture, owning orchards and cold storage facilities. Served in Virginia senate from 1915-25 and a lead-er in establishing state highway system. He served as governor of Virginia from 1926-30. In 1933 he was appointed to fill unexpired term in U.S. Senate and has served in that body continuously since. He was raised in Hiram Lodge No. 21 at Winchester in Nov., 1925 and a member of the AASR (SJ) at Alexandria, Va. receiving the degrees in Oct. 1929. In 1943 he received the 33°.


            Richard E. Byrd (1888-1957) Polar explorer, naval officer, pioneer aviator. b. Oct. 25, 1888 at Winchester, Va., a brother of Harry F. Byrd q.v., governor and senator. Graduated from U.S. Naval Academy in 1912 and advanced to lieut. commander at retirement in 1916 and later promoted to commander after flight over North Pole in 1926. Given rank of rear admiral in 1930. During WW1 he entered the Aviation Service and commanded U.S. Air Forces until armistice. In WW2 he served with Admiral King in Washington and Nimitz in the Pacific, going overseas four times. He was highly decorated including the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1926 and special Congressional Medals in 1930, 37 and 46. Made plane light over North Pole on May 9, 1926 with Floyd Bennett. In 1927 he made trans-Atlantic flight of 4,200 miles with three companions—New York to France. His first Antarctic expedition was in 1928-30 and his second in 1933-35. Discovered Edsel Ford Mountains and Marie Byrd Land. He spent five months alone near the South Pole. In 1939 he was made commander of the U.S. Antarctic Service and again went to the South Polar region, discovering five new mountain ranges, five islands and more than 100,000 square miles of area. In 1946 he was named commanding officer of the U.S. Navy Antarctic Expedition and again in 1956 headed the U.S. expedition in Antarctic exploration. He became a member of Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C. on March 19, 1921 and affiliated with Kane Lodge No. 454, New York City, Sept. 18, 1928 (see Elisha Kent Kane). He is a member of National Sojourner Chapter No. 3 at Washington. He and his pilot, Bernt Balchen q.v. dropped Masonic flags on the two poles—Balchen also added his Shrine fez. In the Antarctic expedition of 1933-35, 60 of the 82 members were Freemasons and on Feb. 5, 1935 established First Antarctic Lodge No. 777 of New Zealand constitution. d. March 11, 1957.


            Frank M. Byrne (1858-1927) Governor of South Dakota. b. Oct 23, 1858 at Volney, Iowa. Moved to Sioux Falls in Dakota Territory in 1878 and took homestead in McCook Co. Was a farmer and real estate dealer. He served in the first state senate in 1890 and also sessions of 1907 and 1909; lieut. governor 1909-13 and governor 1913-17. Mason. d. Dec. 25, 1927.


            James F. Byrnes Secretary of State; Justice, Supreme Court of U.S.; Governor of South Carolina; U.S. Senator. b. May 2, 1879 in S. Car. Admitted to bar in 1903. First edited a newspaper and then served as court reporter. Was a member of the 62nd to 68th Congresses (1911-25) from 2nd S. Car. dist. Served as U.S. Senator two terms, 1931-43. Appointed justice of supreme court in 1941 but resigned to become director of economic stabilization in 1942; director of war mobilization 1943-45 and secretary of state 1945-47. Governor of S. Car. 1951-55. Raised in Aiken Lodge No. 156 on Jan. 12, 1911 and affiliated with Spartan Lodge No. 70, July 5, 1926. Received Royal Arch Nov. 21, 1911 in Kadoshlayah Chapter No. 41, Aiken and affiliated with Chicora Chapter 23, Spartanburg in 1934. Received into Aiken Council R. & S.M. No. 23, Nov. 26, 1920 and affiliated with Blakce Council No. 19 Oct. 22, 1945. Knighted in Columbia Commandery No. 2 Oct 20, 1916 and affiliated with Aiken Commandery No. 14 in 1923 and Spartanburg Commandery No. 3 in 1934.


            Joseph W. Byrns ( 186 9- 1936 ) Speaker, U.S. House of Representatives. b. July 20, 1869 at Cedar Hill, Tenn. Graduate of Vanderbilt Univ. Served many years in the lower house (1895-1900) (1909-33) (1933-37). He died on June 4, 1936 before his term in the 74th Congress had expired. He was twice speaker of the house, 1899 and 1936. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° KCCH and Shriner. Member of Phoenix Lodge No. 131 and Cumberland Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. of Nashville. Son, Joseph W. Jr. was also a congressman (1939-41) and member of Phoenix Lodge.


            John Byrom (1692-1763) English poet, hymnologist and inventor of an early shorthand system that was copyrighted in 1742. He was the author of the famous phrase "tweedledum and tweedledee." He is listed as a member of a lodge held at The Swan in Long Acre, England, 1750.




Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis (17571808) French surgeon, philosopher and writer. Was administrator of Paris hospitals and physician to Mirabeau. A sympathizer with the revolutionists, he was a member of the Council of Five Hundred. He is often called the founder of modern physiological psychology. The bulletin of the International Masonic Congress, 1917, Geneva, Switzerland, lists him as a Freemason.


            James A. Cabell (?-1930) Governor of Virginia and Judge, Supreme Court of Appeals. Served as governor of Virginia 1805-08; judge of the general court 1808-11; judge of supreme court of appeals 1842-51 and president of that court 1842-54. He revived the Virginia Society of the Cincinnati and was first president of the temporary organization in 1889. Mason. d. July 22, 1930.


            Robert H. Cabell (1867-1947) President of Armour & Co. b. Dec. 1, 1867 at Brunswick, Mo. Began as a salesman with Armour in 1892; managing director of European interests with headquarters in London, 1913-34; general manager, Chicago, 1934 and president from 1935 until retirement in 1940. Mason. d. Dec. 12, 1947.


            William H. Cabell (1772-1853) Governor of Virginia for three years (1805-07). b. Dec. 16, 1772 at Boston Hill, Va. Graduated from William and Mary College and admitted to the bar in 1794. Was elected to house of delegates in 1796 and frequently reelected. He served on the Virginia Court of Appeals from 1811 until his death on Jan. 17, 1853, at which time he was president of the court. A member of George Lodge No. 32, Warminster, Virginia, he served as master and treasurer.


            John L. Cable U.S. Congressman 67th to 68th (1921-25) and 71st and 72nd (1929-33) Congresses from 4th Ohio dist. b. April 15, 1884 at Lima, Ohio. Practiced law at Lima from 1909. Mason.


            Charles L. Cadet-Gassincourt (17691821) A French anti-Mason who later became a Freemason. b. Jan. 23, 1769 at Paris. A victim of political persecution, he attributed his sufferings to the influence of Masonic lodges in France and published the book Le Tombeau de Jacques de Molay in 1796 in which he attempted to show that Freemasonry was the instigator of all the European political revolutions. He later changed his views and became a member of the Lodge l'Abeille in Paris, serving as master in 1805. d. Nov. 21, 1821.


            Charles Wakefield Cadman (18811946) American composer. b. Dec. 24, 1881 at Johnstown, Pa. Began as music critic and organist in Pittsburgh. His best known songs are From the Land of the Sky Blue Water and At Dawning. He became interested in American Indian music, basing many of his songs and operas on that theme. Composed cantatas, chamber music, sonatas, quintets, symphonies, suites and operas. Member of Albert Pike Lodge No. 484, Los Angeles, received 32° AASR (SJ) May 26. 1923. Member of York Rite and Shrine. d. Dec. 30, 1946.


            S. Parkes Cadman (1864-1936) Clergyman. b. Dec. 18, 1864 at Wellington, Salop, England. Received honorary degrees from a dozen universities. Served as pastor of the Central Congregational Church of Brooklyn for many years, starting in 1901. From 1924-28 he was president of the Federal Council, Churches of Christ in America and as radio minister of the same, starting in 1928, he was one of the most popular radio artists of that decade. Contributed to the daily press and wrote many books. He was noted for his broad and liberal attitude with regard to the religious opinions of others. It has been said that in his generation no man exerted more influence for the brotherhood of man. A member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2, New York City, he was grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of New York for 28 years. Once in a question period, he was baited with a question concerning membership in secret societies. He answered thus: "That question is aimed at the Masons. I am a Mason and I know Masonry to be a broad-minded, Christ-like institution. Masons are friendly and as a Christian minister, I can say that they fear God and are the orchestra of God toward bringing about fraternity, and for that reason I am and shall always remain a Mason." d. July 12, 1936.


            John Cadwalader (1742-1786) Brigadier General in American Revolution. b. Jan. 10, 1742 at Philadelphia. Took an active part in public affairs previous to the war and was captain of a military company. On the formation of the city battalions, he was placed in command of one and promoted to brigadier general in command of the Pennsylvania militia. He cooperated in the capture of the Hessians at Trenton and was at the battles of Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth as a volunteer. In the fall of 1777 he organized the militia of western Maryland at the request of Washington. After the war he moved to Maryland and became a member of the state legislature. He was a member of Lodge No. 8 in Philadelphia. d. Feb. 11, 1786. Also master of Military Lodge No. 55.


            Thomas Cadwalader ( 1707-1779 ) Revolutionary surgeon. b. in Philadelphia in 1707, he was medical director of the Army hospital at Philadelphia in 1776. He was senior grand warden of first St. John's lodge of Philadelphia in 1738. d. at Trenton, N.J. in 1779.


            James H. Cafferty ( 1819-1 869 ) Painter. He began as a portrait painter and attained a wide reputation as such, but in his later years he turned to still life painting. He was chosen an associate member of the national academy of design in 1849 and in 1853 became an academician. His most notable paintings were My Girl, My Father and Brook Trout. Member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2, New York City.


            Count Alessandro di Cagliostro (1743-1795) Italian imposter, charlatan. Real name was Giuseppe Balsamo. b. June 8, 1743 in Palermo, Italy of poor parents, he was placed in the convent of the Good Brotherhood at Castiglione where he was assistant to the apothecary of the monastery and picked up some knowledge of chemistry and medicine. He fled the monastery and after many brushes with the law, left Italy to travel in Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Rhodes and Malta, picking up the title of "count." Back in Italy he married Lorenza Feliciani q.v. who later was to play an important part in his "Masonic" career. In 1776 he appeared in London and during the early part of that year was initiated in Esperance Lodge No. 289 which met at the King's Head Tavern, Soho, London. The lodge was founded as a French lodge in 1768 under English constitution. The next year (1777) while still in London, he was said to have invented his grand scheme of Egyptian Freemasonry. He assumed the impressive title of Grand Master Supreme of the Egyptian Freemasonry of High Science, Grand Cophta of Europe and Asia. Searching for more lucrative fields, he moved his operations to the continent, posing as a physician, alchemist, neo-romancer and Freemason. In addition to his "Masonic" activities he practiced many frauds, selling love philters, elixirs of youth, etc. It is claimed that he was driven from England by exposes of the editor Morand in the Courier de l'Europe, and although he had several "Egyptian lodges" established, he appears to have lost his popularity. The last official Masonic record we have of him was when he visited the Lodge of Antiquity in London on November 1, 1786. He left England permantly in May, 1787. In Europe he was the associate of princes, prelates and philosophers. He established his Egyptian rite throughout the continent, admitting women as well as men. In 1789 he daringly organized a lodge in Rome under the very shadow of the Vatican. That was the last straw and the Holy Inquisition caught up with him, tried and sentenced him to death. The penalty was later commuted to life imprisonment. He spent four years in the prison of St. Leo, in the Duchy of Urbino, and in 1795 died in a fit of apoplexy.


