10,000 FAMOUS




Volume IV

Q – Z

Foreword by

Past Master, Missouri Lodge of Research

Published by
Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., Inc.
Richmond, Virginia


Copyright, I957, William R. Denslow




William A. Quarles (1820-?) Brigadier General, Confederate Army, Civil War. b. 1820 in Va. Member of Clarksville Lodge No. 89, Clarksville Chapter No. 3, R.A.M., and Clarksville Commandery No. 8, K.T. (knighted Sept. 6, 1871), all of Clarksville, Tenn.


            George H. Quarterman Protestant Episcopal Bishop. b. Aug. 12, 1906 in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Ordained to ministry in 1934, and served as rector in Ardmore, Okla., Amarillo, Texas, becoming bishop of Northwest Texas in 1946. Trustee of U. of the South since 1946. Member of Tascosa Lodge No. 1375, Amarillo, Texas, and 32° AASR (SJ) at Dallas.


            Edouard Quartier-La-Tente (18551925) Swiss Masonic editor and in charge of the International Bureau of Masonic Affairs. b. 1855 in New York City. He became an educator in Neufchatel, Switzerland, and served five years as grand master of the Grand Lodge Alpine. He edited Alpine, a Masonic periodical, for 15 years. Was a member of the Swiss Supreme Council, AASR. When the Grand Lodge Alpina established the International Bureau of Masonic Affairs in 1903, he was placed in charge. Its purpose was to link all grand lodges and serve as a clearing house for Masonic information. d. Jan. 19, 1925.


            Matthew S. Quay (1833-1904) U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania, 1887-1899. b. Sept. 30, 1833 in Dillsburg, Pa. Graduate of Jefferson Coll. (Pa.) in 1850; admitted to the bar in 1854, and practiced in Beaver, Pa. Servedin Civil War with Pa. volunteers as major and lieutenant colonel in commissary and transportation departments. Was secretary of Pa., 1872-78; member of lower house, 1865-67; state treasurer, 1885-87; member of St. James Lodge No. 457, Beaver, Pa. d. May 28, 1904.


            Queens (see Elizabeth and Mary).


            Apolinar de Jusus Soto Quesada Costa Rican Secretary of State, and President of the Constitutional Congress. Member of Esperanza Lodge No. 2.


            Conception Quesada Costa Rican Brigadier General. Commandant of the Plaza of San Jose. Member of Maraville Lodge.


            Manuel Aragon Quesada Costa Rican politician. Was secretary of state, president of congress, and minister plenipotentiary to Europe, U.S., and Central America. An outstanding economist, he organized the Costa Rican office of statistics. Member of Caridad Lodge No. 26.


            Manuel Luis Quezon (1878-1944) President of the Philippine Islands from Sept. 17, 1935 until his death in 1944. b. Aug. 19, 1878 in Baler, Tayabas, P.I. Admitted to the bar in 1903. He served on the staff of General Aguinaldo, q.v. He was successively provincial prosecuting attorney, provincial governor of Tayabas, and resident commissioner to the U.S., 1909-16. He was president of the Philippine senate in 1916-35 and a leading figure in the movement which led to the gradual independence of the islands. Upon the Japanese invasion, he escaped by U.S. submarine to the U.S. on Feb. 20, 1942; he died in Saranac Lake, N.Y., August 1, 1944. Quezon was a Freemason most of his adult life, being grand master of the Grand Lodge of the Philippines, 191819. Due to the influence of his wife he resigned from Freemasonry, Sept. 17, 1930. After his death, the Catholic church claimed he had renounced Freemasonry. Seven years after he left Masonry, he made this statement: "I didn't actually resign from the Masonic order until several months later, and I never denounced Masonry. There is a formal form which those returning to the church from the Masonic lodge are supposed to sign. but I refused to sign it. Instead, I wrote the Archbishop a personal note saying that I understood that I could not be readmitted to the Catholic Church so long as I remained a Mason, and for that reason I was resigning from Masonry." During his entire term as president, he fought for the separation of church and state.


            Aristide Ambroise Quillet (18801955) French publicist and editor. Was orphaned at an early age and had to educate himself. At the age of 18 he opened the publishing house which still bears his name. A short time before WWI, he founded l'Editorial Labor in Spain. It still exists. He was co-director of the Dernieres Nouvelles de Strasbourg, a daily newspaper printed in two languages. •n 1938 he founded the Editorial Argentina Aristide Quillet in Buenos Aires. In WWII he took an active part in the French resistance movement and in 1949 was promoted to grand commander of the Legion of Honor. He was initiated in 1903 in the lodge, Temple de l'Honneur et l'Union of the Grand Orient of France. In 1936 he founded a new lodge, La Marseillaise, and was its master for many years. He was an honorary member of Goethe Lodge No. 379. Shortly before his death the Grand Lodge of France presented him with the 50-year service medal. d. 1955.


            Henry B. Quinby (1846-1924) Governor of New Hampshire, 1909-11. b. June 10, 1846 in Biddleford, Maine. Graduate of Bowdoin Coll. in 1869 and 1872; M.D. from Nat. Med. Coll. (Washington) in 1870. Served in both branches of the state legislature. President of Laconia National Bank, City Savings Bank, and Masonic Temple Assn. Member of Mount Lebanon Lodge No. 32, Laconia; exalted in Union Chapter No. 70, R.A.M., April 12, 1871; greeted in Pythagorean Council No. 6, R. & S.M., Oct. 8, 1872; received 32° AASR (NJ) at Nashua, April 13, 1896, and became 33° and active member of the Northern Supreme Council. d. Feb. 8, 1924.


            Josiah Quincy (1772-1864) President of Harvard, 1829-45; U.S. Congressman from Massachusetts, 180513. b. Feb. 4, 1772 in Boston, Mass. Graduate of Harvard in 1790; began law practice in Boston in 1793. Served in both branches of the state legislature, and was mayor of Boston, 182329, during which time the erection of the Bunker Hill monument was begun. Raised in St. John's Lodge of Boston, March 28, 1795. d. July 1, 1864.


            Edgar Quinet (1803-1875) French writer and politician. Studied philosophy in Germany and made French translations of Herder's books. Traveled widely in Europe and wrote of his observations. Author of two epic poems, Napoleon (1836) and Promethee (1838). Involved in revolutionary activities in 1848 and banished from France. After his return in 1870 was elected to the national convention. A Freemason, but his lodge is not known.


            James H. Quinn First man to raise the American flag on the pueblo at Taos, New Mexico in 1847. He was a nephew of Stephen A. Douglas, q.v. Member of Montezuma Lodge No. 109 (now No. 1 of Santa Fe) in 1853.


            Vidkun Quisling (1887-1945) Norwegian Anti-Mason whose name has become a synonym for traitor. During WWI he was in the diplomatic and intelligence service, mainly in Russia. From 1931-32 he was the Norwegian minister of defense, resigning to found his own political party, the National Union, with a platform calling for the suppression of Communism and the freeing of Norwegian labor from unionism. He was chief collaborator in the German conquest of Norway in 1940. The Nazis proclaimed him sole political head of Norway as head of the state council of 13 Nazi-dominated commissioners. In this capacity he took over the beautiful Masonic Temple in Oslo and converted it into an officers quarters, ruining it for Masonic use. He ordered all the library and belongings shipped to Germany (but thanks to Norwegian patriots, they failed to arrive). He was tried by the Norwegian courts following the war. Ironically, the trial was held in a former Masonic lodge room, in order to seat more spectators. He was convicted and shot in 1945.


            John A. Quitman (1799-1858) Governor of Mississippi, 1835-36 and 1850-51; Major General, U.S.A. in Mexican War, 1846-48; U.S. Congressman from Mississippi, 1855-58, and "Father of Mississippi Masonry." b. Sept. 1, 1799 in Rhinebeck, N.Y. He was early in-dined towards the ministry, but taught school and studied law in Philadelphia, then moved to Ohio, where he was admitted to the bar in 1821. In 1882 he went to Memphis, Tenn., and later to Natchez, Miss. He served as president of the state senate. In 1836 he raised a body of men to aid the Texans against the incursions of Santa Anna, q.v.; returning home to Natchez, he became a major general of the state militia. In Federal service in the Mexican War, he distinguished himself at Monterrey, Fort Tenerice, Vera Cruz, Pueblo and Chapultepec. He was appointed governor of the City of Mexico. In 1848 and again in 1856 he was suggested as Democratic nominee for vice president, but was not nominated. He was an avowed advocate of states rights, and as leader of the extreme Southern party, supported the right of secession for states. He was raised in Hiram Lodge No. 18, Delaware, Ohio, in 1820, and affiliated with Harmony Lodge No. 1, Natchez, Miss. in 1822, serving as master two years later. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Mississippi from 1826-37 and 1845-46, declining further terms. He was a 32° AASR (SJ) and intimate friend of Albert Pike, who conducted a lodge of sorrow in his memory in 1860. He was also an honorary member of the grand lodges of South Carolina and New York. d. July 17, 1858 at his Natchez home "Monmouth," which is now famous as one of the outstanding anti-bellum homes of Natchez. It is thought he died of poisoning at a banquet in Washington, D.C., during the inauguration of Buchanan.





             Fritz Rackhorst (1870-1930) German physician and Masonic editor. He practiced medicine in Lennep, Germany from 1896, but his heart was more often in Masonry. He served as master of the lodge Theodor zum Belgischen Loewen at Duesseldorf for almost 20 years. At the same time he was editor of the Masonic magazine The Light, which at that time was the only independent Masonic publication. After WWI he attempted to cement ties between former enemies, but ran into much resistance among his own brethren. He resigned from his mother lodge and affiliated with the Lodge Plato at Wiesbaden, and finally with the Lodge Labor at Vienna. His opinion was that Masonry was a world brotherhood. His beliefs earned him many enemies among his brethren.


            Milton R. Rackmil President of Decca Records, Inc., N.Y.C. since 1949, and President and Director of Universal Pictures Co., Inc. since 1952. b. Feb. 12, 1903 in N.Y.C. Graduate of New York U. in 1924. Was with Brunswick Radio Corp. from 1929 as comptroller; secretary of Brunswick Records, 1932-34. Treasurer of Decca Records, 1934-37; vice president 193746, and executive vice president, 1946-49. Director of Decca since 1946. Member of Civic Lodge No. 853, N.Y.C., receiving degrees on Oct. 27, Nov. 24, 1936 and Jan. 12, 1937.


            Charles Radcliffe (see Earl of Derwentwater).


            George L. Radcliffe U.S. Senator from Maryland, 1935-47. b. Aug. 22,1877 in Lloyds, Md. Received A.B. and Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins, and honorary degrees from several universities. Practiced law from 1903. President of American Bonding Co., 191430, and now first vice president and director of Fidelity & Deposit Co., and director of Fidelity-Baltimore National Bank and Trust Co. Was secretary of state of Maryland, 1919-20. Member of Oriental Lodge No. 158, Baltimore, and 32° AASR (SJ) in Chesapeake Consistory.


            John Rae (1813-1893) Scottish Arctic explorer. b. Sept. 30, 1813 in the Orkney Islands. Received medical degree from U. of Edinburgh and was a doctor with Hudson's Bay Co. He joined the expedition of Sir John Richardson in search of Sir John Franklin, q.v., in 1847, and was on several exploring expeditions between 1846-64. He proved King William's Land to be an island, and on an expedition in 1853-54, learned the fate of Franklin from natives on the West coast of Boothia. He was known for his amazing endurance and vigor, traveling 23,000 miles on snowshoes and dragging a loaded sled. He received the Royal Geographical Society's "Founders Medal" and also the "Arctic Medal." He once covered 100 miles a day on snowshoes. He lived like the Eskimos, in contrast to other English "gentlemen" who needed great amounts of supplies and natives to carry them. His exploration method is known as the "Rae Method." d. July 22, 1893, and although his lodge membership is not known, Kilwinning Masonic Lodge attended the funeral.


            4 Jean Baptiste Marie Ragon Buried in St. Magnus Cathedral in the Orkneys.


            Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (17811826) English administrator; founder of the city of Singapore and of the London zoo. He joined the East India Co. as a clerk, at the age of 13 and became a brilliant administrator, scholar, traveler, and naturalist. In 1805 he was sent to Penang as assistant secretary to the first governor. He persuaded Lord Minto of the necessity of taking Java from the French, and accompanied the expedition. He was lieutenant governor of Java from 1811-1816, and introduced a new system of land tenure, removing fetters imposed on trade. He was appalled at the selfish and cruel trade monopolies, forced labor, slavery, piracy, and general lawlessness, and hoped to end this by spreading British protection over the area. Cheated of his ambitions for the whole Eastern Archipelago, he did, however, obtain the pirate island of Singapore from the rulers of Johore. He justly referred to "my city of Singapore," saying "I have declared that the port of Singapore is a free port and the trade thereof open to ships and vessels of every nation." He was initiated in Lodge Vertutis et Ards Aminci, established on the Pondoz-Gedeh coffee estate near Buitenzorg, Java, only two months after his conquest of the Dutch. The master was a former governor of Java, and a second candidate was a member of the Dutch council. Both of these brethren were markedly hostile to the British in public life, but such was the character of Raffles that he was welcomed into their midst. He was passed in this lodge, but raised on July 5, 1813 in the Lodge of Friendship at Surabaja, Java, and subsequently made past master by his Dutch brethren. He received the 18th degree in the Rose Croix chapter, La Vertueuse in Batavia. On his re-turn to England, he founded the London zoo. d. 1826.


            Idris Ragheb (?-1923) Egyptian Boy of a noble and wealthy family. He was grand master of the Egyptian Grand Lodge for 32 years, 1891-1923, and grand commander of the Supreme Council, AASR of Egypt, for nearly 20 years. He devoted his life to the study of languages, sciences, and the invention of a machine which writes Arabic characters. His public spiritedness and philanthropy found expression in the founding of the Assistance PUblique, of which he was several times elected president, the Oeuvre d'Instruction Laique et Gratuite, and the Societe d'Alitnentation.


            William T. Ragland (1866-?) Justice, Supreme Court of Missouri, 1923-33. b. Oct. 5, 1866 in Marion, Co., Mo. Admitted to bar in 1889, and practiced at Paris, Mo. Was circuit judge, 1911-19, and commissioner of supreme court of Missouri, 1919-23. Received degrees in Monroe Lodge No. 64, Monroe City, Mo., Jan. 16, and Feb. 6, 20, 1893. On April 17, 1908 he was affiliated with Paris Union Lodge No. 19, Paris, Mo. and dimitted from same Jan. 10, 1927.


            Heartsill Ragon (1885-1940) U.S. Congressman from Arkansas to 68th through 72nd Congresses, 1923-33, from 5th Ark. dist.; Federal Judge, Western Arkansas, 1933-40. b. March 20, 1885 in Dublin, Ark. Graduate of Washington and Lee U. in 1908, and began law practice in Clarksville, Ark, in that year. Served in state house of representatives. Raised in Franklin Lodge No. 9, Clarksville, Ark, on April 26, 1916. Suspended NPD Sept. 28, 1937. d. Sept. 15, 1940.


            Jean Baptiste Marie Ragon (17811862) French Masonic writer called "the most learned Freemason of the 19th century" by his contemporaries. b. Feb. 25, 1781 in Paris. He joined the lodge Reunion des Amis du Nord at Bruges, Belgium in 1803„ and later helped establish the lodge and chapter of Vrais Amis in the same city. In 1805, after his removal to Paris, he was the founder of the lodge Les Trinosophes. It was before this lodge in 1818 that he delivered a course of lectures which in 1838 were published under the title of Cours Philoscrphique et Interpratif des Initiations Anciennes et Modernes. He edited the periodical, Hermes, ou Archives Maconniques. Other books were Orthodosie Maconnique and Tuileur General de la Franc-Maconerie, ou Manuel de His greatest work, Les Fastes Initiatiques, which was to include a complete world history of Freemasonry, was left unfinished at his death. The Grand Orient of France later purchased the manuscript, which is now in its archives, uncompleted. d. 1862.


            Carl August Ragotzky (?-1823) German Masonic author. His works include Der Freidenker in der Maurerei oder Freimuthige Briefe caber Wichtige Gegenstande in der FreiMaurerei in 1793 and An Essay on Masonic Liberty for Initiated and Uninitiated Readers in 1792. d. Jan. 5, 1823.


            Edward T. Ragsdale Vice President of General Motors since 1956. b. May 15, 1897 in Hopkinsville, Ky. Held various positions with Maxwell Motor, Midwest Engine Co., Prest-0- Lite Co., Pierce-Arrow Co., before becoming a draftsman for the Buick division of General Motors in 1923. He became assistant chief engineer, general manufacturing manager, and general manager in 1956. Mason and 32° AASR.


            Richard C. Raines Methodist Bishop of Indiana since 1948. b. Dec. 23, 1898 in Independence, Iowa. Graduate of Cornell Coll. (Ia.), Boston U., Oxford U., and U. of Maine. Ordainedin 1926, and served churches in Newton and Scituate, Mass., Providence, R.I., Minneapolis, Minn. Member of Independence Lodge No. 87, Independence, Ia. Received Scottish Rite degrees in Indianapolis, Ind. and coroneted 33° in 1952.


            Henry T. Rainey (1860-1934) Speaker of U.S. House of Representatives, 1933. b. Aug. 20, 1860 in Carrollton, Ill. Received A.B. and A.M. from Amherst and LL.B. from Union Coll. of Law, Chicago. Practiced law at Carrollton from 18851902. U.S. congressman to 58th through 66th congresses, 1903-21 and 68th through 73rd congresses, 192335. Member of Carrollton Lodge No. 50, Carrollton, Ill, being initiated, May 11, 1885. d. Aug. 19, 1934.


            Robert M. Rainey Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma, 192021. b. Sept. 29, 1882 in Sherman, Texas. Began law practice in Atoka, Okla. in 1904. Was member of the first Okla. legislature, 1907-08, and later district judge. Associate justice state supreme court, 1917-20. In private practice in Oklahoma City after 1921. Received degrees in Oklahoma Lodge No. 4, Atoka, Okla. in 1909 and affiliated with Oklahoma City Lodge No. 36, Jan. 15, 1923. Knight Templar.


            John E. Raker (1863-1926) U.S. Congressman to 62nd through 68th Congresses, 1911-25, from 1st Calif. dist. b. Feb. 22, 1863 near Knoxville, Ill. Read law with Judge E. V. Spencer, Susanville, Calif., married his daughter, and began law practice at Alturas, Calif. in 1886. Served as district attorney and judge of the superior court. Was grand master of the Odd Fellows of Calif. in 1908-09. Member of Alturas Lodge No. 248. d. Jan. 22, 1926.


            John Rolls (1807-1882) Colonel in Mexican War, during which time he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri and thus became the father of Freemasonry in New Mexico. b. Nov. 18, 1807 in Sharpsburg, Ky. His father was a prominent resident of St. Louis, and it was his vote in the legislature that sent Thomas H. Benton, q.v., to the U.S. Senate. The family moved to Rails Co. (named for his father) and John was orphaned at an early age. He returned to Ky., where he was an apprentice in a court of record. Returning to Mo., he was a clerk in the state house of representatives, and in 1850 was admitted to the bar. He served in the state militia in the Black Hawk War in 1832, and was a lieutenant colonel in 1837. In 1847 he was named colonel of the 3rd regiment of Mo. volunteers, which assembled at Independence, Mo. and marched over the Santa Fe Trail to Santa Fe, where they were assigned to the forces of Gen. Sterling Price, q.v. Having been elected grand master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri in 1846, he issued a dispensation to Missouri Military Lodge No. 86, on June 12, 1847. It accompanied his regiment on its expedition, and while in the Territory of New Mexico, Ralls assumed Masonic jurisdiction of that territory for the Grand Lodge of Missouri, a charge maintained until the organization of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico in 1877. He also issued a charter to Multnomah Lodge No. 84, Oregon City, Oregon Territory. Rails also issued another charter to some Illinois Masons for a lodge to be known as Hardin Lodge No. 87, but the formation of this lodge was never reported to the grand lodge. It was Rails who had the honor of receiving the sabers of the captured Mexican officers at the fall of Santa Cruz. The last recorded minutes of Military Lodge No. 86 were dated July 5, 1848 in Santa Cruz. The regiment marched back to Mo. and was mustered out on Oct. 25, 1848. Rails probably received his degrees in Pal- myra Lodge No. 18, Palmyra, Mo. and was later a charter member of New London Lodge No. 21, New London, Mo. In 1853 he dimitted to become charter member of Ralls Lodge No. 33, serving as master in 1859. He was a trustee of the Masonic College in 1842, and curator of same in 1845. He was exalted in Palmyra Chapter No. 2, R.A.M., Palmyra, Mo., May 6, 1842; became a charter member of Hannibal Chapter No. 7, Hannibal, Mo.; and later a charter member of Ralls Chapter No. 55, now located at Center, Mo. He was high priest of this chapter in 1872-73 and a member of the Order of High Priesthood. d. Oct. 8, 1882.


            Samuel M. Ralston (1857-1925) U.S. Senator from Indiana, 1923-25, dying in office; Governor of Indiana, 1913-17. b. Dec. 1, 1857 in Tuscarawas Co., Ohio. Admitted to bar in 1886; practiced at Lebanon, Ind. and later at Indianapolis. Received degrees in Owen Lodge No. 273, Quincy, Ind. on Nov. 10, Dec. 15, 1880 and Jan. 12, 1881. Was junior steward in 1881. Charter of this lodge was revoked in 1903 and in 1904 he became charter member of Owen Lodge No. 655 of Quincy, Ind. d. Oct. 14, 1925.


            Nawab of Rampur Head of the state of Rampur, one of the three Northern Moslem states of the United Provinces of India. b. in 1907, his full title is Major General, His Highness Alijah Farzand-i-Dilpizir-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Mukhlis-ud-D aul a h, Nasir-ul-Mulk, Amirul-Umara, Nawab Sir Sayed Mohammad Raza Ali Kan Bahadur, Justain Jung. He became ruler of Rampur in 1930. He was made a Mason in Lodge Raisana No. 3819, English Constitution in 1931; made past grand deacon of the Grand Lodge of England in 1946 and past grand warden in 1952. He is an honorary member of several lodges in India. A Royal Arch Mason, he was one of the petitioners in 1952 for Raza Chapter No. 1843 in his province. He is past grand junior warden of the Mark Grand Lodge of England.


            Andrew Michael Ramsay (16681743) Better known as the Chevalier Ramsay. b. at Ayr, Scotland, the son of a baker, he was given a liberal education and attended the U. of Edinburgh. In 1709 he became tutor for the two sons of the Earl of Weymss. He left Britain and fought in the army of the Duke of Marlborough. In 1710 he visited Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambrai, who converted him to Catholicism and secured him the preceptorship of the Duc de Chateau-Thierry and the Prince de Turenne. He was made a knight of the Order of Saint Lazarus, thus receiving the title Chevalier. He next tutored the two sons of the Pretender, James, III. It is thought he became a Freemason on a visit to England between 1728-30. In 1737 as chancellor, or orator of the Paris Grand Lodge, he delivered his celebrated oration in which he attributed the origin of Freemasonry to the crusaders rather than to operative Masons. He addressed it to the Pope and the King—the Pope, incidentally, ordered it burned. He is sometimes credited with the development of several Masonic degrees and rites. d. May 6, 1743.


            Dennis Ramsay A colonel of the American Revolution and pallbearer at Washington's funeral. He served as captain through colonel in the Virginia Line. He was a member of Alexandria Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Va., joining the lodge in 1783, and was junior warden of same in 1789-91.


            Lord James Andrew Ramsay (see Marquis of Dalhousie).


            George A. Ramsdell (1834-1900) Governor of New Hampshire, 1897-99. b. in Milford, N.H. Raised in Altemont Lodge No. 26, Peterboro, N.H., May 28, 1863 and dimitted in 1870. Was a 32° AASR (NJ). d. 1900.


            John R. Ramsey (1862-1933) U.S. Congressman to 65th and 66 Congresses, 1917-21, from 6th N.J. dist. b. April 25, 1862 in Wyckoff, N.J. Admitted to N.J. bar in 1883, and practiced at Hackensack from that time. Member of Fidelity Lodge No. 113, Ridgewood, N.J., receiving degrees on March 25, April 22, May 25, 1892. d. April 10, 1933.


            Robert Ramspeck U.S. Congressman, 71st through 79th Congresses, 1929-47, from 5th Ga. dist.; Vice President of Eastern Airlines since 1953. b. Sept. 5, 1890 in Decatur, Ga. Graduate of Atlanta Law School in 1920. Between 1907 and 1920 he was deputy clerk of superior court of Ga., chief clerk of post office, U.S. House of Representatives, secretary to Congressman Howard, secretary, Decatur chamber of commerce, and U.S. deputy marshal in Ga. He was then in the insurance and real estate business, newspaper business, and law practice. Member of Georgia, lower house in 1929. He resigned from congress to become vice president of the Air Transport Assoc. of America and from 1951-52 was chairman of the U.S. civil service comm. Member of Pythagoras Lodge No. 41, Decatur, Ga. 32° AASR at Atlanta; Yaarab Shrine Temple, Atlanta; honorary member of Tall Cedars and National Sojourners.


            John L. Rand (1861-1942) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Oregon, 1927-28, 1933-34, 1939-40. b. Oct. 28, 1861 in Portsmouth, N.H. Graduate of Dartmouth in 1883. Admitted to bar in 1885 and began practice at Walla Walla, Wash. Member of state senate, 1903-05. On supreme court bench from 1921 until death on Nov. 19, 1942. Member of Baker Lodge No. 47, Baker, Oreg., receiving degrees on Feb. 27, March 27, May 15, 1902. Knight Templar, 32° AASR (SJ), and Shriner.


            William Randal Sixth Earl of Antrim and 1st Marquis of Antrim; Viscount of Dunluce. Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of England (Ancients), 1783-91, and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1773 and 1779.


            Albert B. Randall (1879-1945) Ship captain and Commodore of United States Lines. b. Sept. 11, 1879 in Brookhaven, L.I., N.Y. He began as a seaman in sailing vessels and was promoted through grades, receiving his master mariner's license in 1905 and his first command in 1907. Among his ships were the Republic, George Washington, Leviathan and Manhattan. Made commodore in 1931, and retired because of age limit in 1939. During WWII he was rear admiral in Naval reserve, and was assigned to the War Shipping Adm. Mason and Knight Templar. d. Dec. 1, 1945.


            Alexander W. Randall (1819-1872) U.S. Postmaster General, 1866-69; Governor of Wisconsin, 1857-61; U.S. Minister to Italy, 1861-62. b. Oct. 31, 1819 in Ames, N.Y. Began law practice in Waukesha, Wis. in 1840; became postmaster of that city and was a member of the convention that framed the state constitution. President Lincoln dissuaded him from entering the Army in the Civil War, and instead, made him minister to Italy. Member of Waukesha Lodge No. 37, Waukesha. In 1864 he was orator of Hermes Senate No. 1, Ancient and Primitive Rite of Freemasonry, in Washington, D.C. d. July 25, 1872.


            George M. Randall (1810-1873) Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Colorado, 1865-73. b. Nov. 23, 1810 in Warren, R.I. Graduate of Brown in 1835, and of Episcopal Theo. Seminary, N.Y., in 1838. Ordained both deacon and priest in 1839. He held charges at Fall River and Boston, Mass. For many years he was the editor of The Christian Witness and Church Advocate and published many tracts, including Why I Am a Churchman and Observations in Confirmation. He was raised in Washington Lodge No. 3, Warren, R.I., and was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts from 1852-54. d. Sept. 28, 1873 in Denver, Colo.


            Samuel J. Randall (1828-1890) Speaker of U.S. House of Representatives, 44th through 46th Congresses, 1876-81. b. Oct. 10, 1828 in Philadelphia, Pa. Engaged in mercantile pursuits, and was a member of the state senate in 1858-59. Served with First Troop of Philadelphia in 1861, and promoted to captain in 1863. Served in Congress from Pa. from 1863-90. Raised in Montgomery Lodge No. 19, Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 1, 1864. d. April 13, 1890.


            Andrew L. Randell (1880-1931) Masonic editor and orator. b. Aug. 15, 1880 in Denison, Texas. Received degrees from Princeton, U. of Texas, and Daniel Baker Coll. He was a lawyer and noted orator. Raised in Travis Lodge No. 117, Sherman, Texas, he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Texas in 1921. He was the father of Little Masonic Library and National Masonic Library as well as The Master Mason magazine. From 1923-28 he was executive secretary of the Masonic Service Association. d. March 14, 1931.