            Holly M. Cain (1882-1947) President of Abbot Laboratories. b. Jan. 14, 1882 in Davies Co., Ind. President of Swan-Myers Co., Indianapolis 191330 and when company merged with Abbott Lab. Chicago, he became vicepresident, and in 1943 president and director of Abbott Labs. International. Mason. d. Feb. 21, 1947.


            Wellins Calcott English Masonic writer of the 18th century, ranking with Anderson, Hutchinson and Preston. He has been called the father of the didactic school. His work, A Candid Disquisition of the Principles and Practices of the Most Ancient and Honourable Society . . ." was published in 1769. At that time it is thought that he was past master of the Palladian Lodge of Hereford, now No. 120. He twice visited America. On Jan. 20, 1779 was made an honorary member of Apollo Lodge at York, England.


            William M. Calder (1869-1945) U.S. Senator from New York. b. March 3, 1869 at Brooklyn, N.Y. As a contractor he erected over 4,000 houses in Brooklyn and was building commissioner of Brooklyn in 1902-03. A delegate to the national Republican convention nine times, he was U.S. Senator from 1917-23. Mason. d. March 3, 1945.


            Harmon W. Caldwell President, University of Georgia. b. Jan. 29, 1899 in Meriwether Co., Ga. A.B. Univ. of Georgia and LL.B. from Harvard with honorary degrees from Emory, Mercer and Tulane. Practiced law at Atlanta from 1926 to 1933 with exception of four years when he was professor of law at the Univ. of Georgia. Became president of the Univ. of Georgia in 1935, serving until 1948 when he became Chancellor of the university system of Georgia. Raised in John W. Akin No. 537, Taylorsville, Ga. in 1920; 32° AASR (SJ) at Atlanta and Yaarab Shrine Temple of Atlanta.


            Joseph Caldwell (1773-1835) President of University of North Carolina. b. April 21, 1773 at Lammington, N.J. He graduated from Princeton in 1791 and after teaching school he became professor of mathematics in 1796 at the Univ. of North Carolina when it was just five years old. The school was in a feeble state and in 1804 he was made president, serving until his death on Jan. 24, 1835. He was raised on April 14, 1798 by Eagle Lodge No. 19 of Hillsboro, N. Car., the lodge going to Chapel Hill where the university was located, to confer the degrees.


            Millard F. Caldwell, Jr. Governor of Florida, U.S. Congressman, 73rd to 76th Congresses (1933-41) from 3rd Florida dist. b. Feb. 6, 1879 at Knoxville, Tenn. Practiced law and elected to Florida state legislature in 1928 and 1930. Governor of Florida from 1945-49. Was chairman of the National Governors Conference in 1946-47; a delegate of the Interparliamentary Union at the Hague in 1938 and at Oslo in 1939. Served in field artillery in WW1. Member and past master of Santa Rosa Lodge No. 16, Milton, Fla., but was raised in a lodge in Macon, Miss. 32° AASR (SJ) at Meridian, Miss. and member of Morocco Shrine Temple, Jacksonville, Fla.


            Galloway Calhoun Lawyer and Imperial Potentate of the Shrine of North America in 1948-49. b. Aug. 22, 1894 at Athens, Texas. Admitted to Texas bar in 1915 and served as district attorney of 7th judicial dist. of Texas; assistant attorney general of the state and special assistant to attorney general of the U.S. on Selective Service matters during WW2. In WW1 he was band leader of the 144th Inf. band. An active Methodist, his lectures to the men's bible class at Tyler, Texas are broadcast. In 1944 he was a delegate to the general conference of the Methodist Church. In 1936 he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Texas. Raised in St. John's Lodge No. 53, Tyler, Texas, Aug. 18, 1916. Member of Tyler Chapter No. 24, R.A.M., George M. Patrick Council No. 13, R. & S.M.; Ascension Commandery No. 25, K.T. and past commander of same. 33° AASR (SJ), Dallas. Chairman of board of trustees for Shriners Hospitals for Crippled Children; grand junior general Empire of the West, Red Cross of Constantine; active member Supreme Council of DeMolay.


            Norman Call President of the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad since 1932. b. March 29, 1880 at Richmond, Va. Began with Richmond Locomotive Works and started with the R.F. & P. as secretary to the president in 1900. Member of Dove Lodge No. 51 and Meridian Lodge No. 284; Washington Chapter No. 9, R.A.M. and Richmond Cornmandery No. 2, K.T. all of Richmond, Va. Member of Acca Shrine Temple.


            Richard K. Call (1791-1862) Governor of Florida, Brigadier General. b. near Petersburg, Va. Was brigadier general of Florida militia in 1833, and led the army against the Seminoles in 1836 in second and third battles of Wahoo Swamp. Served as governor of Florida from 1835-40, but in a controversy with Joel R. Poinsett, q.v. secretary of war, he was removed from office. President Harrison again appointed him governor from 1841 to 1844 and he was an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1845 when Florida became a state. He joined Cumberland Lodge No. 8 at Nashville, Tenn. in 1821 and later of Centerville Lodge No. 18, Leon Co., Fla. of which he was master in 1851. In 1853 he affiliated with Concordia Lodge No. 28, Gadsden Co., Fla. He assisted in the formation of the Grand Lodge of Florida in 1830 and was grand master in 1851. In 1847 he was made an honorary member of Florida Royal Arch Chapter No. 1 (formerly No. 32) and an honorary member of the Grand Chapter of Florida the same year. d. Sept. 14, 1862.


            Charles H. Callahan ( 1858 - 1944 ) He is credited with the idea that brought into being the George Washington National Masonic Memorial at Alexandria, Va. He was commissioner of revenue of Alexandria for 44 years and a member of Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22. He served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of Virginia from 1924-26 and was the author of the noted book, Washington, the Man and the Mason. b. Aug. 22, 1858 at Acquia Mills, Va., he died July 31, 1944 at Alexandria.


            Albert S. Callan Newspaper publisher. b. July 27, 1884 at Albany, N.Y. Graduate of Hobart College, 1907. President of the Chatham Courier Co. since 1912. Member of New York general assembly 1909-10 and delegate to Republican state convention 17 times. Served in WW1 as captain and in WW2 as lieutenant colonel. Member of New York National Guard 1906-17. Raised in Valatie Lodge No. 362, Kinderhook, N.Y. in 1908.


            Llewellyn L. Callaway (1868-1951) Chief justice, Supreme Court of Montana. b. Dec. 15, 1868 at Tuscola, Ill. Graduate of Univ. of Michigan, 1891. Practiced law in Montana from 1891. Appointed chief justice of Montana supreme court in 1922, retiring in 1935. Past grand master of Montana, 33° AASR, past grand commander, Knights Templar, past grand high priest, Royal Arch Masons, and member of Supreme Council, Scottish Rite and inspector general for same in Montana. d. Aug. 6, 1951.


            Plutarco Elias Calles (1878-1945) President of Mexico. b. Sept. 25, 1878 at Guaymas, Sonora, where he was later a schoolteacher, farmer and tradesman. From 1913-15 he served inthe army under Obregon and Carranza. In 1917 he was governor of Sonora. He held cabinet positions under Carranza in 1919-20 and under Obregon in 1920-24. Calles served as President of Mexico from 1924-28, during which time he carried out reforms in an administration marked by struggle between the church and the state. He fought for control of the government with Cardenas in 1935 and in 1936 was driven into exile in the United States. He was made a Freemason in Helios Lodge in his home town of Guaymas and at one time served as its secretary.


            Charles Alexandre de Calonne (1734-1802) French minister of finance under Louis XVI. From 186874, he held government positions at Douai, Metz and Lille. When he became controller general of finance in 1783, he found the state treasury in hopeless disorder, without money or credit. He is said to have been one of the principals who precipitated the French Revolution. In 1787 he opened the Assembly of Notables and proposed the taxation of nobles and clergy, which received violent opposition, causing his removal from office. He then lived in England from 1787 until 1802 when Napoleon allowed him to return to France a month before his death. His lodge is not known, but he is recorded as a visitor to the Loge des Maitres at Amiens, France.


            Charles Calvert 5th Baron (Lord) Baltimore. Member of the English family that obtained patent for the colonization of Maryland. He was the first Protestant in his family's line since his ancestor, George, 1st Baron, turned Roman Catholic in 1625. Charles was proprietary governor of Maryland from 1715 to 1751. He was made a Mason about April, 1730 at Goodwood, Sussex, England, and was one of the eight brethren present when Dr. Dessaugliers q.v. initiated at the Castle Kew on April 28, 1737.


            Francisco Calvo (1820-1890) Catholic priest of the Jesuit order, who established Freemasonry in Costa Rica in 1865. At that time he was canon of the San Jose Cathedral. He received his degrees in Lodge Cruz Austrail No. 5 in 1862 at Callao, Peru. He obtained a charter for Caridad Lodge No. 26 at San Jose from the Grand Orient of Spain, then operating in Colombia. Out of this lodge developed the Supreme Council 33° AASR of Central America, which covers five republics, and which chartered lodges of its own until the turn of the 20th century. Calvo served as master of Caridad Lodge No. 26 and eventually became the first sovereign grand commander of the Scottish Rite, a position which he held until his death. The Masonic temple in San Jose now displays the gavel he used. Others who were active with Calvo in the founding of the Scottish Rite were Dr. Jose Maria Castro q.v., president of the Republic in 1847-49, who served as grand chancellor in 1866-68 and was also founder and rector of Santo Tomas University; Dr. Lorenzo Montufar q.v., lawyer, historian, and rector of Santo Tomas University, serving also as grand minister of state; Francisco Poralto Alvarado, teacher, banker and benefactor of San Juan de Dies Hospital, who was first grand representative.


            Renah F. Comelier Commissioner of Washington, D.C. b. Oct. 8, 1890. Lawyer by profession. Was 2nd assistant secretary of the Navy in 191720; examiner of Federal Trade Commission, 1925-27; assistant U.S. Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice 1927-30; fuel coordinator O.P.A. 194243. Appointed commissioner of Washington in 1954 by President Truman. Raised Sept. 18, 1922 in Benjamin B. French Lodge No. 15, Washington, D.C., serving as master in 1932 and grand master of District of Columbia in 1952. Honorary member of Hope Lodge No. 20, Samuel Gompers Lodge No. 45 and Washington-Centennial Lodge No. 14 of District of Columbia. Member of Mt. Vernon Chapter No. 3, R.A.M.; Adoniram Council No. 2, R. & SM.; Washington Commandery No. 1, K.T.; Kallipolis Grotto; Tall Cedars of Lebanon; National League of Masonic Clubs; Masonic Boosters Club; Masonic Veterans Association National Sojourners, Heroes of '76; past potentate of Almas Shrine Temple of Washington, D.C. (1949). In AASR, he received KCCH in 1949 and 33°in 1953. He served as sovereign of St. Simeon Stylites Conclave No. 51, Red Cross of Constantine and grand marshal of the Grand Imperial Council in 1957. Member of Royal Order of Scotland, being at present provincial first grand steward.


            Duke Jean Jacques Regis Cambaceres (1753-1824) Archchancellor of the French Empire. One of the greats of the Napoleonic period, he was a jurist and statesman who was a member of the convention of 1792. In 1794 he was president of the Committee of Public Safety and also of the Committee of Five Hundred in 1796. In 1799 he was minister of justice and second consul in 1799. Above all, he was the friend and chief counselor of Napoleon, who made him chief counselor of the Empire in 1804. In 1808 he was created Duke of Parma. A Mason, he became grand commander of the Supreme Council of France and was so recognized in the official register of the Supreme Council (SJ) .