            Beverley Randolph (1755-1797) Governor of Virginia, 1788, succeeding his relative Edmund Randolph, q.v., in that office. b. in Chatsworth, Heroic() Co., Pa. in 1755. He was a graduate of William and Mary Coll. During the Revolution, he was a member of the assembly of Va. and actively supported all measures for American independence. In 1787 he was chosen president of the executive council of Va. He received his degrees in Williamsburg Lodge. No. 6, Williamsburg, Va. Date of E.A. degree not known, but received F.C. on Aug. 3 and M.M. on Oct. 15, 1773 (original minutes in Library of Congress). He was fined 1 shilling, 3 pence on Sept 7, 1773 for absence. In 1791 he is listed in its manuscript returns as a member of Botentourt Lodge. d. 1797.


            Edmund Randolph (1753-1813) U.S. Attorney General, 1789-94; U.S. Secretary of State, 1794-95; Aide-de Camp to Washington, 1775-76; Member of Continental Congress, 1779-82; Governor of Virginia, 1786-88; Delegate to Constitutional Convention, 1787. b. Aug. 10, 1753 in Williamsburg, Va. A distinguished student at William and Mary Coll., he studied law with his father (John). He was a nephew of Peyton Randolph, q.v., and grandson of Sir John Randolph. He was first attorney general of Virginia under the new constitution. In 1779 he was elected to congress but resigned. In 1780 he was reelected and remained in congress two years. As a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and leader of the Va. delegation, he proposed his own idea of a constitution, which was not discovered until 1887 in the papers of George Mason. He was a counsel for Aaron Burr on his trial for treason at Rishmond, and wrote History of Virginia. He was not in favor of the constitution as adopted and refused to sign it. A member of Williamsburg Lodge No. 6 of Williamsburg, Va. (later Richmond No. 10), he was proposed, March 1, 1774, and received his degrees, March 29, April 2, and May 28, 1774 (original minutes in Library of Congress). On June 24, 1777 he withdrew from the lodge to become charter master of Jerusalem Lodge No. 54. He was deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Virginia in 1784, and grand master from Oct 27,1786 to Oct. 28, 1788. d. Sept. 12, 1813.


            Hollins N. Randolph (1872-1938) Lawyer. b. Feb. 25, 1872 at "Dunlora," Albemarle Co., Va. A graduate of U. of Virginia in 1895, he began law practice at Atlanta, Ga., and in the Southeast in 1896. Served as counsel for many banking, railroad, and business interests. Was counsel for Pres. Tinoco of Costa Rica to secure recognition by U.S.; special counsel for Wm. Randolph Hearst in the South; counsel for Boulder dam development, Cape Cod (Mass.) Canal, and attorney for R.F.C. at Washintgon, D.C. He was a member of the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Commission, 1935, and life president of the Stone Mountain Memorial Assn. He was the author of the Congressional act directing five million Stone Mountain memorial coins to be minted. Received degrees on June 6, 1905, Feb. 5, 1907 and Feb. 19, 1907 in Georgia Lodge No. 96, Atlanta. d. April 29, 1938.


            Peyton Randolph (1721-1775) First President of the Continental Congress and last Provincial Grand Master of Virginia. b. in Williamsburg, Va. in 1721, the son of Sir John Randolph. A graduate of William and Mary Coll. and student of law at the Inner Temple, London, he was appointed Kings's attorney for Va. in 1748. He served in the Va. house of burgesses from 1748-49 and 1752-75. When trouble with England threatened, he was a member of the committee of correspondence, 1759-67, and chairman of the committee in 1773. He was a close friend of Washington, and married the sister of Benjamin Harrison, governor of Va. His original Masonic affiliation is unknown. He was named as master of the lodge at Williamsburg, Va. (No. 6) in a warrant from Lord Petrie, grand master of the Grand Lodge of England, dated Nov. 6, 1773. He was present at this lodge on July 5, 1774 as provincial grand master. d. Oct. 22, 1775, while attending the Constitutional Convention.


            Theodore F. Randolph (1816-1883) U.S. Senator from New Jersey, 187480; Governor of New Jersey, 1868-72. b. June 24, 1816, in New Brunswick, N.J. Entered mercantile career at age of 16. Settled in Vicksburg, Miss. about 1840, where he married a granddaughter of Chief Justice Marshall. Returned to N.J. in 1850, residing first in Hudson Co. and later in Morristown. Member of state legislature in 1859-60, and state senator, 1861-65. As governor, on July 11, 1871, the day preceding the Orange riot in N.Y.C., he issued a proclamation insuring the right to parade to the Orangemen of N.J. He secured patents for several inventions, including a "ditcher," and an application of steam to typewriters. He was raised in Varick Lodge No. 31, Jersey City, N.J. on Oct. 18, 1854 and was master of the lodge, 1856-57. On March 4, 1875 he affiliated with Lodge of the Temple No. 110, Jersey City. From 1879-83 he was grand representative of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. d. Nov. 7, 1883.


            Thomas Jefferson Randolph (17921875) Financier, and as favorite grandson of Jefferson, was executor of his estate. b. Sept. 12, 1792 at Monticello, Va., the son of Thomas Mann Randolph, q.v. His grandfather described him as "the staff of his old age," and after Jefferson's death, his debts to the extent of $40,000 were paid by Randolph. He also supported and educated his brothers and sisters. As literary executor of Jefferson, he published Life and Correspondence of Thomas Jefferson in 1829. He served in the Va. legislature, and was an expert on monetary matters. He was rector of the U. of Virginia for seven years, and served on the board of visitors for 31 years. Member of Door to Virtue Lodge No. 44, Albemarle Co., Va. d. Oct. 8, 1875 and was buried at Monticello.


            Thomas Mann Randolph (1768-1828) Governor of Virginia, 1819-21. b. Oct. 1, 1768 at Tuckahoe, Va. Attended Edinburgh U. where he formed a scientific society, of which Thomas Jefferson was elected an honorary member. Jefferson acknowledged the letter and wrote him several letters of advice, having been a close friend of his father's. He married Jefferson's daughter, Martha, in 1790 and they lived at Monticello. He served in Congress from Va. from 1803-07, and while in Washington, lived in the White House with Jefferson. He served in the War of 1812 as a captain in the 20th Infantry. Member of Door to Virtue Lodge No. 44 in Albemarle Co., Va. Was the father of Thomas Jefferson Randolph, q.v. d. June 20, 1828 at Monticello.


            Jackson A. Raney President of Kiwanis International in 1955. Graduate of Franklin Coll. and Butler U. (Ind.). Superintendent of Indiana School for Deaf at Indianapolis. Member of Versailles Lodge (Ind.) No. 7 and AASR officer.


            Robert J. Rankin Editor of The Halifax (N.S.) Herald. b. Aug. 7, 1896 in Chatham, Ont., Canada. He has been managing editor of the newspaper since 1927 and is director of same. President of The Canadian Press and chairman of Port of Halifax Commission. Served in WWI, 1914-18, as signals officer in Canadian Army. He is presently vice chairman of the National Harbours Board at Ottawa. Initiated in Windsor (Ont.) Lodge No. 403, and in 1943 dimitted to St. Andrew's Lodge No. 1, Halifax, N.S. 33° AASR at Halifax and 1st general of the Nova Scotia Consistory. Member of Philae Shrine Temple.


            Harry C. Ransley (1863-1941) U.S. Congressman to 66th through 72nd, 1921-33, and 73rd and 74th Congresses, 1933-37, from 1st and 3rd Pa. dists. b. Feb. 5, 1863 in Philadelphia. Member of Dunlap, Mellor & Co., oils and naval stores at Philadelphia from 1899. Served two terms in lower house, state legislature, and was on select council of Philadelphia for 16 years. Was sheriff of Philadelphia Co., 1916-20. Member of Meridian Sun Lodge No. 158, Philadelphia, receiving degrees on May 2, Sept. 5, Oct. 31, 1893. d. Nov. 5, 1941.


            Matthew W. Ransom (1826-1904) U.S. Senator from North Carolina, 1872-95; U.S. Minister to Mexico, 189597. b. Oct. 8, 1826 in Warren Co., N. Car. Graduate of U. of North Carolina in 1847, studied law and began practice at Warrenton, N. Car. Was attorney general of state, 185255, and member of lower house, 185860. He entered the Confederate Army as a private in 1861 and served throughout the Civil War, attaining the rank of major general. He received his first two degrees in Johnson-Caswell Lodge No. 10, Warrenton, N. Car. about 1850, and was carried on the rolls until 1856. The lodge itself disappeared in 1858. It was resuscitated in 1902 and he was given his third degree shortly thereafter. d. Oct. 8, 1904.


            Thomas E. G. Ransom (1834-1864) Union Major General in Civil War. b. Nov. 29, 1834 in Norwich, Vt. His father, a colonel in the Mexican War, was killed at Chapultepec. Educated in Norwich 1J. and became a civil engineer. Moved to Illinois in 1851, where he engaged in business. Entered service as a lieutenant-colonel of the 11th Ill. Inf., and was wounded leading a charge at Charleston, Mo. in Aug., 1861. Participated in assault on Fort Henry, and led his regiment in assault on Fort Donelson, where he was again severely wounded. Pro-moted to colonel for bravery, at Shiloh he was again wounded. Served as chief of staff to Gen. John A. McClernand and inspector general of Army of Tennessee, and subsequently on staff of Gen. Grant. Made brigadier general in 1863. Was in Battle of Vicksburg and headed a division in the Red River Campaign. At Battle of Sabine Cross-Roads received another wound from which he never recovered. Commanded 17th corps at Atlanta, and was breveted major general in 1864. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 13, Peru, Ill. Knighted in Ottawa Commandery No. 10, Ottawa, Ill. on July 23, 1864. d. Oct. 29, 1864.


            Mario Rapisardi (1844-1912) Italian poet and literary opponent of Carducci. As a professor in Catania, he wrote a poetic history of humanity called Luzifero. Also wrote Giobbe and Atlantide. He was a Mason (as was Carducci) and a chapter of the higher degrees is named after him.


            Maxmillian A. R. Rasko Artist, b. June 13, 1883 in Budapest, Hungary. He studied there as well as Munich, Dresden, Paris, Vienna, and Rome. Became a famous portrait artist in London and New York. Among his subjects have been three presidents (Wilson, Harding, Coolidge), a czar of Bulgaria and king of Portugal. Member of Ehlers Lodge No. 953, N.Y.C., he was master of his lodge in 1953.


            Francois Ras pail (1794-1878) French scientist and politician. He was involved in revolutionary activities in 1830 and again in 1848. In the latter year he was arrested and banished from the country, but returned to France in 1859 after a general amnesty. Among his books are Monoire sur les Graminees, Nouveau Systeme de Chimie Organique and Nouvelles Etudes Scientifiques.  He was a member of the lodge Les Amis Reunis of the Grand Orient of France and served as its grand orator for many years.


            Henry R. Rathbone (1870-1928) U.S. Congressman to 68th through 70th Congresses, 1923-29, from Ill. b. Feb. 12, 1870 in Washington, D.C. His father and mother were in the box at Ford's Theatre with President Lincoln when the later was assassinated. Graduate of Yale in 1892 and U. of Wisconsin in 1894. Began law practice in Chicago in 1895. Member of Kenwood Lodge No. 800, Chicago, and both York and Scottish rites. d. July 15, 1928.


            Payne H. Ratner Governor of Kansas, 1939-42. b. Oct. 3, 1896 in Casey, Ill. Graduate of Kemper Military School (Mo.) and Washington U. (St. Louis). Admitted to bar in 1920, and was in general practice at Parsons until 1939. He was county attorney of Labette Co. and state senator from same. Raised May 30, 1940 in Siloam Lodge No. 225, Topeka. Knight Templar, Shriner, and received 32° AASR (SJ) at Topeka, Nov. 6, 1940.


            Francis Rawdon (see 2nd Earl of Moira).


            John A. Rawlins (1831-1869) Union Major General in Civil War; Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, 1865; U.S. Secretary of War, 1869. b. Feb. 13, 1831 in East Galena, Ill. Studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1854, practicing at Galena. It was after listening to a speech by Rawlins that U. S. Grant offered his services to the country, and when given command of a brigade on Aug. 7, 1861, offered the post of aide-de-camp to Rawlins. He was constantly with Grant from that time until the end of the war, and although he had never seen a company of uniformed soldiers, became a top-ranking military expert, and the closest confidant of Grant. Became a member of Miners Lodge No.273, Galena, Ill., July 26, 1865. d. Sept. 9, 1869.


            Richard Rawlinson (1689-1755) English scholar and Fellow of the Royal Society. b. in London in 1689, he was noted for his large and valuable collections of old manuscripts and books on Freemasonry. His Masonic literature is now deposited in the Bodleian Library of Oxford. He was initiated about 1726, his name appearing in rosters of four London lodges; was grand steward in 1734. He was consecrated a nonjuring bishop of the Church of England on March 25, 1728. d. April 6, 1755.


            Albert L. Rawson (1828-1902) Artist, author, scholar and one of the founders of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. b. Oct. 15, 1828 in Chester, Vt. Received D.D. and LL.D. at Christ Coll., Oxford, England; M.D. from the Sorbonne, Paris. Studied law under Wm. H. Seward, q.v., medicine under Prof. Webster of Mass. Medical Coll., and theology under "Elder" Graves. He made several visits to the Orient, and on a pilgrimage from Cairo to Mecca with the annual caravan, disguised as a Mohammedan medical student. He traveled in Yucatan and in Hudson's Bay region. He was adopted as a brother by Adwan Bedouins of Moab; initiated by the Druses on Mt. Lebanon; was one of the two founders of the Shrine and one of the four founders of the Theosophical Society in the U.S. at one time he was alderman for the 15th ward in N.Y.C. As a painter, he painted portraits of Queen Victoria, Louis Napoleon, Empress Eugenie, and many others. He illustrated Beechers', Deem's, and Crosby's books on the life of Christ as well as many other books. Among his books are Divine Origin of the Holy Bible; Stella and Other Novels; Vocabularies and Dictionaries of Arabic, Persian and Turkish; Bible Handbook; Ruins and Relics of the Orient; Antiquities of the Orient; Scarlet Book of Freemasonry; History of All Religions; History of Quakers; History of Protestantism, etc., and also rituals for many secret societies. He was general for life in the Society of Rosy Cross; 32° AASR and had received the 95 degrees of the Rite of Memphis. d. 1902.