            Comte Pierre Jacques Etienne Cambronne (1770-1842) Commander of a division of the French Imperial Guard at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He served with distinction in the campaigns of 1812-14 and accompanied Napoleon to Elba. He was active in the founding of French military lodges.


            C. B. Camerer Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Aug. 20, 1882 at Kinmundy, Ill. Received M.D. from St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine in 1909. Entered U.S. Navy as a medical officer in 1909 and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1945. He was with the Root Commission to Russia in 1917 and brigade surgeon for the Marine Corps in WW1. In WW2 he was medical officer for the 9th Naval district and with the 14th Naval district from 1945-46. His specialty in the service was eye, ear, nose and throat. Returned from active service in 1946. After retirement he engaged in Red Cross work. Mason and member of the National Sojourners.


            Augustus G. Cameron Vice president of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Export Co. b. Mar. 21, 1880 at Knightstown, Ind. Began in the wholesale grocery business at Indianapolis in 1910 and first employed by Goodyear in 1913, rising to his present position in 1939. Raised in Golden Rule Lodge No. 16, Knightstown, Ind. on April 3, 1903 and served as its master. Presently a member of Joppa Lodge No. 666, Akron, Ohio. Received Royal Arch in Knightstown Chapter No. 33, Knightstown, Ind. (now Akron No. 209) and served as high priest. Cryptic degrees in Knightstown Council R. & S.M. No. 29 Dec. 10, 1909. Knighted in Knights-town Commandery No. 9, K.T. (now Bethany No. 72 of Akron) March 6, 1906, serving as prelate of both No. 9 and 22. Tadmor Shrine Temple of Akron.


            Ralph H. Cameron Former U.S. Senator from Arizona. Member of Flagstaff Lodge No. 7, Flagstaff, Ariz. and member of El Zaribah Shrine Temple of Phoenix.


            Simon Cameron (1799-1889) Secretary of War in Lincoln's cabinet. b. March 8, 1799 in Lancaster Co., Pa. and orphaned at an early age. Worked as a journeyman and edited newspapers before becoming interested in banking and railroad construction. Became Republican political czar of Pennsylvania and served three terms in the U.S. Senate, 1845-49, 1857-61, 1867-77. For a time he was adjutant general of Pennsylvania. Named by Lincoln as Secretary of War in his first cabinet; resigned in 1862 when criticized for manner of awarding army contracts, but immediately appointed U.S. Minister to Russia by Lincoln. He served but six months as U.S. Minister, resigning on Nov. 8, 1862. Initiated in Perseverance Lodge No. 21 at Harrisburg, Pa., on July 12, 1826, he served as master in 1833. He was a member of Perseverance Chapter No. 21, R.A.M. at Harrisburg and St. John's Commandery No. 4, K.T. at Philadelphia. Strangely, he received the Order of the Temple on Oct. 25, 1826 and the Red Cross and Malta on Oct. 30, 1826.


            Albert S. Camp (1892-1954) U.S. Congressman from 4th Georgia dist. in 76th and 78th-83rd Congresses. b. July 26, 1892 in Coweta Co., Georgia. Admitted to Georgia bar in 1915. Practiced law in Newnan and was U.S. attorney for Northern Dist. of Ga. in 1934-39. Served overseas with Army in WW1. Mason and Shriner. d. July 24, 1954.


            Thomas J. Camp Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 10, 1886 at Seymour, Conn. Received B.A. from Yale in 1908 and M.A. in 1915. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1912 and rose to temporary brigadier general in 1942. Served in Hawaii from 191217; instructed in first officers training camp in 1917; battalion commander in France in 1918; on War Department General Staff from 1937-41; organized 51st Armored Infantry in 1941; edited Infantry Journal from 1931-34. Raised in Pyramid Lodge No. 92, New Egypt, N.J. in 1918. 32° AASR (SJ) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.


            Alexander W. Campbell (1828-?) Brigadier General, Confederate Army in Civil War. Raised in Jackson, Tenn. June, 1858. Royal Arch Mason in same year and knighted in Jackson Commandery, K.T. on April 3, 1874.


            Archibald Douglas Campbell (see 4th Lord of Blythswood) Arthur G. Campbell Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 15, 1884 at Lexington, Va. Commissioned in 1908 in Coast Artillery and promoted through grades to brigadier general in 1940. Served with A.E.F. in WW1 and was member of War Department General Staff from 1918-21; assistant chief of staff of 6th Corps Area 192832 and 8th Corps Area 1939-40. Retired in 1944. Mason.


            Doak S. Campbell President of Florida State University since 1941. b. Nov. 16, 1888 at Tate, Arkansas. Received degrees from Ouachita College, George Peabody College, Stetson Univ. and Florida Southern. Was superintendent of Columbus, Ark. high school from 1911-14; vice-president of Central College, Ark. 1916-20 and president 1920-28; with George Peabody College 1928-41. Has written several books on education. Raised in Buck Range Lodge, Howard Co., Ark. and presently a member of Jackson Lodge No. 1, Tallahassee, Fla. Has served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Florida.


            Douglas L. Campbell Prime Minister of Manitoba, Canada. b. May 27, 1895 at Portage la Prairie. Owner and operator of a farm near High Bluff, Manitoba since 1918. Served as a member of the Manitoba legislature since 1922; member of the ex-ecutive council in 1936 and minister of agriculture and immigration from 1936-48. Elected premier of Manitoba in 1948 and has since been the leader of the Liberal-Progressive Party. He was initiated in Assiniboine Lodge No. 7 at Portage La Prairie in 1917 and served as master in 1922. Also member of Keystone Chapter No. 2 of the same place.


            Dwight Campbell Judge, Supreme Court of South Dakota. b. Nov. 5, 1887. Graduate of Iowa College, 1909 and Harvard, 1912. Began practice in Aberdeen, S.D. in 1919. Appointed judge of Supreme Court of S.D. in 1925, serving until 1937 when he resigned to re-enter private practice. Mason, 32° and Shriner.


            George W. Campbell (1768-1848) Secretary of the Treasury and U.S. Senator from Tennessee. b. 1768 in Tenn. Graduated from Princeton in 1794. Served in U.S. Congress as representative from 1803-09. Elected U.S. Senator in 1811, but resigned in 1814 to become Secretary of the Treasury. He was again elected to the Senate in 1815, serving until 1818 when he was appointed U.S. Minister to Russia, returning to the United States in 1820. He served as master of Greenville Lodge No. 43, Greenville, Tenn. and is also reported to have held offices in three other Tennessee lodges: Knoxville No. 2, Mount Libanus No. 59 and Tennessee No. 41, all of Knoxville.


            Jacob M. Campbell Union General in Civil War. Became a member of Cambria Lodge No. 278 at Johnstown, Pa. on Oct. 26, 1858, but demitted April 13, 1875 to become a charter member of Johnstown Lodge No. 538, serving as first senior warden.


            James Campbell (1813-?) Postmaster General of the United States under President Pierce, 1853-1857. b. in Philadelphia, son of an Irish emigrant. Admitted to bar in 1834, becoming attorney general of the state in 1852. His lodge is not known, but he was a member of Harmony Chapter No. 52, R.A.M. of Philadelphia.


            James U. Campbell (1866-1937) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Oregon. b. Aug. 29, 1866, Prince Edward Island, Canada and educated in Prince of Wales College, studying law privately. Came to the U.S. in 1887 and was naturalized in 1893. Began teaching public schools in 1884 and admitted to Oregon bar in 1893. Served as circuit judge of the 5th district five times. Elected to supreme court in 1930 and was chief justice from 1935 until his death on July 16, 1937.


            John Campbell 4th Earl of Loudoun (1705-1782) Governor of Virginia and commander of all British forces in America in 1756. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of England in 1736. He was the first PGM of England to visit a grand lodge in America, when on Jan. 31, 1757 the Festival of St. John the Evangelist was postponed by the Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston so that he might attend. A special working lodge was opened and four members of Campbell's staff "were made enter'd Prentices & Pass'd Fellow crafts" with Richard Gridley q.v. in the chair." Commissioned in the Scots Greys at an early age, he succeeded his father to the title and became one of the 16 representative Scottish peers in Parliament. As a mark of royal esteem, he was made governor of Stirling Castle and Edinburgh, and was aide-de-camp to the king, serving in the Flanders campaigns and the rebellion of 1745. Following the disastrous expeditions of 1755 against the French and Indians in America, and the death of General Braddock, General Campbell was appointed governor of Virginia (as asinecure) and to command all British forces in America. Due to politics at home and poor handling of colonial authorities in the new world, he served only from July 23, 1756 until December, 1757. The earl was said to have resembled "Saint George on the tavern sign—always on horseback, but never advancing." He lost Forts Oswego and William Henry, and failed in the planned invasion of French Canada. However, he was far from discredited with the king or later ministries. In 1762 he took part in the Peninsular Wars in Portugal, where although second in command, he was actually first in the field. He was promoted to full general in 1770. He retired to Scotland as titular governor of Edinburgh until his death in 1782.


            Sir Malcolm Campbell (1885-1948) English businessman and famed automobile racer. Employed in 1906 on the staff of Lloyds of London. He served through WW1 from 1914-18, the last two years, being an airplane pilot. He began motor racing as a hobby in 1910 and later established many world records for speed at Daytona Beach, Fla. and Salt Lake City, Utah. He wrote Speed, 1931; The Romance of Motor-Racing, 1936; and The Roads and the Problem of Their Safety, 1937. A Freemason, he was made a member of the Azngi Grotto of Daytona Beach, Fla.


            Price Campbell President of West Texas Utilities Co. b. Jan. 22, 1890 at Weatherford, Texas. Received B.S. and E.E. from Texas Agricultural and Mechanical College. With the American Public Service Co. since 1915 and a director of many public utilities. Mason.


            Thomas D. Campbell Agricultural engineer and Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 19, 1882 at Grand Forks, N.D. Graduate of North Dakota, Cornell and Southern Calif. universities. Engaged in farming since 1898, operating 95,000 acres of wheat and flax land in Montana. President of Campbell Farming Corp. since 1922. In 1929 he was special adviser for Russian government to assist in operation of 10 million acres in Russia. Was special advisor to British government on increased wheat production in 1941. Made report for French government on wheat production in North Africa in 1948. Served as colonel with Air Corps from 1942 and made brigadier general in 1946; now general U.S. Army Reserve. Inventor of Campbell grain dryer and developer of Campbell windrow method of harvesting grain. Raised in Acacia Lodge No. 4, Grand Forks, N. Dak. on Nov. 29, 1907. 32° AASR (SJ) and member of Kem Shrine Temple, Grand Forks.


            Wayne Campbell Actor and university professor. b. May 9, 1872. Taught school and worked on his father's newspaper in Waterville, Kansas before becoming an entertainer with the Lyceum Bureau. Barnstormed with repertory and stock companies and was leading character actor from 1915. Head of the drama department of Oklahoma City University since 1922. Author and producer of annual pre-dawn Easter play, Life, Lord of Death from 1937-43, and the annual passion play Via Crucis produced at the Guthrie Masonic Temple since 1940. Has written several books on writing and acting. Mason, member of Scottish Rite.


            Lord William Campbell (?-1778) English governor in America. He was appointed governor of Nova Scotia in 1766 and was the last British governor of South Carolina (1773), which he unsuccessfully attempted to keep loyal to the Crown.