            Sir Harry Holdsworth Rawson British Admiral and Governor of New South Wales, 1906-09. He served as grand master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales at same time he was governor.


            James B. Ray (1794-1848) Governor of Indiana, 1825-31. b. Feb. 19, 1794 in Jefferson Co., Ky. After studying law in Cincinnati, he began law practice in Brookville, Ind. In 1822 he was elected to the legislature, where he frequently served as president pro tempore. In 1826 he was appointed U.S. commissioner with Lewis Cass, q.v., and John Tipton, q.v., to treat with the Miami and Pottawattamie Indians for the purchase of lands in Indiana. In his later years he became very eccentric. He was a member of Brookville-Harmony Lodge No. 11, Brookville, Ind. and at one time was secretary of the lodge. d. Aug. 4, 1848.


            John J. Ray (1845-1952) World's oldest Freemason. b. Sept. 2, 1845 in Orange Co., N. Car., he went to Texas in a covered wagon. He was initiated March 7, 1868 in Gravel Hill, Tenn. He was past grand master of the Grand Council, R. & S.M. of Texas and was active in York Rite Masonry until a short time before his death. On the eve of his 100th birthday he conferred a chapter degree, and on Sept. 1, 1945 the Grand Chapter R.A.M. of Texas called a special convocation in his honor. At the time of his death on May 7, 1952, he was 106 years old and had been a Mason for 84 years.


            Sam Rayburn Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives in 77th-79th, 81st, 82nd, 84th-86th Congresses and Democratic majority leader of the 75th-77th Congresses. b. Jan. 6, 1882 in Roane Co., Tenn. Graduate of East Texas Coll. and studied law at U. of Texas. Began law practice in Bonham, Texas. He was a member of the Texas lower house 6 years and speaker of same for two years. He received the Entered Apprentice degree only, Aug. 7, 1922, in Constantine Lodge No. 13, Bonham, Texas.


            Edward A. Raymond (1791-1864) Grand Commander of the Northern Supreme Council AASR; Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 1848-51; Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Massachusetts; Grand Master of the Grand Encampment, K.T. of Massachusetts. b. Feb. 6, 1791 in Holden, Mass. He became a Mason, Jan. 15, 1816, in Amicable Lodge of Cambridge, Mass.; admitted a member of Saint Johns Lodge, Boston, April 2, 1836; on Nov. 24, 1843, affiliated with Massachusetts Lodge. He was a man of considerable wealth. d. Aug. 4, 1864.


            Fred M. Raymond (1876-1946) Federal Judge, Western District of Michigan from 1925. b. March 22, 1876 in Ottawa Co., Mich. Admitted to the bar in 1899 and practiced at Grand Rapids, Mich. Received degrees in Berlin Lodge No. 248, Marne, Mich., Sept. 22, Oct. 13, Nov. 10, 1900. Affiliated with York Lodge No. 410, Grand Rapids, Mich. on Aug. 27, 1915, becoming a life member April 7, 1941. Received 33° AASR (NJ) and was a Shriner. d. Feb. 6, 1946.


            Harry H. Raymond (1864-1935) Steamship executive. b. Dec. 16, 1864 in Yarmouth, N.S., Canada, coming to the U.S. in 1884, and naturalized in 1892. He was with Mallory Steamship Co. from 1885, and was president of same in 1914, and afterward chairman of the board. He was also chairman of the board of the Clyde Steamship Co., Puerto Rico Steamship Co., and Cuba Mail Steamship Co. President of Colombian Steamship Co. and director of Eastern Steamship Lines. Member of Montauk Lodge No. 286, Brooklyn, N.Y., receiving degrees on Oct. 11, 25, Nov. 8, 1905. d. Dec. 27, 1935.


            Maurice Raymond (1879-1948) Magician, known as "The Great Raymond." b. May 30, 1879 at Akron, Ohio. Made many world tours and appeared before such crowned heads as King Edward VII, King George V, King of Siam, King of Italy, Czar of Russia, Mikado of Japan, Emperor of China, and was court illusionist to King Alfonso XIII of Spain. His membership in Freemasonry was likewise world-wide. He was a member of Perseverance Lodge No. 338, Bombay, India, Royal Arch chapter in Calcutta, Royal and Select council and Cornmandery, K.T. in Balboa, Canal Zone, and the 32° AASR (SJ), at Los Angeles, April 13, 1932. Shriner. d. Jan. 27, 1948.


            Robert, 2nd Lord Raymond Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) in 1739.


            Isador Rayner (1850-1912) U.S. Senator and U.S. Representative from Maryland. b. April 11, 1850 in Baltimore. Graduate of U. of Virginia in 1869, and admitted to bar in 1871, practicing at Baltimore. Member of state senate, 1884-86, resigning to become U.S. congressman, 1887-89 and 1891-95. Was attorney general of Maryland, 1899-1903, and U.S. Senator, 1905-12. Member of Mystic Circle Lodge No. 109, Baltimore, Md. d. Nov. 25, 1912.


            Kenneth Rayner (1808-1884) U.S. Congressman to 26th through 28th Congresses, 1839-45, from N. Car. b. June 20, 1808 in Bertie Co., N. Car. Attended Tarborough Academy, studied law, and was admitted to the barin 1829. He then moved to Hertford Co., where he practiced. Member of state constitutional convention in 1835, and served five terms in state house of commons. Served in state senate in 1854. Member of American George Lodge No. 17 at Murfreesboro, N.C.; was a delegate to the Washington Masonic Convention in 1842. d. March 4, 1884.


            George Read (1733-1798) Signer of Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. First U.S. Senator from Delaware. b. Sept. 17, 1733 in Cecil Co., Md. Admitted to the bar at age of 19 in Philadelphia, moving to Newcastle, Del. in 1754. He was attorney general of Kent, Delaware, and Sussex counties in 1763-64, resigning to become a member of the first congress at Philadelphia. Was president of the first naval committee in 1775; of the Constitutional Convention in 1776; author of the first constitution of Delaware. He was one of the two men who signed the three great state papers that underlie the foundations of our government-the original petition of the 1st congress to the king, the Declaration, and the Constitution. He was U.S. senator from Delaware for two terms, 1789-93, resigning to become chief justice of Delaware. His Masonic membership has not been definitely established. There is a record in Philadelphia of a George Read being admitted a member of Lodge No. 3 on Dec. 7, 1782. A dues ledger is also shown for him. He was admitted as a member of Lodge No. 33, New Castle, Del., Feb. 2, 1792, and his dues record is complete to Dec., 1798, with notation at that time of six years and nine months membership. Since he died Sept. 21, 1798, this would seem to be the Signer. His son, George Read, Jr., q.v., was deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Delaware, and his grandson, John M. Read, q.v., became grand master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. d. Sept. 21, 1798.


            George Read, Jr. Son of George Read, q.v., the Signer. Served as U.S. district attorney of Delaware for 30 years. Was a member of Lodge No. 14 at Wilmington (under Pa.), later dimitting to Lodge No. 33 at New Castle. He was master of St. John's Lodge No. 2 under the Grand Lodge of Delaware. In Nov., 1823, he delivered an oration before Union Lodge No. 5 (Del.) Was deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Delaware in 1813. His son, William T. Read, q.v., became grand master of the Grand Lodge of Delaware in 1850-51.


            John Meredith Read (1797-1874) Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, 186074. b. July 21, 1797 in Philadelphia, the grandson of Signer George Read, q.v. Graduate of U. of Pennsylvania in 1812 and admitted to the bar in 1818. Member of Pa. legislature in 1822-23; U.S. district attorney for Eastern Pa., 1837-44. In 1860 he was a leading contender for Republican presidential nomination. The friends of Lincoln were prepared to back him for president and Lincoln for vice president, but local Pa. politics upset this ticket. Received degrees in Franklin Lodge No. 134, Philadelphia on Dec. 15, 1821, Jan. 9, June 15, 1822. Dimitted to Lodge No. 51, Philadelphia on Nov. 30, 1835. Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1836-37. d. Nov. 29, 1874.


            John Meredith Read, Jr. (18371896) Diplomat. b. Feb. 21, 1837 in Philadelphia. His father of the same name, q.v., was chief justice of the supreme court of Pa., and his great grandfather, George Read, q.v., was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Graduate of Brown U. and Albany Law School, he studied international law in Europe. He moved to Albany, N.Y. and was adjutant general of that state in 1860-66. Was cited for his ability in organizing, equipping and forwarding troops for the Civil War. He was the first U.S. consul-general for France and Algeria in 1869-73, and acting consul-general for Germany during the Franco-German War. In 1873 he was appointed U.S. minister resident in Greece, serving until 1879. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, Providence, RI., receiving degrees on May 5, 12, June 21, 1858. Received the 33° AASR in Greece in 1878.


            William T. Read (1792-1873) Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Delaware in 1850-51. b. Aug. 22, 1792, the son of George Read, Jr., qv. and grandson of George Read, q.v., the Signer. He wrote Life and Correspondence of George Read in 1870. He was a lawyer, state senator and secretary of the legation of the U.S. in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Graduate of Princeton and admitted to bar in 1813. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 2, at New Castle, Del. in 1813 and master in 1816, 1822, 1823. Withdrew to form Jefferson Lodge No. 15 on June 27, 1825 and was charter master. Due to the Morgan incident, St. John's Lodge and Jefferson Lodge both became inactive. Upon the revival of St. John's on June 27, 1848, he became master again. He was grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of Delaware, 1824-29 and served in other offices of the grand lodge line before becoming grand master. d. Jan. 27, 1873.


            John H. Reagan (1818-1905) U.S. Senator and U.S. Congressman from Texas. b. Oct. 8, 1818 in Sevierville, Tenn. Attended common schools and private academies. Joined the Army and participated in the campaigns against the Cherokees. He was deputy surveyor of public lands from 183943; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1846, and practiced in Buffalo and Palestine, Texas. Was a member of the state house of representatives, 1847-49; judge of the district court, 1852-57. He served in the 35th and 36th U.S. congresses, 1857-61, and in 1861 was elected to the secession convention of Texas. He was deputy to the provisional congress of the Confederacy, and was appointed postmaster-general of the Confederacy in 1861, serving in that capacity until the close of the war. He was also acting secretary of the treasury of the Confederacy for a short time preceding the close of the war. In 1875 he was a member of the state constitutional convention. He was elected to the 44th-49th congresses and had been elected to the 50th, but resigned to become U.S. senator. He served in the senate from 1887 until he resigned in 1891. He was initiated in Austin Lodge No. 12, Austin, Texas, and later affiliated with Palestine Lodge No. 31, Palestine, Texas, and served as its master. When Palestine Commandery No. 3, K.T. of Palestine, Texas was organized on June 8, 1853, the orders were conferred upon Reagan. Sam Houston was present and participated in the organization and the conferring of the orders. Reagan is recorded as having delivered an address before Washington Commandery No. 1, Washington, D.C. in 1879. d. March 6, 1905.


            Alfred E. Reames (1870-1943) U.S. Senator from Oregon, Feb. 1 to Nov. 8, 1938. b. Feb. 5, 1870 in Jacksonville, Oreg. Attended U. of the Pacific (Calif.) and U. of Oregon. Graduated in law from Washington and Lee U. (Va.) in 1893, and began practice of law in Eugene, Oreg. He later practiced in Portland, Medford, and Jacksonville. He was also engaged in mining. He was appointed to the U.S. senate to fill a vacancy, and was not a candidate for reelection. Member of Warren Lodge No. 10, (Oreg.) receiving degrees on June 11, July 9, Aug. 31, 1892. d. March 4, 1943.


            Ellsworth Reamon President of the Universalist Church of Americasince 1943. b. July 6, 1895 in Fort Plain, N.Y. Holds three degrees from St. Lawrence U., Canton, N.Y. Held pastorates in Minneapolis, Minn., 1921-27; Lansing, Mich., 1927-32; and Syracuse, N.Y. from 1932. Was president of the National Young People's Christian Union, 1923-26. Mason.


            Frazier Reams U.S. Congressman to 82nd-83rd Congresses from 9th Ohio dist. b. Jan. 15, 1897 in Franklin, Tenn. Graduate of U. of Tennessee in 1919 and Vanderbilt U. in 1922. Admitted to Ohio bar in 1922, and since practiced in Toledo. Has been president and director of The Community Broadcasting Co. (WTOL) since 1937, and president of the American Bank, Port Clinton, Ohio, 1947-48. Was U.S. collector of internal revenue, 1942-43, and director of public welfare of Ohio in 1945-46. Affiliated with Pyramid Lodge No. 701, Toledo, Ohio on May 10, 1926 from Lodge No. 686 of Tenn. Shriner.


            Charles F. Reavis (1870-1932) U.S. Congressman to 64th-67th Congresses, 1915-22, from Nebraska. b. Sept. 5, 1870 in Falls City, Nebr. Attended Northwestern U., studied law and admitted to the bar in 1892, practicing at Falls City, Nebr. until 1924, when he moved to Lincoln. Member of Falls City Lodge No. 9 and Eureka Chapter No. 5, R.A.M. of Falls City, Nebr. Suspended in both prior to death on May 26, 1932.


            Emmanuel Rebold French physician and deputy to the Grand Orient of France. He was the author of A General History of Freemasonry, which was translated from French to English.


            Milton A. Reckord Major General and Adjutant General of Maryland. b. Dec. 28, 1879 in Harford Co., Md. He enlisted in the National Guard in 1901, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1924 and major general•in 1934. Was in Federal service in WWI. In WWII he assumed command of the 29th Division, training at Ft. George G. Meade, Md. He was provost marshal general of the European Theater, 1943-45; commanding general of 3rd Corps Area, and on duty in office of chief of staff, Washington, D.C. from June until Nov., 1945, when he retired from active duty. Adjutant general of Maryland since Nov., 1945. Initiated Feb. 23, 1904 in Mt. Ararat Lodge No. 44, Bel Air, Md. and suspended NPD, Jan. 4, 1944.


            Anton P. Reclam (1807-1896) Famous publisher of Leipzig, Germany. His internationally know "Reclam Books" are still in print. He opened his printing plant in 1839 to bring good books at low prices to his readers. In 1867 he formed the "Universal Library." He joined the lodge Minerva zu den Three Palmen in Leipzig and later founded the lodge Phaenig in the same city. He was active Masonically until the last days of his life.