            Sir William Campbell ( ? -18 34) Chief Justice of Upper Canada from1826-29. Served with the British in the American Revolution. Founded Guysboro and Temple Lodge No. 7 in 1785. He was appointed attorney general of the province of Cape Breton and while there was identified with Freemasonry in Sydney. He went to England in connection with the affairs of the province, and while there, was appointed a justice of the King's Bench, Upper Canada in 1811, becoming chief justice in 1826 and resigning in 1829. He was the founder of St. Andrew's Lodge No. 16 in Toronto. Campbell was knighted and died in 1834.


            William B. Campbell (1807-1867) Governor of Tennessee. b. Feb. 1, 1807 in Sumner Co., Tenn. Practiced law in Carthage, Term. Raised a cavalry company and commanded it in Creek and Florida wars of 1836. From 1837-43 was Whig member of U.S. Congress from Tennessee. Was major general of militia in 1844 and served in the Mexican War, distinguishing himself in the battles of Monterey and Cerro Gordo. He served as governor of Tennessee, 1851-53. From 1857 he served as judge of the state circuit court. Lincoln appointed him brigadier general in the Federal Army in 1862, but he was forced to retire in 1863 due to ill health. He was a member of Lebanon Lodge No. 98, Lebanon, Term. d. Aug. 19, 1867.


            Joachim Heinrich Campe (17461818) German writer and educator. Studied theology and was tutor to the Humboldt family in Berlin in 1769 and 1774-75. He was director of the schools in Dessau and Hamburg, 1786-1805 and head of the Brunswick educational book house from 17871808, which published many of his own writings including Robinson der Jungere, based on Defoe. He was a learned and zealous Freemason as shown by his correspondence with Gotthold Lessing q.v.


            Edward R. S. Canby (1819-1873) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. Born in Kentucky, his family later moved to Indiana and he graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1835. He served in the Florida Indian War and assisted in the removal of the Five Civilized Nations to Oklahoma. In the Mexican war he saw action in most of the important engagements and was promoted to captain. As a major in 1855 he served the next three years on frontier duty and when the Civil War broke out, he was on an expedition against the Navajos in the Southwest. Made colonel, he commanded the New Mexico forces that repelled a Confederate thrust into that area. He was then made brigadier general and called to Washington to assist Secretary of War Stanton. He then saw service in New York, Mississippi Valley, Virginia, Louisiana, Alabama. After the War he served in Washington, D.C. and was then sent to California, where he attempted to bring the Modoc Indians to terms with the government. On April 11, 1873 he met "Capt. Jack," the Modoc leader on neutral ground, but the Indians waylaid Canby and two other officers at the meeting place and killed them. The principal Indians were later tried and executed. General Canby "was a member of a lodge in the East. His body was escorted under auspices of the Craft to the Masonic Temple at Yreka and afterwards conveyed East where he was buried with Masonic honors.”


            Allen D. Candler Former Governor of Georgia. Member of Gainesville Lodge No. 219, Gainesville, Ga.


            John S. Candler (1861-1941) Justice, Supreme Court of Georgia 190206. b. Oct. 22, 1861 at Villa Rica, Ga. Alderman of City of Atlanta andpresident of the general council in 1911, 12, 14. Served in Spanish American War as colonel. Member of the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal church five times between 1890 and 1934, being a member of the commission on unification of the two branches. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. Dec. 9, 1941.


            Thomas S. Candler Justice, Supreme Court of Georgia since 1945. b. Dec. 15, 1890 at Blairsville, Ga. Engaged in law practice from 191539. Judge of Superior Court, N.E. Judicial Circuit, 1939-45. Mason.


            William Candler (1890-1936) President of Atlanta Biltmore Hotel Co. from 1923 and vice president of Coca-Cola Bottling Co. of N.Y. from 1925. b. Jan. 24, 1890. Former director of U.S. Chamber of Commerce and officer and director in several corporations. Mason. d. Oct. 2, 1936.


            Gordon Canfield U.S. Congressman 77th to 84th Congresses from 8th N.J. district. b. April 15, 1898 at Salamanca, N.Y. Received LL.B. from National Univ. in 1928. Began as newsboy in Binghamton, N.Y. in 1912, later clerk for Western Union, reporter for Passaic (N.J.) Daily News and for 17 years secretary to Congressman George N. Seger. He served in WW1 in the Signal Corps and in WW2 was on active duty with the Merchant Marine (incognito) in the North Atlantic. He visited Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany as an observer at request of General Eisenhower in 1945, made a 30,000 mile inspection trip of island bases in Pacific in 1946 and visited 16 European and Middle East countries in 1947 on investigating committee. In 1952 he inspected the Pacific defenses and the Korean front. Mason.


            Erwin D. Canham Editor of Christian Science Monitor. b. Feb. 13, 1904 at Auburn, Maine. Received B.A. and Litt.D. from Bates College; L.H.D. Boston University and was Rhodes Scholar at Oxford Univ. England, receiving B.A. and M.A. in 1936. Began with the Christian Science Monitor, in 1925 and has covered many important national and international stories for his paper including the League of Nations assemblies of 1926-28, Ramsay MacDonald's tour of the U.S.; London Naval conference; trips of American presidents; nationwide political surveys; inauguration of Philippine Commonwealth. He was head of the Washington Bureau from 1932-39; general news editor 1939-41, managing editor, 1941-44 and editor since 1945. Mason.


            Ralph J. Canine Lieutenant General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 9, 1895 at Flora, Ind. A graduate of Northwestern Univ. and several army schools, he advanced through grades from 2nd lieutenant in 1917 to lieutenant general in 1953. In WW2 he served as commanding general of First Infantry Division Artillery in Europe. He is now serving with the Department of Defense, Washington, as director of the National Security Agency. Raised in East Chicago Lodge No. 595, East Chicago, Ind. in 1917. 32° AASR (SJ) at Guthrie, Oklahoma and member of Ararat Shrine Temple, Kansas City, Mo.


            George Canning (1770-1827) English statesman who served as Foreign Secretary, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Prime Minister. Educated at Oxford, he was a brilliant orator. Member of parliament in 1793, he became under-secretary for foreign affairs in Pitt's administration (1796-99), but was barred from advancement because of poverty and his merciless wit, which he directed against the Whigs. Chief confidant of Pitt, he left office as treasurer of the Navy on Pitt's death in 1806. Was foreign sec-retary from 1807-10. After 12 years of minor offices he again became foreign secretary in 1822, succeeding Castlereagh as leader of the House of Commons. In 1827 he succeeded Liverpool as prime minister and chancellor of the exchequer. He was a member of Royal Somerset House and Inverness No. 4, but the date of his initiation is not known. In 1810 he became a dual member and "was admitted" to the Lodge of the Antiquity No. 2, resigning in 1811 and being reinstated in 1812.


            Clarence Cannon Missouri Congressional representative continuously since the 68th (1923) Congress. b. April 11, 1879 at Elsberry, Mo., he is a graduate of LaGrange College, William Jewell College and the Univ. of Missouri. Was professor of history at Stephens College, Columbia, Mo. 1904-08, beginning practice of law at Troy, Mo. in 1908. Has been parliamentarian of the House of Representatives for many years, both in Republican as well as Democratic administrations, and parliamentarian for the Democratic National Conventions since 1920. He is regent of the Smithsonian Institute. He is the author of Synopsis of the Procedure of the House (1919), Cannon's Procedures (1928), Convention Parliamentary Manual (1928, 1951) and other writings. Member of Troy Lodge No. 34, Troy, Mo. Exalted in Troy Chapter R.A.M. No. 85, (now extinct) and transferred to Mexico Chapter No. 27, Mexico, Mo.; Crusade Commandery No. 23, K.T. Mexico and AASR, Valley of St. Louis. Died, 1964.


            Joseph G. Cannon ( 1836 - 1926 ) Served in the U.S. House of Representatives for 50 years (1872-1923) with the exception of two terms. "Uncle Joe" was speaker of the House from 1903-11, ruling that body with a stern and august hand. b. May 7, 1836 at Guilford, N.C., he was admitted to Illinois bar in 1858. After serving eight years as state's attorney he began his long service in Congress. Was made a Mason in Shelbyville, Ill. in 1858 and later affiliated with Olive Branch Lodge No. 38 of Danville in Feb., 1888. In Jan., 1888 he was exalted in Vermilion Chapter No. 82, R.A.M. and on Feb. 9, knighted in Athelstan Commandery No. 45, K.T. both of Danville, Ill. d. Nov. 12, 1926 at age of 90 and was buried with Masonic honors.


            Newton Cannon (1781-1842) Governor of Tennessee, 1835-39. b. in N. Carolina and after public school education removed to Tennessee where he was a member of the legislature in 1811-12. Served in the Tennessee Mounted Rifles as a colonel in 1813 and commanded the left column in the Battle of Tallushatchee with the Creek Indians on Nov. 3, 1813. Elected to Congress in 1814 to fill vacancy of Felix Grundy q.v. and served until 1817, and again from 1819-23. In 1819 he was appointed one of the two commissioners to treat with the Chickasaw Indians by President Monroe. A member of Cumberland Lodge No. 8, Nashville, he was present at a called meeting of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1825. d. Sept. 29, 1842.


            Archbishop of Canterbury (see Henry Chicheley)


           James Cantey Confederate Brigadier General in Civil War. Member of Kershaw Lodge No. 29, Camden, S. Car.


            Eddie Cantor Stage, screen and radio star. b. Jan. 31, 1892 in New York City, he was educated in the public schools and at Wood's Business School, Williamsburgh, N.Y. Married Ida Tobias in 1914; they have five girls—Marjorie, Natalie, Edna J., Marilyn and Janet. He began as a vaudeville and burlesque entertainer and later with Morosco, the Shubertsand Florenz Ziegfeld. In 1916 he toured the country as "Sam Beverly Moon" in Canary Cottage. He played in Broadway Brevities (1920), Make It Snappy (1922), and starred in Kid Boots (1923-26), Whoopee (1929-30), making his first motion picture appearance in 1926. He is known for his charitable work with Christians as well as Jews, and founded the Eddie Cantor Camp which sends poor and undernourished boys to the country. He has served as president of the Jewish Theatrical Guild of America, and president of the American Federation of Radio Artists. He was initiated in Munn Lodge No. 190, N.Y.C. on Nov. 6, 1919 and raised on June 23, 1921.


            Homer E. Capehart U.S. Senator from Indiana. b. June 6, 1897 at Algiers, Ind. Began as salesman with Burton-Paige Mfg. Co., Chicago, in 1919. From 1927-33 he was president of The Capehart Corp., mfgrs., Fort Wayne, Ind., and vice president of The Wurlitzer Co. from 1933-40. He is chairman of the board of Packard Mfg. Co., Indianapolis, and owner of the Capehart Farms, Washington, Ind. Served in army during WW1 (1917-19). Elected U.S. Senator in 1944 and again in 1950. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.


            Joseph P. E. Capelle (1757-1796) Surgeon of the American Revolution, he was born in Flanders, coming to America with Count Rochambeau q.v. and later served on General Lafayette's q.v. staff as surgeon. After the Revolution, he settled in Wilmington, Del., and was both popular and successful as a physician. He was one of the incorporators of the Delaware State Medical Society. He was raised in Lodge No. 14 at Wilmington (under Pennsylvania charter) on Aug. 21, 1783. He served as master in 1786 and again in 1792. He was treasurer of the lodge from 1788-91. On Aug. 6, 1789, he was in the first group of Delaware Masons to receive the Royal Arch Degree, conferred in his own lodge, and played a prominent part in the effort to establish a grand lodge in Delaware. He died on Nov. 5, 1796 and was buried with Masonic services in Old Swedes Cemetery. As the Masonic rites began, the sky suddenly darkened, and winds of near-hurricane velocity tore at the graveyard, forcing a number of crows to the ground among the onlookers, where they helplessly flapped their wings over the grave. The strange incident so terrified some of the onlookers, that they sprang over the cemetery wall and forever after talked of the strange alchemy and close affinity the Freemasons had with evil spirits.