            Jean J. Elisee Reclus (1830-1905) French geographer and author of many books on travel including The World, and Universal Geography. Bulletin of the International Masonic Congress of 1917 lists him as a Freemason.


            Red Jacket (1751-1830) Seneca Indian Chief. A contemporary of Joseph Brant, q.v., and after Brant's death, the most important chief of the Six Nations. Before his elevation to chieftainship of the Wolf clan his name was Otetiani, meaning "prepared." On his advancement he was named Sagoyewatha, or "he who keeps them awake." He was famed as an orator and was champion of the Indian tribal customs, langtiage, dress, and religion. He was particularly antagonistic to missionaries and the Christian religion. Chief Brant had only contempt for Red Jacket, and named him "cow killer." Chief Corn-planter called him a coward. In the Revolutionary War, he sided with the British who gave him a red coat, from which was derived his English name. In the War of 1812 he sided with the United States. Washington presented him with a medal. His Masonic membership has never been established, but it is thought he was an Entered Apprentice, being initiated in an army lodge—possibly British. This is the opinion held by the late Dr. Arthur C. Parker, q.v., whose grandfather, Nicholson H. Parker was a grandnephew of Red Jacket. Red Jacket owned a silver Masonic medal which passed down through his family. General Ely S. Parker, q.v., grandnephew of Red Jacket, who inherited his tribal honors as chief, also believed that his illustrious ancestor was a Freemason. d. Jan. 30, 1830 at Seneca Village, N.Y.


            B. Carroll Reece U.S. Congressman to 67th-71st Congresses, 1921-31; 73rd-79th Congresses, 1933-47, and 82nd-86th Congresses, 1953-61, from 1st Tenn. dist.; chairman of the Republican National Committee, 1946-49. b. Dec. 22, 1889 in Butler, Tenn. Attended Carson and Newman Coll., New York U., and U. of London. Was instructor of economics and director of the school of commerce at New York U., 1916-20. Is chairman of board of several Tenn. banks and publisher of the Bristol (Tenn.) Herald. Served as an Infantry officer in WWI overseas; decorated with D.S.C. and D.S.M. Regent of the Smithsonian Institution. Member of Roan Creek Lodge No. 679, Butler, Tenn.; Thomas E. Matson Chapter No. 131, R.A.M., and Watauga Commandery No. 25, K.T., both of Johnson City; 32° AASR (SJ) at Memphis, and Kerbela Shrine Temple at Knoxville.


            Chauncey W. Reed (1890-1956) U.S. Congressman to 74th-84th Congresses from 14th dist. b. June 2, 1890 in West Chicago, Ill. Student at Northwestern U. and graduate of Webster Coll. of Law in 1915. Practiced law at Wheaton, 1:11. Served as sergeant in Army during WWI. Raised March 7, 1914 in Amity Lodge No. 472, West Chicago, III. and later a member of Euclid Lodge No. 65 at Naperville, Ill. d. Feb. 9, 1956.


            Daniel A. Reed (1875-1959) U.S. Congressman to 66th-80th Congresses, 1919-48, and 82nd-85th Congresses, 1951-58, from 43rd N.Y. dist. b. Sept. 15, 1875 in Sheridan, N.Y. Graduate of Cornell U. in 1898, and began law practice at Dunkirk, N.Y. Member of Irondequoit Lodge No. 301, Dunkirk, N.Y. receiving degrees on April 18, May 2, 23, 1902. d. Feb. 19, 1959.


            David A. Reed (1880-1953) U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania, 1922-35. b. Dec. 21, 1880 in Pittsburgh, Pa. Graduate of Princeton U. in 1900. Served in Field Artillery as a major in WWI. Member of American Battle Monuments Commission, 1923-48. Member of .Fellowship Lodge No. 679, Pittsburgh, receiving degrees on May 4, June 3, July 15, 1915. Also a Royal Arch Mason. d. Feb. 13, 1953.


            Earl H. Reed (1863-1931) Artist. b. July 5, 1863 in Geneva, Ill. Exhibited in Paris and principal cities of U.S. His etchings are in the permanent collections of the Congressional Library, Washington, D.C.; New York Public Library; Toledo Museum of Art; Detroit Museum of Art; Art Institute of Chicago; St. Louis Museum of Art. Mason. d. July 9, 1931.


            Franklin H. Reed (1880-1931) Philanthropist. b. Jan. 20, 1880 in Geneva, Ind. Practiced law at Morris, Ill., 1902-05, and at Wewoka, Indian Territory (Okla.), 1905-17. After 1917 he devoted his time to personal investments, owning extensive tracts of oil producing land in Oklahoma. He was the donor of wading pools for children in many cities of Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri. Parks named in his honor are at Tulsa, Oklahoma City, Sapulpa and Grandfield, Okla. Affiliated with Delta Lodge No. 425, Tulsa, Okla. on Dec. 18, 1917 and dimitted Oct. 9, 1924. d. Oct. 9, 1931.


            Henry M. Reed (1880-1947) President and chairman of board of American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corp. from 1930. b. Sept. 16, 1880 in Milvale, Pa. Began with Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co. in 1902 as an enamel mixer. Member of Bellevue Lodge No. 530, Bellevue, Pa., receiving degrees on Feb. 15, March 15 and April 26, 1909. 32° AASR (NJ), Shriner and Jester. d. Aug. 12, 1947.


            Henry M. Reed, Jr. President of General Plywood Corp., Louisville, 1953-56; president of Show Pieces, Inc.; Satin Surfaces, Inc., and D. A. Clark Veneers, Ltd. b. Sept. 17, 1903 in Pittsburgh. Graduate of U. of Pittsburgh in 1926. Employed by the American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corp. from 1926-53, becoming vice president and general manager of manufacturing. Mason.


            James A. Reed (1861-1944) U.S. Senator from Missouri, 1911-28. b. Nov. 9, 1861 on a farm near Mansfield, Ohio, moving with parents to Cedar Rapids, Iowa in 1864. Attended Coe Coll., Cedar Rapids, studied law and began practice in Cedar Rapids in 1885, moving to Kansas City, Mo. in 1887. Was mayor of Kansas City, 1900-04. Was not a candidate for reelection to senate in 1928, resuming law practice in Kansas City. He received only two degrees in Temple Lodge No. 299, Kansas City; Entered Apprentice, Dec. 11, 1909, and Fellow-craft, Dec. 20, 1910. He was prevented from advancing by objections originating in Iowa. d. Sept. 8, 1944.


            James B. Reed (1881-1935) U.S. Congressman to 68th-70th Congresses, 1923-29, from 6th Ark. Dist. b. Jan. 2, 1881, near Lonoke, Ark. Was a public school teacher, prosecuting attorney, and served in state house of representatives in 1907. Raised in Lonoke Lodge No. 51, Lonoke, Ark. on July 20, 1909. Suspended NPD, Aug. 12, 1930. d. April 27, 1935.


            James Frazier Reed (1800-1874) Organizer of the ill-fated Reed-Donner Party. b. Nov. 14, 1800 in Armagh, Ireland. Brought to America as a small boy, living first in Va., and in 1831 moving to Illinois. First settled at Galena but later moved to Springfield, where he became a leading citizen, merchant, furniture manufacturer and farmer. He became interested in Fremont's exploration of Calif. and joined with his neighbors, George and Jacob Donner, to form a party to migrate to Calif. They left Springfield April 15, 1846 and joined a larger party at Independence, Mo., leaving there on May 11. His party, with others, attempted a short cut across the salt desert, but lost a full month and nearly died of thirst. Here Reed killed a desert-maddened teamster, John Snyder, in self defense. For this he was banished from the party without weapons and with very little food. His stepdaughter, Virginia, slipped out of camp at night and took his rifle to him, or otherwise he would have perished. He forged on with a Walter Herron, whom he picked up from one of the wagons which had gone ahead, and made his way through the Sierra Nevada mountains to Sutter's Fort to obtain relief for the rest of the party. By the time the Donner Party reached the mountains, the last semblance of organization was gone. They were trapped at 6,000 feet with deep snow, and half of their 80 members were dead of cold and starvation. A relief party broke through to them, and another party, headed by Reed, arrived a few days later. The Reed family first lived in Napa, but when they recovered from their ordeal, moved to San Jose in1848, where he became an influential citizen. Reed was a member of Springfield Lodge No. 4 and Springfield Chapter No. 4, R.A.M., of Illinois. On July 11, 1850 he was one of 15 Masons of San Jose to petition the Grand Lodge of Calif. far dispensation to open a lodge in that city. However, when San Jose Lodge, U.D., received its charter four months later, he was not listed as a charter member, though a page was set aside for his name in the dues book. He did, however, become first treasurer of Howard Chapter No. 14, R.A.M. when it was organized in 1856. He remained a member of the lodge and chapter at Springfield until his death. d. July 24, 1874.


            Joseph Reed (1741-1785) Revolutionary War patriot; Governor of Pennsylvania. b. Aug. 27, 1741 in Trenton, N.J. Graduate of Princeton U. in 1757, and admitted to bar in 1763. First practiced in Trenton, N.J. Moved to Philadelphia, where he became active in Pre-Revolutionary plans. He was a member of the committee of correspondence in 1774, and was president of the 2nd Provincial congress. He was chosen lieutenant colonel of Pa. troops after the Battle of Lexington, and when Washington was appointed to command the American Army Reed became his military secretary. He was appointed adjutant general of the American Army in June, 1776, with rank of colonel, and was active in the campaign that terminated in the Battle of Long Island. In 1777 he was appointed brigadier general and tendered command of the American cavalry; about the same time he was appointed first chief justice of Pa., but declined both appointments, preferring to remain attached to Washington's headquarters as a volunteer aide without rank or pay. He served with credit at the battles of Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. Was elected to the


20 Thomas B. Reed Continental congress in 1777, but continued with the army. In Dec., 1778, he was chosen president of the supreme executive council of Pa. and continued in that office for three years. This was equivalent to the governorship, at that time. He aided in the founding of the U. of Pennsylvania; favored the gradual abolition of slavery and elimination of the proprietary powers of the Penn family. In 1784 he was elected to congress, but never took his seat. Member of Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia. d. March 5, 1785.


            Marshall R. Reed Methodist Bishop. b. Sept. 15, 1891 at Onsted, Mich. Graduate of Albion (Mich.) Coll., 1914; Garrett Bibl. Inst. (111.), 1916; Northwestern U. in 1917. Ordained to Methodist ministry in 1917 and served churches in Gains, Onaway, Detroit, and Ypsilanti, Mich. until 1948, when he was elected bishop and assigned to the Detroit area. Member of Ionic Lodge No. 474, Detroit; Redford Chapter No. 176, R.A.M., Redford, Mich.; and Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T., Detroit.


            Philip Reed (1760?-1829) Officer of American Revolution and War of 1812; U.S. Congressman and U.S. Senator from Maryland. b. about 1760 in Kent Co., Md., he served as a captain in the Revolution. A U.S. senator from Md. from 1906-13. As a colonel of militia, he defeated the British at Moorefields, Md. on Aug. 30, 1814. Was U.S. congressman from Md. from 1817-19 and 1822-23. Was a member of Lodge No. 2, Chestertown, Md., and at one time served as its junior warden. d. Nov. 2, 1829.


            Robert R. Reed (1855-1923) Justice, Supreme Court of Louisiana in 1923. b. March 12, 1855 in Madison Co., Miss. Attended V.M.I. at Lexington, Va. Admitted to bar in 1877, and practiced at Amite, La. the remainder of his life. Reed served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M., and grand commander of the Grand Commandery, K.T. of Louisiana. He was in office as supreme court justice only 14 days when he died, Jan. 14, 1923.


            Stanley F. Reed Justice, U.S. Supreme Court from 1938. b. Dec. 31, 1884 in Mason Co., Ky. Graduate of Kentucky Wesleyan Coll. in 1902 and Yale U., 1906. Admitted to bar in 1910, and he began practice at Maysville, Ky. From 1933-38 he was solicitor general of the U.S. Served as first lieut. in WWI. Member of Maysville Lodge No. 52, Maysville, Ky., and was present in Washington, D.C. on Dec. 16, 1941, when General George C. Marshall, q.v., was raised.


            Stuart F. Reed (1866-1935) U.S. Congressman, 65th-68th Congresses, 1917-25, from 3rd W. Va. dist. b. Jan. 8, 1866 in Barbour Co., W. Va. Graduate of West Virginia U. in 1889 and Ph.D. from Salem Coll. in 1911. Editor the Telegram at Clarksburg, W. Va. from 1890-98. Founder and editor of the Athenaeum, a college journal, in 1889. Postmaster of Clarksburg, 18971901, and member of state senate, 1895-99. Member of Hermon Lodge No. 6, Clarksburg, W. Va. as early as 1894. Suspended NPD in Aug., 1933 and records do not indicate a reinstatement. Was a past commander and Shriner. d. July 4, 1935.


            Thomas B. Reed (1787-1829) U.S. Senator from Mississippi, 1826-27 and 1829. b. May 7, 1787 near Lexington, Ky. Attended Princeton, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1808, first practicing at Lexington, Ky., but moving to Natchez, Miss, in 1809. From 1821-26 he was attorney general of Miss. Member of Harmony Lodge No. 2, Natchez, Miss. d. Nov. 26, 1829 in Lexington, Ky., while on his way to Washington, D.C.


            Edward H. Rees U.S. Congressman to 75th through 86th Congresses, 1937-60, from 4th Kansas dist. b. June, 1886 in Emporia, Kans. Was a school teacher from 1909-11; court clerk, 1912-18; admitted to bar in 1915. Member of lower house, Kansas, 1925-31, and of state senate 193335. Member of Emporia Lodge No. 12 and Emporia Chapter No. 12. R.A.M., both of Emporia, Kans. Received 33° AASR (SJ) in 1957. Shriner.


            William H. Rees (1882-1952) Chief Justice, Kentucky Court of Appeals, 1933-35; 1941-42; 1945-47. b. Aug. 30, 1882 in Maysville, Ky. Graduate of Kentucky Wesleyan Coll., Vanderbilt U., and U. of Virginia. Began law practice in Maysville, Ky. in 1908. Served on Kentucky court of appeals from 1926 until his retirement in 1951. Mason. d. Aug. 2, 1952.