            Luigi Capello (1859-?) Italian General of World War I. He commanded the army which captured Gorizia in August, 1916 and the 2nd Army in the Italian offensive of Bainsizza plateau the following year. He retired in July of 1918. An opponent of Fascism, Mussolini called on him to choose between Freemasonry and Facism. He chose the craft and in Nov., 1925 he was arrested and accused of plotting against Mussolini's life. He was not brought to trial until the spring of 1927 when he was convicted and sentenced to 30 years' penal servitude.


            William T. Capers (1867-1943) Bishop of Protestant Episcopal Church. b. Aug. 9, 1867 at Greenville, S.C. Graduate of Theological Seminary of Virginia, State Univ. of Kentucky and Univ. of the South. In business from 1887-90. Became P.E. deacon, 1894; priest, 1895 and served as rector in Anderson, S.C., Vicksburg, Miss., Asheville, N.C., Lexington, Ky., Philadelphia, Pa. from 1895-1913. Elected bishop of missionary district of Spokane in 1913 but declined. Was then named bishop co-adjutor of Diocese of West Texas, serving from1913-16 and bishop of West Texas from Oct. 16, 1916. Mason, 32° AASR. d. March 29, 1943.


            Arthur Capper (1865-1951) U.S. Senator, Governor of Kansas and publisher. b. July 14, 1865 at Garnett, Kans. Began as a compositor on the Topeka Daily Capital in 1884 and by 1892 owned and published the paper. Eventually he added the following publications to become one of the largest publishers in the world: Cap-per's Weekly, Kansas Farmer, Household Magazine, Capper's Farmer, Missouri Ruralist, Ohio Farmer, Pennsylvania Farmer, Michigan Farmer, Kansas City Kansan. He also owned radio stations KIBW, Topeka and KCKN, Kansas City, Kans. Elected governor of Kansas, 1915-19 and served Kansas as U.S. Senator from 1919-1951. He was a member of Orient Lodge No. 51 of Topeka and received his 33° AASR, (SJ) in Oct. 1948. d. Dec. 19, 1951.


            John H. Capstick (1856-1918) U.S. Congressman from 5th N.J. district in 64th Congress (1915-17). b. Sept. 2, 1856 at Lawrence, Mass. Business interests were dyeing, printing and bleaching of textile fabrics. Mason. d. March 16, 1918.


            Thaddeus H. Caraway (1871-1931) U.S. Senator from Arkansas, 1921-33, dying in office. b. Oct. 17, 1871 in Stoddard Co., Mo., he was admitted to Arkansas bar in 1900. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from the 1st Arkansas district in the 63rd to 66th Congresses (1913-21). Mason and member of Sahara Shrine Temple at Pine Bluff, Ark. d. Nov. 6, 1931.


            Giosue Carducci (1835-1907) Considered the national poet of modern Italy. b. in Valdicastello, Tuscany, his early pseudonym was Enotrio Romano. From 1861-1904 he was professor of literary history at Bologna.




1st Marquess of Carisbrooke He was awarded the Nobel prize for literature in 1906. Wrote many volumes of verse and historical studies in literary criticism. The Bulletin of the International Masonic Congress of 1917 lists him as a Freemason.


            Henry C. Carey (1793-1879) Political economist. b. in Philadelphia, the son of Mathew Carey, an Irish publisher who fled to America in 1784 to escape prosecution for attacks on British government. Henry continued his father's publishing and bookselling business from 1817-35 when he retired to devote himself to study and writing. He was the author of Principles of Political Economy (183740) in three volumes, and The Principles of Social Science (1858-59) in three volumes. He was raised in Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia on January 21, 1817.


            James B. Carey Judge, Delaware Supreme Court since 1945. b. Feb. 17, 1905. Graduated from Univ. of Delaware (1926) and Temple Univ. (1931). Admitted to Pennsylvania bar in 1931 and Delaware bar in 1936. Practiced law in Georgetown, Del. from 1936-45. Member and past master of Franklin Lodge No. 12, Georgetown, Del. Past grand marshal of Grand Lodge of Delaware. Member of Hope Chapter No. 7, R.A.M. and Joppa Council No. 3, R. & S.M. both of Georgetown; 32° AASR (NJ) at Wilmington; Evergreen No. 49, Tall Cedars and member of Kent and Sussex Past Masters' Association.


            Jeremiah Carhart (1813-1868) Inventor. b. Sept. 1813 in Dutchess Co., N.Y., he received no extended education, but when 15 learned the cabinet making trade and became adept in the use of tools. He moved to Buffalo where he perfected several inventions between 1836-46, including the exhaustion bellows and tubular reed-board for reed instruments. With E. P. Needham, he founded firm of Car-hart and Needham, moving to New York City where they manufactured melodeons and organs. His Blue Lodge is not known, but he was a member of Jerusalem Chapter No. 8, N.Y.C. d. Aug. 16, 1868.


            1st Marquess of Carisbrooke (Alexander Albert Mountbatten) b. Nov. 22, 1886. His father was the third son of Prince Alexander, of Hesse, brother of the ruling grand duke, Prince Louis of Battenberg, later the Marquess of Milford Haven, was the elder brother of Prince Henry, and married Princess Victoria of Hesse, granddaughter of the late Queen Victoria. Their eldest daughter, Princess Alice of Battenberg married Prince Alexander of Greece and is the mother of H.R.H., Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburg and royal consort of Queen Elizabeth. The family name was changed from Battenberg to Mountbatten in 1914 at the outbreak of WW1 when there was a popular outcry against names of Teutonic origin. The marquisate of Carisbrooke was created in 1917, taking its name from Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight. The Marquess was educated at Wellington College and went to sea as a midshipman on the H.M.S. Britannia, the royal yacht, remaining in the navy from 1902-08. Commissioned as lieutenant in the Grenadier Guards in 1911, he was promoted to captain three years later. He served throughout the War of 1914-18, subsequently on the staff, retiring in 1919. A member of Prince of Wales Lodge No. 259, the lodge connected with the royal family, he served as master in 1952 and as grand steward of the Grand Lodge of England in that year. In 1956 he was master of Royal Colonial Institute Lodge No. 3556. He has served on the board for the Royal Masonic Institution for Boys for several years.


            181 Carl XIII Carl XIII King of Sweden (see Charles XIII) Carl XIV, John King of Sweden (see Charles XIV) Carl XV, Ludwig Eugen King of Sweden (see Charles XV) Father Antoine Caries (?-1824) French Catholic priest, an Austrian by birth, who was chaplain of L'Esperance Lodge in Savannah, Georgia. This lodge was composed of French Roman Catholic refugees from the "black uprising" of San Domingo. He first settled in Pennsylvania, but in 1803 moved to Savannah. He was associated with John Paul Jones q.v. in France as well as Benjamin Franklin q.v. French Naval Captain Denis Nicholas Cottineau was buried from his home on Broughton St. in Savannah on Nov. 30, 1808. He returned to France after the Bourbons were restored and died in 1824, just after completing Easter services at the Cathedral of Bordeaux.


            James H. Carleton (1814-1873) Major General U.S. Army. Fought in the Aroostook war of 1839 as a lieutenant of the Maine volunteers on the N.E. boundary of the U.S. Later with the 1st U.S. Dragoons and was with Kearny's expedition to the Rocky Mountains in 1846. In the Mexican War he was made captain and then major, serving with General Wool in Mexico and cited in the battle of Buena Vista. After the Mexican War, he engaged in exploration and expeditions against hostile Indians. In one expedition against the Utes and Apaches, Kit Carson q.v. was his guide. He led the "California Column" in the Civil War across the Yuma and Gila deserts to Mesilla, on the Rio Grande, and in April, 1862 was ordered to relieve General Canby q.v. as commander of the department of New Mexico, where he remained for several years. Advanced to brigadiergeneral in 1865 and major general in U.S. forces. He was raised in Montezuma Lodge No. 109 in New Mexico, chartered by the Grand Lodge of Missouri, and is later thought to have belonged to San Diego Lodge No. 35, San Diego, Calif.


            Will Carleton (1845-1912) American poet. b. Oct. 21, 1845 at Hudson, Mich. In newspaper work at Hillsdale, Mich., Detroit, Chicago, Boston and New York and became editor of Everywhere, a monthly published in Brooklyn. Lecturer and reader of his own works in U.S. and Europe. Author of Farm Ballads, Farm Legends, Farm Festivals, Young Folks' Rhymes, City Ballads, City Legends, City Festivals, Rhymes of Our Planet, The Old Infant and many others. Mason. d. Dec. 18, 1912.


            Richard Carlile (1790-1843) Printer and bookseller of London who wrote and published several pretended exposes of Freemasonry, which after his death, were collected in one volume under the title of A Manual of Freemasonry (in three parts). An atheist and freethinker, he was inprisoned for the publication of Paine's Age of Reason and Palmer's Light of Nature. His Masonic works are interspersed with considerable learning, and are not as abusive of the craft as most expositions generally are.


            Carlini English sculptor. Early member of the Lodge of Nine Muses No. 325 in London, and one of the four members of this lodge to be original members of the Royal Academy at its foundation in 1768.


            Evans F. Carlson (1896-1947) Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. Feb. 26, 1896 at Sidney, N.Y. Entered army in 1912 and served in Philippines, Hawaii, Mexican border, France and Germany and was member of Pershing's staff. Entered Marine Corps in 1922 and served in West Indies, Nicaragua, and observer with Chinese armies. He joined Chinese guerrilla forces in penetrations behind Japanese lines. Resigned from Marine Corps to lecture and write in 1939 but reentered in 1941 as commander of 2nd Marine Raider Bn. which became known as "Carlson's Raiders," advancing from colonel to brigadier general. Retired in 1946 as result of wounds. d. May 27, 1957. Mason, member of Scottish Rite.


            Frank Carlson Former Governor and U.S. Senator from Kansas. b. Jan. 23, 1893 at Concordia, Kansas. Farmer and stockman since 1914; member of Kansas state legislature, 1929-33 and governor of Kansas, term of 1947. U.S. senator from Kansas, 1951-57. Served as private in army, WW1. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 113, Concordia and 33° AASR (SJ).


            George A. Carlson ( 1876 - 1926 ) Governor of Colorado from 1915-17. b. Oct. 23, 1876 at Alta, Iowa. Graduate of Colorado State Normal and Univ. of Colorado. Admitted to Idaho bar in 1904 and practiced at Lewiston, removing to Colorado in 1905, practicing at Fort Collins. After governorship he resumed practice at Denver. d. Dec. 6, 1926. Mason.


            Wilbur G. Carlson Dairy expert b. May 11, 1904 at Madison, Wis. Editor of Pure Milk Products Press in 1931-32; director of Wisconsin Agricultural Authority, 1939-39; executive with Kraft Foods, 1940-49. Technical specialist with Quartermaster Corps in WW2 in France and Germany. Director of livestock products, division of Foreign Agricultural Service, Dept. of Agriculture since 1954. Cofounder of American Dairy Association. Was secretary general of first World Congress for Milk Utilization in 1953. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.