            Edwin B. Reeser (1873- ) Former president of Barnsdall Oil Co. b. July 15, 1873 in New Ringgold, Pa. Also former president of American Petroleum Institute. Received degrees in Fellowship Lodge No. 679 of Pa. on Sept. 11, Oct. 9, Nov. 13, 1894 and affiliated with Phoenix Lodge No. 73, Sisterville, W. Va. and later with Rock Lodge No. 513, Tulsa, Okla.


            Albert L. Reeves Federal Judge District of Western Missouri from 1923. b. Dec. 21, 1873 in Steelville, Mo. and graduate of Steelville Coll. in 1895. Admitted to bar in 1899 and practiced at Steelville. Member of state house of representatives, 190102; commissioner of supreme court of Mo., 1921-23. Member of Lebanon Lodge No. 77, receiving degrees on Jan. 18, Feb. 18, March 15, 1897. Knight Templar, 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner.


            Dr. Regalado A Catholic priest of Puerto Planta, Dominican Republic (then Santo Domingo), who was a Freemason and 33° AASR. When the Spanish authorities persecuted Freemasonry, the brethren met in caves near Trujillo, in one of which Tomas Bobadilla y Briones received the degrees. Later, Dr. Regalado was founder of the grand lodge and was grand commander of the supreme council.


            Kenneth M. Regan U.S. Congressman to 80th Congress, 1947-49, from 16th Texas dist. b. March 6, 1893 in Mount Morris, Ill. In real estate and oil business in Texas since 1920. Served in state senate, 1933-37. Served in both WWI and WWII. Mason and Shriner.


            Robert S. Regar (1882-1955) Postal official. b. Jan. 15, 1882 in Swartzville, Pa. Graduate of Georgetown U. in 1912 and admitted to D.C. bar. With post office department from 1918. Third assistant postmaster general, 1925-29, and administrative assistant to postmaster general, 1929-33. Later superintendent of office procedure. Knight Templar, Shriner, 33° AASR (SJ). Grand master of Grand Lodge of District of Columbia in 1935; potentate of Almas Shrine Temple in 1930. Member of Red Cross of Constantine and Grotto. His lodge was The New Jerusalem No. 9 of Washington, D.C. d. Oct. 21, 1955.


            Sam N. Regenstreif Vice President Philco Corp. (manufacturing appliance division) and President and director of Rex Manufacturing Co. b. in Vienna, Austria. Was consulting management engineer, specializing in management policies of numerous policies of numerous corporations, Indianapolis, 1931-39. Member of Warren Lodge No. 15, Connersville, Ind., receiving degrees on Sept. 9, Oct. 21, 28, 1948.


            Due de Reggio (see under Oudinot).


            M. Reghellini (circa 1780-1855) A Masonic writer, born of Venetian parents, on the Island of Scio. He is therefore usually styled Reghellini de Scio. Outside of his Masonic writings, little is known of him. He settled in Brussels. In 1834 he published Examination of Mosaicism and of Christianity, and his opinions in this are considered quite unorthodox. His first book on Freemasonry, entitled Spirit of the Dogma of Freemasonry, Studies on Its Origin and Theses of Its Various Rites, was published in 1826. This was followed in 1833 by Freemasonry Considered as the Result of Egyptian, Jewish, and Christian Religions. Here he attempts to trace Freemasonry and the Mosaic religion to the religion of early Egypt. From 1822-29 he edited Literary and Historical Chronological Record of Freemasonry in the Low Countries. He was reduced to penury, and in Aug., 1855, entered a poor house at Brussels, where he died shortly thereafter.


            George S. Register Federal Judge, District of North Dakota from 1955. b. Nov. 27, 1901 in Bismarck, N. Dak. Graduate of Jamestown Coll. in 1923 and U. of Michigan in 1926. Admitted to bar in 1928, practicing at Bismarck. Served as states attorney general and special assistant attorney general. Member of Bismarck Lodge No. 5, receiving degrees on Feb. 29, April 4, May 2, 1932; 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner.


            Claude Ambroise Regnier (17461814) Duc de Massa. A French statesman. He was a member of the States General in 1789 and was appointed counselor of the state by Napoleon. In 1802-03 he was minister of justice. Was a grand officer of the Supreme Council, of France.


            Frank H. Reichel Business executive. b. Jan. 30, 1897 in Saegertown, Pa. Graduate of Allegheny Coll. in 1915 and 1916; Harvard, 1917; U. of Geneva, Switzerland in 1921. A research chemist, he was with Sylvania Industrial Corp., Fredericksburg, Va.,from 1922 and president of same, 1938-46. In 1946 was president and chairman of American Viscose Corp. Presently chairman of board of Ketchikan Pulp Co., director of Chemstrand Corp., National Bank of Philadelphia, Provident Mutual Life Ins. Co., Baltimore & Eastern R.R., and trustee of Allegheny Coll. Mason.


            Albert T. Reid (1873-1955) Publisher, writer, artist. b. Aug. 12, 1873 in Concordia, Kans. Studied at U. of Kansas and New York School of Art. Was artist for Kansas City Star, 189799; with Chicago Record, 1899, the New York Herald, Judge, McClure's, Saturday Evening Post, American and other magazines between 1900-15. He founded and published the Leavenworth (Kans.) Post, 1905-23; was president of Standard Farm Papers Assn., 1914-15; president and publisher of Kansas Farmer, Topeka, 1908-16; owner of the Albert T. Reid Syndicate from 1919. He painted murals on "romance of the mail" for post offices in Sabetha and Olathe, Kans. and Sulphur, Okla. Painted Coronado Entrada for the Coronado Quarto-Centennial in 1941; Meeting of the Two Great Emancipators, Vincennes (Ind.); Custer Rides From Ft. Hays; Pawnee Rock Indian Attack; and others. Awarded San Francisco Expedition and George Washington bi-centennial medals; cited by Kansas State Historical Society; received grand prize for mural at San Fran- cisco Exposition. Mason, 32° AASR (SJ). d. Nov. 26, 1955.


            Charles S. Reid (1897-1947) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Georgia, 1938-43. b. Sept. 25, 1897 in Blairsville, Ga. Was bank teller and cashier from 1917-22, when he was admitted to the bar and practiced at Gainesville, Ga. Served in WWII as colonel, U.S. Army, was chief of property control branch of the military government in Germany, and chairman of the advisory board to I.G. Farbenindustrie. Received all three degrees in Sept., 1919 in Allegheny Lodge No. 114, Blairsville, Ga. Dimitted June 6, 1922 to Gainesville Lodge No. 219, Gainesville, Ga. and again dimitted in 1935 and affiliated with W. D. Luckie Lodge No. 89, Atlanta on May 3, 1940. Knight Templar and Shriner. d. Nov. 7, 1947.


            Edward C. Reid (1900-1958) President and Director of American Writing Paper Corp. since 1952. b. Nov. 12, 1900 in N.Y.C. Graduate of New York U. in 1923. Was in purchasing departments of American Chicle Co. and Snider Packing Corp. until 1937, when he became associated with the American Writing Paper Corp. Trustee of Mechanic Savings Bank since 1948. Member of Stuyvesant Lodge No. 745, N.Y.C. from 1921. d. Nov. 11, 1958.


            Frank R. Reid (1879-1945) U.S. Congressman to 68th-73rd Congresses, 1923-35, from 11th Ill. dist. b. April 19, 1879 at Aurora, Ill. Admitted to Ill. bar in 1901, and served as county attorney, state's attorney, and assistant U.S. attorney. Member of state lower house, 1911-12. He resigned his seat in congress in Jan., 1934, to resume practice of law. He was counsel for General William Mitchell in the famous court martial proceedings. Raised Dec. 7, 1910 in Aurora Lodge No. 254, Aurora, Ill. d. Jan. 25, 1945.


            Ogden M. Reid (1882-1947) Editor of the New York Herald Tribune, 1913-47. b. May 16, 1882 in N.Y.C. Graduate of Yale U. in 1904 and 1907. He first worked in a law office, was admitted to the bar in 1908, and began work on the Tribune in the summer of that year. In a short five years he worked his way up to the position of editor. Member of Holland Lodge No. 8, N.Y.C. d. Jan. 3, 1947.


            Robert R. Reid (1789-1841) Governor of Florida, 1839-41; U.S. Congressman, 1819-23. b. Sept. 8, 1789 in Prince William Parish, S. Car. Moved to Georgia in early years, where he studied law, was admitted to the bar, and practiced. He served two terms as a judge of the state superior court and was elected to congress from Georgia. He was mayor of Augusta in 1832. He was appointed judge of the superior court for the Eastern district of Florida, and while holding this office was a member of the convention that formed a state constitution of which body he was also president. Member of St. Johns Lodge No. 12, St. Augustine, Fla. d. near Tallahassee on July 1, 1841.


            Charles G. Reigner Author and publisher. b. Nov. 14, 1888 in Pottstown, Pa. Graduate of U. of Pittsburgh in 1915, and student at Princeton U. and U. of Pennsylvania. Began as a teacher in Pa. He became editor of the H. M. Rowe Co. of Baltimore in 1919, and has been president since 1926. He is often called "Mr. Business Education" and has written more than 35 textbooks, particularly in the field of business education. These are sold by the H. M. Rowe Co. As a philanthropist, he is the donor of The Charles G. Reigner Cillection, Library Union Theol. Seminary at Richmond, Va.; The Charles G. Reigner Educational heading Room at Princeton Theol. Seminary; The Charles G. Reigner Doctors Library and the Charles G. Reigner Record Library at West Baltimore General Hospital. Past master of Concordia Lodge No. 13, Baltimore. Past high priest of Jerusalem Chapter No. 9, R.A.M.; Past commander of Beauseant Commandery No. 9, K.T.; 33° AASR (SJ); past master of Kadosh, Chesapeake Consistory; Boumi Shrine Temple; Baltimore Court 82, R.O.J., all of Baltimore. Blue Friar; fellow of Grand College of Rites and the Philalethes Society.


            Eugen G. Reinarts Brigadier General, U.S. Army; psychiatrist. b. Dec. 27, 1889 in East Liverpool, Ohio. M.D. degree from Medico-Chirurgical Coll., Philadelphia, in 1916. Commissioned first lieut., Medical Corps in 1917, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1942. Was commandant of the School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, 1941-46. Now retired from service, is in practice of psychiatry, and since 1948 has been chief medical officer and chief psychiatrist of department of corrections, Calif. Mason.


            Frederick G. Reincke Major General. b. Nov. 1, 1899 in Winsted, Conn. Enlisted as a private in Conn. Home Guard in 1917, and advanced through grades to major general, U.S. Army, in 1948. In WWII he served in Solomon Islands and New Georgia. Since 1948 he has been adjutant general of Conn., police commissioner of Wethersfield, and Sheriff of Hartford Co. Member of St. Johns Lodge No. 4, Hartford, receiving degrees April 2, 16, May 28, 1930. Member of Pythagoras Chapter No. 17, R.A.M., Wolcott Council No. 1, R. & S.M., Washington Commandery No. 1, K.T., all of Hartford. 32° AASR (NJ) at Norwich; Sphinx Shrine Temple, Court No. 141 of Jesters, and National Sojourners.


            Bartel H. Reinheimer (1889-1949) Protestant Episcopal Bishop, diocese of Rochester, N.Y., from 1938. b. April 6, 1889 at Sandusky, Ohio. Graduate of Kenyon Coll. (Ohio) in 1911, Bexley Hall Divinity School, 1914. Ordained deacon in 1914 and priest in 1915. Served churches in Shelby and Dayton, Ohio, 1914-21. Executive secretary and archdeacon Southern Ohio, 1921-31, and national secretary of field department of P.E. Church, 1931-36. Became bishop coadjutor, Diocese of Rochester, N.Y. in 1936, and bishop in 1938. Member of Mystic Lodge No. 405, Dayton, Ohio. Received Scottish Rite degrees in Valley of Rochester (N.Y.) in 1939 and made33° on Sept. 25, 1946. Knight Templar. d. Nov. 12, 1949.


            Karl L. Reinhold (1758-1823) German philosopher and Masonic author. b. in Vienna, he was associated with Wieland, his father-in-law, in the editorship of the German Mercury. He later became a professor of philosophy at Kiel, and published Letters on the Philosophy of Kant. He published at Leipsic, in 1788, under the name of Decius, two lectures entitled The Hebrew Mysteries, or the Oldest Religious Freemasonry. Here he projected the idea that Moses derived his system from the Egyptian religion. In 1809 he published An Address on the Design of Freemasonry, and another in 1820 on the opening of a lodge at Kiel. He died in 1823, and five years later his son published a volume on his life.


            Rufus 0. Renfrew (1872-1950) Investments. One of the original organizers of Oklahoma Masonic Charity Foundation and member of its board of directors until his death. b. July 6, 1872 at Mirabile, Mo. Sovereign grand inspector general of AASR in Okla. Received degrees in 1901 in Alva Lodge No. 105, Alva, Okla. and affiliated with Woodward Lodge No. 189, Dec. 5, 1912. d. March 21, 1950.


            Hiram R. Revels (1827-1901) U.S. Senator from Mississippi, 1870-71. A Prince Hall Freemason, he is the first and only U.S. senator of the Negro race ever elected to date. b. Sept. 27, 1827 in Fayetteville, N. Car. Graduate of Knox Coll. (Ill.), and ordained minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church at Baltimore, Md. in 1845. Lectured to his people in the midwest and south, and for a time taught school in St. Louis. Accepted a pastorate in Baltimore, Md., and at the outbreak of the Civil War, assisted in the organization of the first two colored regiments in Md. Served in Civil War as chaplain of a colored regiment. Settled in Natchez, Miss. in 1866; alderman of that city in 1868; and member of state senate in 1870. On the readmission of Miss. to representation, he was elected to the U.S. Senate. Was secretary of state ad interim of Miss. in 1873. A Prince Hall Freemason, he served as grand chaplain of the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio. d. Jan. 16, 1901.


            Joseph Warren Revere (1812-1880) Brigadier General, and grandson of Paul Revere, q.v., and Joseph Warren, q.v. b. May 17, 1812 in Boston. He was made a midshipman in the U.S. Navy in April, 1828, and a lieutenant in 1841. He took part in the Mexican War, and in 1850 resigned from the service and entered the Mexican army. For saving the lives of several Spaniards, he was knighted by Queen Isabella of Spain. He served in the conquest of Calif., 1846-48, and was given the honor raising the American flag at Sonoma; remained in command of the army in the Northern district of Calif. for several months. He was sent to Fort Sutter to repel the invasion of Walla Walla Chief Yellow Serpent and succeeded in settling with the chief personally, thus preventing the invasion. He was made colonel of the 7th regiment, N.J. volunteers, in 1861, and promoted to brigadier general, U.S. volunteers, in Oct., 1862. He led a brigade at Fredericksburg and was then transferred to the command of the Excelsior brigade of the 2nd Division. 1863 he was tried by courtmartial after the engagement, fell under the censure of his superior officer for a withdrawal without orders. In May, 1863 he was tried by courtmartial and dismissed from the service. He defended his conduct with great earnestness, and Lincoln revoked the order, accepting his resignation from the service. Member of St. John's Lodge, Boston. d. April 20, 1880.


            Paul Revere (1735-1818) Metal-smith and Revolutionary patriot. b. Jan. 1, 1735 in Boston, the son of a French Huguenot refugee and silversmith. His father died when Paul was 19, but he had already learned the trade as an apprentice and continued his father's business. Served in French and Indian Wars as a lieutenant of artillery. In 1776 when the British evacuated Boston, he joined a regiment of artillery raised to protect that city. He took part in the famous Boston Tea Party of 1773, which seemed to have been promulgated by his own lodge, St. Andrews of Boston. He was appointed official courier for the Mass. Provincial Assembly in 1774, and on April 18, 1775 made his famous ride from Boston to Lexington, to warn the countryside that the British were on the march. His ride was immortalized by Longfellow in his poem, The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere. As a cartoonist and pamphleteer, his series of political cartoons, printed from plates etched on copper, did much to hasten the final break with England. In 1778 he was in command of the forts in Boston harbor as a lieutenant colonel of artillery, when, ill-advisedly, he accepted a command and a responsible place in the disastrous expedition to the Penobscot. This defeat deprived him of any glory as a military leader, but as a cannon founder and powder manufacturer he continued to perform invaluable service to the colonies. He was the first to roll sheet copper in America, and he contracted for and furnished the bolts, spikes, pumps, sheathing, and anchors for U.S.S. Constitution. and other vessels. At times he did fine sliver work and engraving, among other things, making seals and jewels for several Masonic lodges. He designed and printed the first Continental bills; designed and engraved the first official seal for the colonies, and the state seal for Mass. He made a denture for his friend, Joseph Warren, q.v., grand master of Mass., who was killed at Bunker Hill, and this very metal work was the key to positive identification of the body when it was recovered a year later and reburied. Revere was raised in St. Andrews Lodge, Boston, Sept. 24, 1760, becoming secretary of the lodge in 1769, and master in 1770, succeeding Joseph Warren in that office. He served as master again from 1777-79, and from 1780-82. This lodge met at the "Green Dragon Tavern" and plans for the famous tea party were undoubtedly made in this lodge. In 1783 he was a founding member of Rising States Lodge, and was its first master. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts from 1794-97. A Royal Arch Mason, he received the degrees, Dec. 11, 1769, in St. Andrews Royal Arch Chapter. In 1795, as grand master, he laid the cornerstone of the State House in Boston. Many lodges have charters or certificates signed by Revere while he was grand master. The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts has an urn designed by him, in which is a lock of Washington's hair, secured by Revere for this purpose from Mrs. Washington. d. May 10, 1818 at Boston.


            Robert Rexdale (1859-1929) Author and lecturer. b. March 26, 1859. Educated in Portland, Maine, learned printer's trade, and was assistant editor of the Portland Sunday Times, 1885-92. Became a traveling lecturer and moved to Peoria, Ill. in 1893. Was with the Daily Times, Davenport, Ia., 1918-26, and editor of Geneseo (Ill.) Republican from 1926. Was author of Drifting; Rhymes; The Book of Bohemia; Quest of a Master Mason; Daughters of Mokanna; At Low Twelve; To Our Absent Brothers and many others. Raised July 9, 1908 in Rock Island Lodge No. 658, Rock Island, Ill. d. Oct. 28, 1929.


            Chester A. Reynolds (1887-1958) Founder of Cowboy Hall of Fame, Oklahoma City, Okla.; business executive. b. Aug. 7, 1887 in Fostoria, Ohio. Was a retail clerk, 1905-10; proprietor of a general store, 1910-15. In 1915 he was employed as a salesman by the H. D. Lee Co., manufacturers of unionalls. He successively became sales manager, branch manager, general sales manager, assistant treasurer, assistant secretary, vice president in 1942, and chairman of the board in 1952, retiring in 1955. He founded the Cowboy Hall of Fame and Museum in 1955, after his retirement. For him the project was a memorial to America's frontier heritage. He, himself, had a brief career as a young cowboy, when he homesteaded a farm in Hugo, Colo. Member of McCracken Lodge No. 58, McCracken, Kansas, Knight Templar, and member of Ararat Shrine Temple, Kansas City, Mo. d. Dec. 11, 1958.


            Frank B. Reynolds (1874-1922) Justice, Supreme Court of Montana from 1921. b. Jan. 20, 1874 in Quincy, Mich. Graduate U. of Michigan, 1895, and practiced law at Coldwater, Mich., with his father. Moved to Billings, Mont. in 1909, where he practiced law, was city attorney and probate judge. Original lodge not known, but undoubtedly in Mich. Affiliated with Ashlar Lodge No. 29, Billings, Mont. on Oct. 7, 1909 and was in good standing until his death on May 19, 1922.


            George D. Reynolds (1841-1921) Federal Judge, Eastern District of Missouri, 1889-93. b. Dec. 16, 1841 in Gettysburg, Pa. Graduate of Illinois State U. in 1861 and 1866. Served in Civil War with 2nd Ill. Light Artillery as private and rose to lieutenant colonel. Admitted to the bar at Hannibal, Mo. in 1867; moved to St. Louis in 1871; to Colorado in 1874, and back to St. Louis in 1877. He was the author of amendment to U.S. statutes under which the La. lottery was excluded from the mails; also that part of the section of U.S. laws which excluded from naturalization persons believing in or practicing polygamy. Original lodge not known, but affiliated with Potosi Lodge No. 131 on Dec. 3, 1870 and on Aug. 19, 1873 affiliated with Tuscan Lodge No. 360, St. Louis. d. March 18, 1821.


            Joseph G. Reynolds, Jr. Artist in stained glass. b. April 9, 1886 in Wick-ford, R.I. Studied in Rhode Island School of Design; also in England, France, Italy, and Spain. Was designer of stained glass windows from 1907-20, and since 1921, with partnership of Reynolds, Francis & Rohn-stock, Inc. Has been president of the corporation since 1948. Among his principal works are Princeton U. chapel; St. Bartholomew's Church, N.Y.C.; Riverside Church, N.Y.C.; Cathedral St. John the Divine, N.Y.C..; East Liberty Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh; Presybterian Church, Glens Falls, N.Y.; and numerous others. Is co-author of the apse windows and Declaration-Constitution window of National Episcopal Cathedral, Washington, D.C. Awarded many national awards. Mason.


            Marshall S. Reynolds Second Grand Equerry, Supreme Council, 33°, AASR (SJ) and Sovereign Grand Inspector General in Wyoming. A lawyer, he has served as county attorney, a member of the Wyoming legislature, state collector of Internal Revenue, and four terms as U.S. Commissioner. Received his 32° in 1914, and KCCH in 1923. Received 33° in 1929, appointed deputy in Wyoming in 1933, and crowned an active member in 1952. He was successively grand sword bearer, grand standard bearer, and appointed to his present office in 1957.


            Samuel W. Reynolds U.S. Senator from Nebraska, 1954 to fill interim term. b. Aug. 11, 1890 in Omaha, Nebr. President of Reynolds-Updike Coal Co., Omaha, since 1924. Is di-rector of C.G.W. R.R., American Reserve Life Ins. Co., Nebraska Savings & Loan Assn., and Metz Brewing Co. Was seven times Nebraska amateur golf champion. Is Governor of Central States Shrine Hospital for Crippled Children. Served with Air Corps in WWI, and as a colonel in the Army Specialist Corps in WWII. Received Freedom Foundation award for direction of the 1952 Missouri River flood fight. Member and past master of George W. Lininger Lodge No. 268, Omaha; 32° and KCCH, AASR (SJ); National Sojourner; and past potentate of Tangier Shrine Temple, Omaha.


            Thomas Reynolds (1796-1844) Governor of Missouri, 1840-44. b. March 12, 1796 in Bracken Co., Ky. He was admitted to the Kentucky bar; about 1818 moved to Illinois, where he took an active part in politics. He became clerk of the Illinois house of representatives, speaker of the same, attorney general, and finally justice of the supreme court. In 1826 he moved to Mo., locating at Fayette. He represented Howard Co. in the state legislature, and became speaker of the house. He was then appointed circuit judge, and was elected governor in 1840. He was initiated Nov. 7, 1818 in the historic Western Star Lodge No. 107 of Kaskaskia, Ill., at that time the westernmost lodge in the U.S. He was passed, Dec. 5, 1818, at which meeting Shadrach Bond, q.v. (later to be governor of Ill.), was elected master. Reynolds was raised Dec. 23, and four days later elected secretary. Both Reynolds and Bond from Western Star were present at the convention held Dec. 9, 1822 to organize the Grand Lodge of Illinois. Reynolds was named to formulate a constitution at that time. On Dec. 6-9, 1824 he was again at grand lodge and was named to examine the books of the grand secretary. He was also acting grand senior deacon and was elected grand sword bearer at this communication. He was also present at grand lodge, Dec. 3, 1826, Dec. 20, 1826, and Jan. 1, 1827. At the latter meeting it appears that he was installed as deputy grand master of the grand lodge. In June, 1828, as deputy grand master, he constituted Western Star Lodge as a subordinate lodge of the Grand Lodge of Illinois, it having given up its Pa. charter. At this same time he installed Shadrach Bond as master, and Reynolds was elected secretary. Shortly thereafter he moved to Mo., where on May 2, 1833 he was a petitioner for a lodge at Fayette. The loss of early records makes it impossible to find if he was a member at the time if his death. He shot himself, Feb. 9, 1844, while still governor.


            William Reynolds (1815-1879) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Dec. 18, 1815 in Lancaster, Pa. Appointed midshipman in 1831, lieutenant in 1841, and placed on retired list in 1851. He was then assigned to duty in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), where he was instrumental in effecting a treaty of reciprocity. He returned to active service in 1861; was made commander in 1862 with the charge of the naval forces at Port Royal. Became captain in 1866 and commodore in 1870. He served as chief of bureau and acting secretary of the Navy in 1873, and was made rear admiral that year. Retired in 1877 because of ill health. His last service was in command of the U.S. naval forces on the Asiatic station. He was a member of Lodge No. 325, Gibraltar, and was buried on Nov. 8, 1879 by Lodge No. 43, Lancaster, Pa. d. Nov. 5, 1879.


            Count Adam Rgevussky Grand Master of the Russian Grand Lodge Astrea in 1820, following Count Mussin-Pushkin-Bruce, q.v. His deputy grand master was Prince Alexander Lobanov-Rostovsky, who wasan honorary member of several Polish lodges in Warsaw and Cracow.


            Frank A. Rhea Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Idaho, 1942-57. b. Sept. 26, 1887 in Dixon, Mo. Graduate of St. Stephen's Coll. and Berkeley Divinity School (Conn.). From 1915-18 he was a missionary to the Dakota Indians at Sisseton, S. Dak. During WWI he was a civilian chaplain at army camps. He then served churches at Gulf, Beaumont, Texas, and Boise, Idaho. In 1942 he became bishop of the missionary district of Idaho, retiring in 1957. He then spent a year in New York and several months in Colombia, S.A., as a missionary. Now lives in Seattle, Wash. Received his degrees in Arlington Lodge No. 346, Dixon, Mo. in 1911, when his father was master. Now a member of Boise Lodge No. 2, Boise, Idaho. Member of Boise Chapter No. 3, R.A.M., Boise Commandery No. 1, K.T., and 33° AASR (SJ) at Boise. Served as grand prelate of the Grand Commandery of Idaho and held various offices in the Boise Consistory. Member of El Korah Shrine Temple and DeMolay Legion of Honor.


            James E. Rheim President of Rohr Aircraft Corp., Chula Vista, Calif. b. Nov. 23, 1911 in Butte, Mont. With Anaconda Copper Co. at Butte from 1932-34, and Ryan Aero. Co., San Diego, Calif., 1934-40. Became executive vice president of the Rohr Aircraft Corp. in 1940, and president of same since 1956. Raised Nov. 22, 1936 in Blackmer Lodge No. 442 of San Diego, Calif.


            Cecil J. Rhodes (1853-1902) British administrator, financier, and philanthropist. b. July 5, 1853 in Hertfordshire, England. He was sent to Natal hir his health in 1870. He moved to the Orange Free State on the discovery of diamonds there, and worked a prosperous claim with his brother. He acquired a fortune in the Kimberley diamond fields. He entered the Cape House of Assembly in 1881; was energetic in establishing cordial relations between the British and the Dutch and in bringing about the annexation of Bechuanaland in 1884. The territory north of Bechuanaland, obtained by Rhodes from the Matabele tribe, was named Rhodesia in his honor, and he was made sole manager of the company incorporated with the rights of sovereignty over it. He amalgamated the diamond mines about Kimberley under the name of the De Beers Consolidated Mines, in 1888. Was prime minister of Cape Colony, 1890-96, and advanced the project for a Cape-to-Cairo R.R. He aimed for the establishment of a federal South African dominion under the British flag. He ran into trouble when he plotted the overthrow of the South African Republic by encouraging the Uitlanders in Transvaal to armed insurrection, and was forced to resign the premiership in 1896. He then devoted himself to the development of Rhodesia, established permanent peace with the Matabeles, and reentered Parliament in 1898. During the Boer War he was besieged at Kimberley. In his will, he left £6,000,- 000 to public service, and endowed 170 Oxford scholarships for the education of youths from Great Britain, the United States, and Germany. He was raised in Apollo University Lodge No. 357 at Oxford, England, April 17, 1877, and was a member of Prince Rose Croix No. 30, AASR at Oxford. His name appears on the charter of Bulawayo Lodge No. 2566, Rhodesia, in 1895. He gave the site on which the latter lodge built a temple. d. March 26, 1902.