            Doyle E. Carlton Governor of Florida from 1929-33. b. July 6, 1887 at Wauchula, Fla. Graduate of Univ. of Chicago and Columbia Univ. Admitted to Florida bar and began practice at Tampa in 1912. Member of Florida state senate from 1917-19. He received his first degree on April 27, 1909 in St. John's Lodge No. 37, DeLand, Fla., his second degree on July 7, 1911 in Damascus Lodge No. 888, Chicago, and his third in Hillsborough Lodge No. 25, Tampa, on Sept. 29, 1915, affiliating with the latter lodge.


            Newcomb Carlton ( 1869 -19 53 ) President (ret.) of Western Union Telephone and Telegraph Co. 191433, chairman of the board 1933-43 and honorary chairman 1943-49. b. Feb. 19, 1869 at Elizabeth, N.J. Graduate of Harvard and Colgate. Began as a mechanical engineer in Buffalo, N.Y. in 1891, becoming vice president of Bell Telephone of Buffalo in 1902 and vice president of Westinghouse Electric in 1904. In 1910 he was made vice president of Western Union. Life trustee of American Academy in Rome, grand officer of Crown of Italy, and holder of French Legion of Honor. Member of Kane Lodge No. 454, New York City. d. March 12, 1953.


            Henry, 4th Earl of Carnarvon (Henry Howard Molyneux) (1831-1890) Undersecretary for the colonies in 1858-59 and colonial secretary, 186667, 1874-78. He presented bill for the federation of North American provinces in 1867, abolished slavery on the African Gold Coast in 1874 and favored federation for South Africa. Resigned in 1878 in opposition to breach of neutrality in Russo-Turkish conflict. As lord lieutenant of Ireland (1885-86), he favored limited self government, and resigned in opposition to Gladstone's home rule bill. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of England in 1870-74, and from 1874-90 served as pro-grand master for H.R.H. Albert Edward, later King Edward VII. The office of pro-grand master must be held by a peer of the realm and is created only when the grand master is a king or prince of royal blood.


            Henry, Marquis of Carnarvon (see 2nd Duke of Chandos) James, Marquis of Carnarvon (see 3rd Duke of Chandos) L. J. J. Caron Governor of the Celebes in Dutch East Indies, he was elected grand master of the Netherlands in 1945 succeeding the late General H. van Tongeren. The Chinese government conferred the high distinction of "Brilliant Jade of China" on him. He was a member of the committee sent to Syria by League of Nations when that nation declared its independence. At the German invasion of Holland in 1938, he was grand orator and senior surviving grand officer after liberation. He was head of the first chapter of Royal Arch Masons established in Holland on Feb. 3, 1949 by the Grand Chapter of England. Grand Secretary, Sir Sydney White, of England was present at the consecration of the chapter as were other English notables.


            Admiral Carraciola Italian naval officer and Freemason who during the uprising at Naples in 1799 was hanged from the masthead of his own vessel and his body thrown into the sea.


            Lord Carrington (Archibald Philip, 5th Earl of Primrose) (1847-1929). Left Oxford without a degree because he owned race horses. An avid sportsman, he won the Derby three times (1894, 1895, 1905). Was prime minister of Britain (1894-95) following Gladstone. Undersecretary for home department with charge of Scottish affairs from 1881-83; visited Australia in 1883-84. Foreign secretary under Gladstone 1886, 1892-94, holding to policy of distrust of Russia; firmness with France during Egyptian trouble. Was governor of New South Wales from 1888-1891 and at the same time served as the first grand master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales, being installed Sept. 18, 1888. Prior to the union he was provincial grand master under English constitution. He was leader of the liberal opposition from 189596.


            Frank Carrington Theatrical producer. b. Sept 13, 1901 at Angel Island, Calif. Began acting at the Pasadena Community Playhouse in 1915 and in 1925 he organized his own Shakespeare company. In 1944-45 he was producer for Theatre Guild and the Shuberts. He was the co-founder of The Paper Mill Playhouse, N.J. in 1934 and since that time has directed over 150 plays and musicals. He studied subsidized theatres in England, France and Germany in 1937 and was with the U.S. Navy in WW1. Raised Oct. 24, 1923 in Hope Lodge No. 124, East Orange, N.J.


            Charles Carroll, Jr. Son of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Although the family was strong Roman Catholic, Schultz in his History of Freemasonry in Maryland states that Charles, Jr. was a Freemason in a Maryland Lodge. Daniel Carroll q.v., cousin of Charles Carroll of Carrollton was definitely a Mason.


            Daniel Carroll (?-1829) Member of the Continental Congress of 178084 and a delegate to the convention that framed the U.S. Constitution. He was also a representative in congress in 1789-91, when in the latter year he was appointed commissioner for surveying the District of Columbia. His farm formed the site of the present city of Washington, D.C. He was a cousin of Charles Carroll, signer of the Declaration of Independence (see Charles Carroll, Jr.). He was raised in Maryland Lodge No. 16, Baltimore, Md. on May 8, 1781. His birth date is not known, but he lived to an advanced age.


            Horace Bailey Carroll Historian, editor and college professor. b. April 29, 1903 at Gatesville, Texas. Taught at Texas Technical College, Texas Univ., Texas Wesleyan, Hillsboro College, West Texas State College, Eastern New Mexico College, Texas Agricultural College. Professor of history in Texas Univ. since 1946. Director of Texas State Historical Association since 1946. Editor of Southwestern Historical Quarterly. Associate editor of Panhandle-Plains Historical Review. Editor of several volumes on S.W. American history. Member of Yellowhouse Lodge No. 841, Lubbock, Texas.


            Thomas K. Carroll Governor of Maryland in 1829. Joined Somerset Lodge No. 49, Princess Anne, Md. "upon reaching his maturity." Later associated with Washington Lodge No. 3, Baltimore and Concordia Lodge No. 13, Baltimore. Served as deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Maryland.


            Arthur J. Carruth, Jr. Journalist and editor. b. July 26, 1887 at Clinton, N.Y. With the Topeka State Journal since 1908. Managing editor in 1914. Columnist, editor and co-publisher from 1933-40. Director of North American Light & Power Co. since 1942. Mason.


            Christopher "Kit" Carson (18091868) One of America's most famous plainsmen, Indian scouts, guide, trapper and soldier. b. Dec. 24, 1809 in Madison Co., Ky. While an infant, his parents moved to Howard Co., Mo. which was then a wilderness. At the age of 15 he was apprenticed to a saddler, but ran away after two years (in 1826) to join a party of hunters in Santa Fe, N.M. His employer advertised in the Missouri Intelligencer, offering one cent reward for his return. For eight years he lived the life of a plains trapper and was then appointed hunter for the garrison at Bent's Fort, where he remained eight more years. Carson was closely associated with Charles Bent q.v. and married Josefa Jaramillo, sister of Bent's wife. Next he served as guide for General John C. Fremont q.v., "The Pathfinder," on his first expedition—and later others, including the famous one to California in 1843-44. In 1851 he settled down to ranching, 50 miles east of Taos. In 1853, he drove 6,500 head of sheep over the mountains to Calif.—a hazardous undertaking at that time, and on his return to Taos, was appointed Indian agent. He was perhaps better known among the western Indians than any other white man. He knew their habits, customs; understood their mode of warfare; and spoke their language as a mother tongue. Under this appointment, he was largely instrumental in bringing about the treaties between the Indians and the U.S. At the advent of the Civil War he was made colonel of a New Mexico regiment and later breveted brigadier-general for his achievements. After the war, he returned to his appointment as Indian agent. Unlike most frontiersmen, he was modest almost to the point of bashfulness. He received his degrees in Montezuma Lodge No. 109 (then under Missouri charter): EA March 29, 1854, FC June 17, 1854; MM Dec. 26, 1854. When Bent Lodge No. 204 (named after his friend) was chartered by Missouri in Taos on Dec. 15, 1859, Carson demitted to it on April 30, 1860 and became its first junior warden. However circumstances forced the lodge to surrender its charter in 1864 and in 1865 Carson again affiliated with his mother lodge (Montezuma) and remained a member until his death on May 24, 1868. Carson City, Nev. is named for him, as is Carson Lodge No. 1, Nev. His brother was Moses B. Carson q.v.


            Enoch Terry Carson (1822-1899) Masonic scholar. b. Sept. 18, 1822 in Hamilton Co., Ohio. An active worker in all rites and bodies of Freemasonry. Was an active 33° and deputy for Ohio in the AASR. He printed, at his own expense, many important works on Freemasonry, including the first facsimile of the Book of Constitutions of 1723 in 1855. His valuable Masonic library was acquired by General Samuel C. Lawrence of Medford, Mass. q.v. at the close of the last century. General Lawrence bequeathed it to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. Carson was raised in Cynthia Lodge No. 155 in 1846 and served as its master. He was also the founder and first master of Kilwinning Lodge No. 356 in 1865.


            Harry R. Carson (1869-1948) Bishop of Protestant Episcopal Church. b. Dec. 8, 1869 at Norristown, Pa. Deacon, 1895; priest, 1896; general missionary (La.) 1895-98; chaplain 2nd La. Vol. Inf. of Spanish-American War; rector at Franklin and Monroe, La.; archdeacon of Northern La. 191012; chaplain of Ancon Hospital, Canal Zone 1913-22 and also archdeacon of Panama; bishop of Haiti from Jan. 10, 1923 and also in charge of Dominican Republic from 1928-43. Mason.


            Henderson IL Carson Congressman, 78th and 80th Congresses (194345, 1947-49) from 16th Ohio district. b. Oct. 25, 1893 at Cadiz, Ohio. Lawyer. With legal department of Pennsylvania Railroad in 1915. Entered private practice, but retained railroad connection. Specializes in insurance law. Served in field artillery in WW1. Raised Feb. 21, 1928 in Lathrop Lodge No. 676, Canton, Ohio. 32° AASR (NJ) April 6, 1928 at Cleveland and member of Al Koran Shrine Temple and Nazir Grotto.


            Ken Carson Radio star. Born at Carman, Canada in 1910. Member of Hollywood Lodge No. 355, Hollywood, Calif.


            Moses B. Carson Founded Missouri Fur Company with two other Freemasons—Joshua Pilcher and Joseph Perkins. They were in competition with the American Fur Company headed by brothers Pierre Chouteau, Jr. and Bartholomew Berthold. Moses was a brother of Kit Carson q.v., the famous plainsman. Their father brought them from Kentucky and they settled at Old Franklin in Howard county on the Missouri river. It was here that Moses was initiated, passed and raised in Franklin Union Lodge No. 7 in 1826. He was a member of a military company at Fort Hempsted in 1812.


            William L. Carss (1865-1931) Congressman from 8th Minnesota dist. to 66th, 69th and 70th Congresses (1919-21 and 1925-29). b. Feb. 15, 1865 at Pella, Iowa. Mason.


            Benjamin E. Carter (1894-1943) Justice, Supreme Court of Arkansas. b. Nov. 1, 1894 at Texarkana, Ark. Graduate of Harvard in 1916. Practiced law in Texarkana from 1922. Named to supreme court in 1943. d. April 11, 1943. Mason.


            Edward F. Carter Justice, Supreme Court of Nebraska since 1935. b. March 11, 1897 at Middlebranch, Nebr. Admitted to bar in 1919 and practiced in Bayard, Nebr. until 1927 when he became judge of the 17th district. He served as judge on the 5th Military Tribunal, Nurnberg, Germany, to try major German war criminals in 1947-48. Served in WW1. Raised in Scotts Bluff Lodge No. 201, Gering, Nebr. Feb. 22, 1929 and past master of same. Grand master of Grand Lodge of Nebraska in 1941. Member of Oregon Trail Chapter No. 65, R.A.M., Gering; Lincoln Council No. 4, R. & S.M. and Mt. Moriah Cornmandery No. 4, K.T. of Lincoln; consistory membership at Alliance; 33° AASR (SJ); member of Shrine, Red Cross of Constantine, High Twelve and Eastern Star.


            Frank J. Carter Vice president of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. b. Dec. 20, 1900 at Warren, Ark. Started with Goodyear as a trainee in 1922, advancing to vice president in charge of industrial relations in 1956. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.


            Fred A. Carter (1870-1948) President and general manager of American Textile Woolen Co. from 1910. b. Oct. 14, 1870 in Sweetwater, Tenn. Started as a laborer, clerk and bookkeeper and became secretary-treasurer of Sweetwater Woolen Mills in 1892, going to the American Textile Woolen Co. in 1906 in the same position. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner. d. Feb. 17, 1948.


            George H. Carter (1874-1948) Public printer of the U.S. from 1921-34. b. Sept. 10, 1874 at Mineral Point, Wis. Degrees from Univ. of Iowa and George Washington Univ. Worked as editor and political writer of several Iowa newspapers from 1890 to 1907 when he went to the Washington (D.C.) Post. He served as secretary of the Printing Investigation Commission in Washington in 1910-11 and as clerk of the Joint Committee on Printing, U.S. Congress from 191121. Mason, 33° AASR, Knight Templar, Shriner and member of Royal Order of Scotland. d. Oct. 23, 1948.


            Jesse F. Carter (1873-1943) Justice, Supreme Court of South Carolina. b. Sept. 12, 1873 at Lodge, S.C. Admitted to bar in 1905 and practiced in Bamberg, S.C. until 1927 when he was elected associate justice of the state supreme court. He was reelected in 1930 and again in 1940. He was a member of the state senate in 192527. Mason. d. Nov. 5, 1943.


            Jesse W. Carter Justice, Supreme Court of California. b. Dec. 19, 1888 at Carrville, Calif. Admitted to California bar in 1913 and practiced in San Francisco and then Redding. Appointed to supreme court bench in 1939. Raised in Western Star Lodge No. 2, Shasta, Calif. in 1914, serving as master in 1922 and senior grand steward of the Grand Lodge of California in 1922. 32° AASR (SJ) in Sacramento Consistory; Ben Ali Shrine Temple of Sacramento and honorary life member of Al Malaikah Temple, Los Angeles. Honorary member of DeMolay Legion of Honor.


            Joseph H. Carter President of Pittsburgh Steel Co. b. 1893 in Harvey, Ill. Graduate of Rose Polytechnic Institute in 1916. Mason and Shriner.


            Thomas J. Carter Commanding officer, U.S. Naval Hospital at Portsmouth since 1953. b. July 3, 1899 at Lawrence, Kans. Served in Navy in WW1. Commissioned in 1927, advancing to captain in 1943. Has served as naval medical officer throughout the world. Raised in Lawrence Lodge No. 6, Lawrence, Kansas in 1926.


            Thomas M. Carter Bandmaster. Made a Mason in Newburyport, Mass. Knighted in Boston Commandery in 1889, he took an active part in the musical side of Freemasonry. He is the composer of the Boston Commandery March.


            William C. Carter President of Link-Belt Co. 1942-46 and chairman of executive committee since 1946. b. Oct. 10, 1881 at Homer, Ill. Graduated from Univ. of Illinois and started with Link-Belt Co. in 1902 as a draftsman. Raised in Olympia Lodge No. 864, Chicago, Ill. in 1904.


            William S. Carter (1859-1923) Labor executive. b. Aug. 11, 1859 at Austin, Texas.  Was fireman and engineer on railroads in Texas, Colo. and Mexico from 1889-94, and editor of Locomotive Firemen, and Engineinens magazine until 1903, when he became general secretary and treasurer of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen. He was president of the organization from 1909 until 1918. In 1918 he became director, Division of Labor of U.S. Railroad Administration. In 1920 he was elected president of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Engineers, a position which he held until his death on Mar. 15, 1923. Mason.


            Julius Victor Carus (1823-1903) German zoologist and a professor at Leipzig from 1853. He authored a history of zoology and translated most of Darwin's works. The bulletin of the International Masonic Congress lists him as a Freemason.


            Ugo Carusi Former U.S. Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization (1945-47) and chairman of Displaced Persons Commission since 1948. b. Mar. 17, 1902 in Carrara, Italy and brought to the U.S. in 1902. Was secretary and assistant to U.S. attorney general from 1925-30. Was official delegate of U.S. at first international congress on criminology in Rome, 1938. Raised in Justice Lodge No. 46, Washington, D.C. on May 31, 1927. 32° AASR (SJ) in Washington, D.C. and presently guardian of the temple in Evangelist Chapter of Rose Croix. Member of Almas Shrine Temple, Washington.


            Elbert N. Carvel Governor of Delaware, 1949-53. b. Feb. 9, 1910 at Shelter Island Heights, N.Y. Graduated from Univ. of Baltimore in 1931.


            President of Valliant Fertilizer Co. of Laurel, Del. since 1945. Lieutenant governor of Delaware from 1945-49. Raised in Hope Lodge No. 4, Laurel, Del. in 1946 and junior steward of his lodge in 1957. 32° AASR (NJ); Nur Shrine Temple; Evergreen Forest, Tall Cedars and National Sojourners.


            Edgar M. Carver Vice President of Dodge Mfg. Company. b. Oct. 22, 1886 at Morton, Ind. B.S. and M.E. degrees from Purdue. Employed by the Dodge company since 1909, beginning as a draftsman. Was general superintendent from 1927 and now vice president and director. Served in WW1 with Army Ordnance. Raised in Tippicanoe Lodge No. 492, Lafayette, Ind. about 1907.


            Glover H. Cary (1885-1936) Congressman from Kentucky to 72nd and 74th Congresses (1931-33 and 1935-37) and 73rd Congress (1933-35). b. May 1, 1885 at Calhoun, Ky. Admitted to Kentucky bar in 1909 and began practice in Owensboro. Mason. d. Dec. 5, 1936.


            John Proby, 1st Lord Carysfort Grand master of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) from 1752 to 1754.


            Thomas Casady Bishop, Protestant Episcopal church. b. June 6, 1881 at Des Moines, Iowa. Graduate of Univ. of Iowa in 1902. Deacon, 1906; priest, 1907. Served as rector in Oelwein and Des Moines, Iowa, Pueblo, Colo. and Omaha, Nebr. Elected bishop of Oklahoma on June 2, 1927, and consecrated Oct. 2, 1927. Elected president of the Province of the Southwest in 1944. Mason.


            Peter Casanave Master of Georgetown Lodge No. 9 of Maryland (now Potomac No. 5 of D.C.) who laid the cornerstone of the White House on Oct. 17, 1792. Like James Hoban q.v. the architect, Casanave was a devout Romanist. At the time of the cornerstone laying, Casanave was probably a young man in his mid-twenties. A copy of his will dated April 14, 1856 and probated March 31, 1860, is in the archives of Potomac Lodge. Casanave gave "an oration well adapted to the occasion" at the laying of the stone.


            Casanova, or Casanova de Seingalt (1725-1798) Born Giovanni Jacopo in Venice, Italy, of family of actors. He was educated for the priesthood and showed brilliance of mind and wit, but was expelled for scandalous conduct from Seminary of St. Cyprian in 1741. He then became secretary in the household of Cardinal Aquaviva, followed by a spell in the Venetian army at Corfu. He was by turn a preacher, abbe, alchemist, cabalist, gambler, and violin player. For 20 years he roamed Europe, alternately in fortune and distress. Skeptic and sensualist, he was involved in one intrigue after another. He was imprisoned as a spy in Venice in 1755. As director of the state lotteries in Paris, he accumulated a fortune. He was an agent of Louis XV. He made acquaintance with the great of his day, including the pope (who bestowed him with the papal order of the Golden Spur). He was alternately forced to flee Russia, France, Spain and Italy. He is best known for his Memoirs, which although a cynical record of his rogueries and amours, is of great historical importance. He was thought to have entered Freemasonry in Lyons in 1750. The Craft must have had a mighty appeal to this wild adventurer without morals, for scattered through his Memoirs are numerous references to Freemasonry. He advised all young men, well-born, who wished to become of value in society to become Freemasons "even though it would only be to know superficially what it is." He defended the fraternity with unmeasured scornfrom those who thought it political, anarchistic or subversive. He asked young men to "choose well the Lodge, for although bad company cannot work in the Lodge, it may however be found there and the candidate ought to guard himself against dangerous associations." What is really remarkable, however, is his reverent appreciation of the inner content of the art. He asserted that the real secrets of the fraternity were not in its symbols or words, but were to be found only in reflection, reason, comparison and deduction. He averred that the secret of Freemasonry, discovered by the individual, cannot be imparted to another.


            Clarence E. Case Chief Justice, Supreme Court of New Jersey. b. Sept. 24, 1877 at Jersey City, N.J. Admitted to N.J. bar in 1903. Judge of county court, secretary to president of N.J. senate, member of senate from 191829; acting governor of New Jersey in 1920. Justice of N.J. supreme court, 1929-46 and chief justice from 194548 when court was terminated. Was senior associate justice on the new court from 1948. Mason.


            Francis H. Case U.S. Senator from South Dakota. b. Dec. 9, 1896 at Everly, Iowa. Graduate of Dakota Wesleyan, and Northwestern Universities. Was assistant editor of the Epwcrrth Herald, Chicago in 1920-22 and afterward editor of Rapid City (S.D.) Daily Journal, Hot Springs (S.D.) Star, Custer (S.D.) Chronicle. He was Congressman from 2nd S.D. dist. to 75th to 81st Congresses (1937-51), and U.S. Senator from South Dakota since 1951. Served in Marine Corps, WW1, as a private and later a major in Marine Corps Reserve. Member of Custer City Lodge No. 66, Custer, S. Dak.; Black Hills Chapter No. 25, R.A.M.; Black Hills Council No. 3, R. & S.M.; Schrader Commandery No. 9, K.T. all of Rapid City, S. Dak. Was member of Acacia fraternity at Northwestern Univ.


            Norman S. Case Governor of Rhode Island, three terms (1928-33). b. Oct. 11, 1888 at Providence, R.I. Graduate of Brown, Harvard and Boston Universities. Admitted to bar in 1911. Was lieutenant governor of Rhode Island in 1927-28. Member of Federal Communications Commission 1934-45 and now senior member of law firm of Case & Wozencraft, Washington, D.C. Served as an officer in Mexican border campaign and overseas in WW1 with a machine gun battalion and later with General Staff, A.E.F. Raised in Corinthian Lodge No. 27, Providence, R.I. on May 8, 1817 and a past master of his lodge. Member of Tall Cedars of Lebanon.


            Robert 0. Case Author of western books. b. Oct. 8, 1895 at Dallas, Texas. Graduate of Univ. of Oregon. After serving as reporter and financial editor of the Morning Oregonian, Portland, he began as a professional writer in 1924. Among his many books are: Just Buckaroo Riders of the Grande Ronde, The Yukon Drive, A Pair O'Mavericks, Dynamite Smith—Cowboy, Whispering Valley, The Loop, Big Timber, Wings, North, Golden Portage, West of Barter River and The Empire Builders. Contributor of fiction to Saturday Evening Post and Colliers. Mason.


            Charles C. Casey ( 1881 -1 946 ) President of Western State College of Colorado from 1930. b. Dec. 5, 1881. Was principal of high school and supt. of schools in Longmont,- Colo. from 1909-30. Mason, 32° AASR. d. July 31, 1946.


            John E. Caskey Vice president of U.S. Rubber Company. b. Feb. 29, 1892 in Fairmont, Ind. Graduate of Ohio State Univ. in 1915. Has been with U.S. Rubber since graduation from college, becoming vice presidentin 1953 and general manager of the Naugatuck (Conn.) chemical division. Raised in Shepherd Lodge No. 478 at Naugatuck, Conn. in 1924 and served as master of same. Member of Allerton Chapter No. 39, R.A.M. Naugatuck.


            Marion M. Caskie Vice President of Reynolds Metals Company. b. July 29, 1890 at Remington, Va. First an accountant for Southern Railroad, he engaged in practice before Interstate Commerce Commission and came to Reynolds Metals as traffic executive in 1930. He has been executive vice president and director of Reynolds Metals since 1940. Mason.


            Albin R. Caspar Vice President of Great Northern Paper Company. b. July 20, 1896 at Lisbon Falls, Me. With Great Northern since 1919, successively as pulp mill foreman, assistant superintendent of paper and pulp mill, assistant manager of manufacturing and vice president and manager of sales. Mason. Served in Navy in WW1.


            Lewis Cass (1782-1866) General, Governor of Michigan, Secretary of War, Minister to France, U.S. Senator, Secretary of State and candidate for president. b. Oct. 9, 1782 at Exeter,N.H., he practiced law at Zanesville, Ohio in 1802. He was made a Mason in old American Union Lodge No. 1 at Marietta, Ohio (EA Dec. 5, 1803, FC April 2, 1804, MM May 7, 1804). He was admitted a member of Amity Lodge No. 5, Zanesville June 24, 1805. After a term in congress he was named U.S. marshal of Ohio (1807-13). An early volunteer in the War of 1812 he became a brigadier general. Following the defeat of the British in the Battle of the Thames, he was given command of the garrison at Detroit and in 1813 appointed civil governor of the territory of Michigan—a position he held for nearly 18 years. During this time his constructive administration opened up the territory. Traveling 5,000 miles by canoe, he negotiated more than 20 treaties with the Indians. In 1831-36 he was secretary of war in Jackson's cabinet. In 1836-42 he was U.S. minister to France, and returned home to run for president, but a deadlock with Van Buren resulted in election of Polk. Michigan sent him to the U.S. senate from 1845-57. He again ran for president against Zach- ary, Taylor and was defeated. Bu- chanan appointed him secretary of state in 1857, but when he found himself to be a mere figurehead, he resigned in 1860 and retired to his home in Detroit. Cass received the four degrees of the chapter in American Union Royal Arch Chapter on the same day—Aug. 17, 1804. He later became the first high priest of Monroe Chapter No. 1, Detroit on Feb. 7, 1821. He helped organize the Grand Lodge of Ohio and was its grand master from 1810-13. Upon moving to Detroit, he affiliated with Zion Lodge No. 1 and was the first grand master of Michigan in 1826. Was the first high priest of Monroe chapter under charter. d. June 17, 1866.


            Andres Cassard Masonic writer, member of La Fraternidad Lodge No. 387, New York City. Senior grand deacon of Grand Lodge of New York in 1859 and 33° AASR.


            Archibald, 15th Earl of Cassillis (see Marquess of Ailsa) John, 7th Earl of Cassius Prominent figure in the Revolution of 1688. He was deacon, or head, of the Lodge Kilwinning in 1672.


            Stephen Cassin (1783-1857) U.S. naval officer. b. Feb. 16, 1783 in Philadelphia, Pa. and entered the navy as a midshipman in 1800. Advanced through lieutenant (1807), master(1814) and captain (1825). Both he and his father (another naval officer) served in the War of 1812. Stephen served with distinction in the war with Tripoli and commanded the Ticonderoga in Macdonough's victory on Lake Champlain. For this he was awarded a gold medal by congress. He was a terror to the pirates that infested the West Indies, and captured four of their vessels in Sept., 1822. He was a member of Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City. d. Aug. 29, 1857.


            Emilio Castelar (y Ripoll) (18321899) Spanish statesman, orator and writer. Was professor of history in Madrid 1856-65, exiled to France in 1866, returning to teach again from 1868-75. As a deputy to the Cortes in 1869 he advocated the republic and separation of church and state. After the proclamation of the republic in 1873 he was minister of foreign affairs and prime minister 1873-74 and deputy 1876-93. The bulletin of the International Masonic Congress (1917) lists him as a Freemason.


            Juan Jose Castelli (1764-1812) Argentine patriot, lawyer and politician of indomitable courage. He was a member of the Lautaro Lodge and took an active part in the struggle for independence. He was a member of the first governing "junta.”


            Francisco Pio Pacheco Castilla (1826-1896) Roman Catholic priest of Costa Rica who was a member of Esperanza Lodge No. 2 and Maraville Lodge No. 12. b. July 9, 1826, he was ordained priest in 1849. In 1851 he was in Guatemala at the consecration of Monsignor Llorente and returned with him to Costa Rica. In 1874 he was a deputy to the constitutional congress. Served as orator and junior warden of his lodge. d. Aug. 20, 1896.


            Alejandro Aguilar Castillo Costa Rican patriot. Deputy to constitutional congress in 1874. Spoke against the Jesuits in 1875 and aided in their expulsion from Costa Rica. A charter member of Esperanza Lodge No. 2, he founded Maraville Lodge No. 12 and Lodge No. 19 in San Jose. Was officer of Supreme Council AASR.


            William J. Castle (1836-1909) Operatic tenor. b. Dec. 22, 1836 in England. Studied music in New York, London and Milan and was leading tenor of English opera for 30 years. Made debut as concert singer in New York, 1861 and in opera in 1864. Sang in Europe 1872-74 and retired from stage in 1891. Later he became vocal director of the Chicago Musical College. He was raised in St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York City on Jan. 20, 1867. d. in 1909.


            Jose Antonio Pinto Castro Governor of San Juan, Costa Rica, secretary of state and president of the supreme court at his death. He prohibited the Jesuits from entering the country. He belonged to Lodge Caridad No. 26 and was master of No. 3.


            Dr. Jose Maria Castro (1818-1892) President of the Republic of Costa Rica in 1847-49 and again 1866-68. He was founder and rector of Santo Tomas University and was one of the founders of the Scottish Rite of Central America and its first grand chancellor.


            Julian Castro Venezuelan General and tenth President of the Republic of Venezuela (1858-1860). He was 18°, AASR.


            Tobias Zuniga Castro Diplomat and former Secretary of State of Costa Rica. Was candidate for president, deputy to constitutional congress and president of the charity board of San Jose. Member of Union Fraternal Lodge No. 19.


            Richard Caswell (1729-1789) General of American Revolution, Governor of North Carolina and member of Continental Congress. b. Aug. 3, 1729 in Maryland, he moved to North Carolina in 1746. Became a colonel early in the Revolution and was in command at battle of Moore's Creek where he defeated a large body of Loyalists. Delegate to congress in 1774-75 and again in 1787-89 when the Federal constitution was framed and ratified. He was president of the provincial congress which framed the state constitution in Nov. 1776 and governor of the state in 1777-79 and again in 1784-86. In 1780 he led state troops in the disastrous battle of Camden. Where he was initiated is unknown, but he was "healed" Dec. 28, 1772 in St. John's Lodge No. 3, New Bern, N.C. He was elected deputy grand master of North Carolina Dec. 11, 1787 and grand master Nov. 18, 1788. d. Nov. 20, 1789.


            Thomas H. Caswell (1825-1900) 11th Grand Commander, Southern Supreme Council AASR (1894-1900). b. Aug. 10, 1825 at Exeter, N.Y. He served as grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of California, R.A.M. and was grand secretary of the same —also grand lecturer for 37 years. He was grand commander of the Grand Commandery, K.T. of Calif. and served as recorder of that state body for 20 years. He was also grand recorder of the Grand Council of Calif. He was initiated in Lafayette Lodge U.D. at Nevada City, Calif. on Dec. 10, 1850 and received his other degrees in Nevada Lodge No. 13, Nevada City in May 1851. Received his 32° AASR at San Francisco on Oct. 17, 1867, 33° July 9, 1868 and crowned active member of Supreme Council May 3, 1870. d. Nov. 13, 1900.


            Louis S. Cates Mining executive. b. Dec. 20, 1881 at Boston, Mass. Graduate of M.I.T. in 1902. Began as mine operator in Mexico; in charge of construction at Bingham Canyon, Utah for Boston Consolidated Mining 190408 and was general manager in 1909. With Utah Copper Co. 1919-30, first as assistant general manager, general manager and vice president; president of Phelps Dodge Corp., 1930-47 and chairman of board since 1947. Developed system making it economically possible by underground methods, to mine low grade ores. Member of Kane Lodge No. 454, New York City and past master of Canyon Lodge No. 13 Brigham City, Utah. 32° AASR (SJ) at Salt Lake City, Utah and El Kalah Shrine Temple, same city.


            Catherine I, Czarina of Russia (1684?-1727) She was of Livonian peasant origin, taken prisoner in 1702 and made a serf of Prince Menshikov. She attracted the attention of Peter I (The Great) q.v. who established the first Masonic lodge in Russia. First she was his mistress and advisor. Later married him and succeeded him as empress in 1725-27. Shortly after their marriage in 1712 she obtained permission from Peter to found the Order of St. Catherine, an order of knighthood for women only of which she was grand mistress. It was a quasi-Masonic body.


            Catherine II (The Great) Empress of Russia (1729-1796) In 1762 she issued an edict against all Masonic meetings in her dominions, but subsequently learned the true character of the institution, and not only revoked her order, but invited the Freemasons to reestablish their lodges and constitute new ones. She reigned from 1762-96, and was followed by her son Paul I q.v., who during the early part of his reign was a Freemason, but later fell under the influence of the Jesuits and Knights of Malta and banned Freemasonry.


            John D. Caton (1812-?) Chief Justice, Illinois Supreme Court. b. March 19, 1812 in Monroe, N.Y. Set up law office in Chicago, Ill. 1833. He became judge of Illinois supreme court in 1842 and chief justice in 1855. He resigned in 1864, having acquired wealth in business. He traveled widely through Europe, China and Japan, and wrote extensively on his travels and nature subjects. A member of Occidental Lodge No. 40, Ottawa, Ill., he was master in 1846, 1851 and 1852.


            John Catron (1778-1865) Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court (183765). b. in Wythe Co., Va. Studied law and served in the New Orleans campaign under Jackson in War of 1812. Returned to Nashville, Tenn. to practice, and in 1824 was chosen one of the judges of the state bench and was its chief justice from 1830-36, when he retired. While on the bench, he did his utmost to suppress the practice of duelling, although he had been a noted duelist himself. He was a member of Cumberland Lodge No. 8, Nashville, Tenn.


            Thomas B. Catron (?-1921) U.S. Senator from New Mexico, 1912-17. b. in Lafayette Co., Mo. he received A.B. and A.M. from Univ. of Missouri. Began practice of law in New Mexico in 1867. Member of N. Mex. legislature for several terms and attorney general from 1869-72. He was U.S. attorney, dist. of N. Mex. 1872-79 and a delegate from his state to U.S. Congress in 1895-96. He was the first senior warden of the Santa Fe Lodge of Perfection (AASR).


            Roscoe A. Cattell Chief of petroleum and natural gas division of Bureau of Mines since 1933. b. Jan. 6, 1892 at New Sharon, Ia. Graduate of Univ. of Calif. 1916. Employed by oil companies