            John J. Rhodes U.S. Congressman 83rd-86th Congresses from 1st Arizona dist. b. Sept. 18, 1916 in Council Grove, Kans. Graduate of Kansas State Coll. in 1938 and law degree from Harvard U., 1941. Admitted to Kansas bar in 1942 and Arizona in1945. Practiced law at Mesa, Ariz. from 1946 until elected to congress. Served in Army in WWII. Member of Oriental Lodge No. 20, Mesa, Arizona since 1950; 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner.


            Von Ribbentrop (See under Von) Benjamin F. Rice (1828-1905) U.S. Senator from Arkansas, 1868-73. b. May 26, 1828 in Cattaraugus Co., N.Y. Admitted to bar and first practiced in Irvine, Ky., where he was a member of the lower house in 1855-56. He moved to Minn. in 1860, and during the Civil War served in the Union Army as a captain. He moved to Little Rock, Ark. in 1864, and resumed the practice of law. Here he was active in organizing the Republican party. Upon the readmission of Arkansas to representation he was elected to the U.S. senate. After his senatorial term, he resumed law practice in Ark., but because of ill health moved to Colorado in 1875, and to Washington, D.C. in 1882, where he resumed law practice until his death. Member of Hyperian Lodge No. 48, Long View, Ark. d. Jan. 19, 1905.


            Daniel Rice Showman and circus clown. b. in New York City in 1822. His name was originally McLaren, but he changed it to Rice after removing to Pittsburgh, Pa. and becoming an acrobat. He traveled through the west and southwest and acquired his own circus, which his rivals called the "one-horse show." He soon gathered a large company, and enhanced his reputation by munificent gifts to charity and public monuments. During the Civil War he promoted recruitment by delivering patriotic speeches in conjunction with his act. He met with financial disaster, and performed under the management of others until intemperate habits interfered with his engagements. Having reformed, he occasionally lectured on temperance. He resided in Cincinnati and subsequently in Texas, where he became a large landowner. Received his degrees in Holland Lodge No. 8, N.Y.C. on Feb. 24, March 10, 1851. Dimitted May 9, 1853. Deceased.


            Edmund Rice (1819-1889) U.S. Congressman from Minnesota, 188789. b. Feb. 14, 1819 in Waitsfield, Vt., a brother of Henry M. Rice, q.v. Admitted to the bar in 1842, and began law practice in Kalamazoo, Mich. Served in Mexican War in 1847 as first lieutenant of Mich. volunteers. Moved to St. Paul, Minn. in July, 1849, where he was clerk of the supreme court, member of the territorial house of representatives in 1851, and practiced law until 1856. He served in the Minn. state senate in 1864-66 and 1874-76. Was president of the Minnesota & Pacific RR, 185763, and St. Paul & Pacific RR, 186372. Also president of St. Paul & Chicago RR, 1863-77. He was mayor of St. Paul from 1881-83 and 1885-87. Member of Cataract Lodge No. 2, Minneapolis, Minn. d. July 11, 1889.


            Henry M. Rice (1817-1894) First U.S. Senator from Minnesota, and largely responsible for bringing that state into the Union. b. Nov. 29, 1817 in Waitsfield, Vt., a brother of Edmund Rice, q.v. Attended common schools of Detroit and Kalamazoo, Mich. Resided in the territories of Iowa and Wisconsin before moving to the Territory of Minnesota in 1839. He was post sutler for the U.S. Army at Fort Atkinson, and later engaged in the fur business. He settled in St. Paul in 1848. He negotiated a treaty with the Winnebago and Chippewa Indians in 1847, and through his personal influence, secured the consent of the objecting Sioux to confirmation of the treaty of 1851, which opened large parts of Minn. to white settlers. He was U.S. congressman to the 33rd and 34th congresses, 185359. Upon admittance of Minn. as a state, he was elected U.S. senator. He was U.S. commissioner in the making of several Indian treaties in 1887 and1888. Made a Freemason June 4, 1851 in St. Paul Lodge No. 3 (then U.D.), St. Paul, Minn. d. Jan. 15, 1894. His statue is in the Hall of Fame of the U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C.


            John K. Rice Major General, U.S. Army. b. May 16, 1896 in Leominster, Mass. Educated at Shattuck School (Minn.), U. of Michigan, and U. of Minnesota. Began in Minn. national guard in 1916, and commissioned 2nd lieutenant, Infantry, U.S. Army in 1917, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1943 and retiring as major general. Served overseas in WWI, 1919-22. Assistant division commander of 35th Division, and also 78th Division in 1943. Saw overseas combat duty in France, Belgium, and Germany, 1944-45. Commander of Camp McCoy, Wis. and War Dept. personnel center in 1945-46. Assistant division commander of 12th Infantry (Philippine Scouts) in Luzon, 194647; assistant division commander of the 6th Division in Korea, 1947-48; and with office of chief of staff, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C., after 1948. Mason, Shriner; in 1948-49 was national commander of the National Sojourners.


            Robert F. Rich U.S. Congressman to 71st-77th Congresses, 1930-43, 79th-81st Congresses, 1944-51, from 45th Pa. dist. b. June 23, 1883 in Woolrich, Pa. Graduate of Mercers-burg Acad. in 1902. Was vice president, treasurer, and general manager of the Woolrich (Pa.) Woolen Mills, and president of State Bank of Avis (Pa.). Also a director of several other companies. Member of Lafayette Lodge No. 199, Lock Haven, Pa., receiving degrees on March 20, May 25, July 20, 1906 and master in 1919. 33° AASR (NJ).


            Charles L. Richards (1877-1953) U.S. Congressman to 68th Congress, 1923-25, from Nevada. b. Oct 3, 1877 in Austin, Nev. Graduate of Stanford U. in 1901, and began law practice at  Tonopah, Nev. that year. Served as district attorney, and was a member of the Nevada lower house in 1919. Moved to Reno in 1919. Mason. d. Dec. 22, 1953.


            DeForest Richards (1846-1903) Governor of Wyoming, 1898. b. Aug. 6, 1846 in Charlestown, N.H. Attended Kimball Union Acad. (N.H.) and Phillips Andover Acad. Member of the Alabama legislature in 1868, and sheriff of Wilcox Co., Ala. 1868-71; in business in Camden, Ala. until 1885, when he moved to western Nebr. He was president of the 1st National Bank of Douglas, Wyo. from 1886. Member of the Wyoming constitutional convention of 1890, and state senator in 1893. Received degrees in Dale Lodge No. 24, Camden, Ala. in 1871, and was master of same 1883-85. He helped establish Samaritan Lodge No. 158 of Chadron, Nebr. Became member of Ashlar Lodge No. 10, Douglas, Wyo. and later served as master. Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Wyoming in 189697. Belonged to R.A. Chapter at Casper; Commandery, K.T. in Cheyenne; and 32° AASR (SJ) in Wyoming Consistory. d. 1903.


            George Richards (1872-1948) Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. Feb. 6, 1872 in Ironton, Ohio. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy; commissioned in 1893. Became paymaster of U.S. Marine Corps with rank of brigadier general, Sept. 8, 1916. Served on the U.S.S. Newark and U.S.S. Lancaster, 1895-97; in Spanish-American War, participated in bombardment of Santiago de Cuba and Battle of Manzanillo. Served in Philippines, 1899-1900, in Boxer Rebellion, 1900, and participated in march to relief of the legations at Peking in Aug. of that year. Served in the Army of Cuban Pacification, 1906-07, and retired from service March 1, 1936. Member of Osiris Lodge No. 26, Washington, D.C., receiving degrees on June 20, July 18, Oct. 6, 1923. Served as master in 1927. Dimitted July 21, 1938. d. Jan. 9, 1948.


            George J. Richards Major General, U.S. Army. b. April 12, 1891 in Easton, Pa. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1915, commissioned that year and promoted through grades to major general in 1944. Was construction engineer of Pennsylvania R.R., 1925-26; assistant professor of mathematics, West Point, 1924-28; and district engineer, U.S. Lake Survey, 1938-40. In charge of War Dept. budget estimates, 1942-43, and director of budget, War Dept., General Staff, 194347. In 1948 he was Army comptroller and special assistant to the chief of staff. A business consultant since 1953. Became a member of Easton Lodge No. 152, Easton, Pa. in 1915; 32° AASR (NJ) at Buffalo, N.Y.; Aleppo Shrine Temple, Boston, Mass.


            Harry M. M. Richards (1848-1935) Manufacturer, soldier, sailor, author. b. Aug. 16, 1848 in Easton, Pa. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1869. Served as a private in 26th Pa. emergency regt., was in Battle of Gettysburg, and later under Sheridan in W. Va. Became midshipman, U.S. Navy, in 1865, and senior lieutenant in 1874, when he resigned from service. Volunteered for Spanish-American War and served in 1898. When 69 years old, he also volunteered for WWI. He invented a circuit closing device for torpedoes that was adopted by U.S. in 1872. Became treasurer and director of American Iron & Steel Co., retiring in 1916. Wrote many books, including The Frontier Forts of the Blue Ridge; The Descendants of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg; The Pennsylvania German in the Revolutionary War; The First Discoverers of America, German, not Latin; Our Ancestors in the British Prisons of the Revolution; The Wieser Family; and others. Mason. d. Sept. 28, 1935.


            James P. Richards U.S. Congressman to 73rd-84th Congresses, 193355, from 5th S. Cara dist. Was special assistant to President Eisenhower in 1957 in the Middle East, with rank of ambassador. b. Aug. 31, 1894 in Liberty Hill, S. Car. Graduate of U. of South Carolina in 1921, and began practice of law that year at Lancaster. Served as an enlisted man and officer in WWI. Member of Jackson Lodge No. 3, Lancaster, S. Car., receiving the degrees in 1923.


            John E. Richards (1856-1932) Justice, Supreme Court of California. b. July 7, 1856 in San Jose, Calif. Graduate of U. of Pacific, 1877, and U. of Michigan in 1879. Admitted to the bar in 1879; practiced at San Jose and San Francisco. Was judge of superior court of Santa Clara Co., 190713, and associate justice of district court of appeal, 1913-23. On supreme court bench, 1924-32. Member of Golden Gate Lodge No. 30, San Francisco, Calif. d. June 25, 1932.


            John G. Richards (1864-1941) Governor of South Carolina, 1927-31. b. Sept. 11, 1864 in Liberty Hill, S. Car. A farmer, he served as magistrate; member of state legislature, 1898-1910; and railroad commissioner of S. Car. for 12 years. Was tax commissioner of the state for 14 years. Member of Barron Lodge No. 261, Health Springs, S. Car. d. Oct. 9, 1941.


            Sir. Benjamin Ward Richardson (1828-1896) English physician who was knighted in recognition of his contributions to the welfare of humanity. b. Oct. 31, 1828 in Somerby, England. He delivered many lectures on medicine and engaged in extensive research. He experimented with new anesthetics and invented pieces of medical apparatus. Raised in St. Andrews Lodge No. 231, serving it as master in 1867. Was a founding member and first master of Solomon Lodge No. 2029. Was active in the work of Quatuor Coronati Lodge after 1889. d. 1896.


            David P. Richardson (1833-1904) U.S. Congressman to 46th and 47th Congresses, 1879-83, from New York. b. May 28, 1833 in Macedon, N.Y. Graduate of Yale Coll. in 1856, studied law in Rochester, N.Y., and was admitted to the bar in 1859. Served three years in Union Army during Civil War. Moved to Angelica, N.Y. in 1866. Member of Western Union Lodge No. 146, Belfast, N.Y. d. June 21, 1904.


            Friend W. Richardson (?-1943) Governor of California, 1923-27. b. in Michigan.  Was a newspaper publisher at San Bernardino, 1896-1901, and Berkeley, 1901-19. Was state printer, 1912-15, and state treasurer, 1915-23. Published the Alameda (Calif.) Times-Star, 1931-32, and was president of the Calif. Press Assn. 39 years. Was state building and loan commissioner, 1932-33, and state superintendent of banks, 1934-39. Member of Durant Lodge No. 268; Berkeley Chapter No. 92, R.A.M.; Berkeley Commandery No. 42, K.T., all of Berkeley and Islam Shrine Temple, San Francisco. d. Sept. 5, 1943.


            James D. Richardson (1843-1914) U.S. Congressman to 49th-58th Congresses, 1885-1905, from Tenn. b. March 10, 1843 in Rutherford Co., Tenn. Served four years in the Confederate Army. Admitted to the bar in 1867, and began practice in Murfreesboro. Served in state legislature, and was speaker of the house in 1871; in state senate, 1873-74. Was chairman of the national Democratic convention of 1900. Was grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of Tennessee in 1883 and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1873. From 1900-14 he was sovereign grand commander of the Southern Jurisdiction, AASR. Was raised in Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 18, Murfreesboro, Oct. 12, 1867; member of Pythagoras Chapter No. 23, R.A.M., Murfreesboro in June, 1868 and Baldwin Commandery No. 7, K.T. at Lebanon, Tenn. in June, 1869. Received 32° AASR (SJ) in 1881; KCCH in 1884, and 33° same year. Crowned active member of Southern Jurisdiction by Albert Pike in 1885. d. July 24, 1914.


            John P. Richardson (1801-1864) U.S. Congressman to 24th-25th Congresses, 1836-39, and governor of South Carolina, 1840-42. b. April 14, 1801 at Hickory Hill, S. Car. Graduate of South Carolina Coll. in 1819, studied law, and was admitted to the bar, starting practice at Fulton, S. Car. Member of state legislature and judge of the circuit court. Member of Manchester Lodge No. 52. d. Jan. 24, 1864.


            Robert M. Richardson Civil War General. Member of Central City Lodge No. 305, Syracuse, N.Y. Charter junior warden of same in 1853. Dropped NPD June 29, 1860. Previous lodge not known.


            W. Garland Richardson Foreign service officer. b. Jan. 18, 1905 at Fries, Va. Graduate U. of Richmond; U. of Virginia. Was an auditor before entering diplomatic service in 1935. Served as language officer in Tokyo, and while vice consul in Dairen, Manchuria, was imprisoned by the Japanese, 1941-42. Later he was consul at Sao Paulo, Brazil, Manila, Philippines, St. John's, Newfoundland, and in Monrovia and Tokyo; since 1955 has been executive secretary of the board of examiners, State dept. for foreign service. Member of Vegas Lodge No. 32, Las Vegas, Nev.; 32° AASR (SJ) in Washington, D.C. Was chaplain of Mt. Lebanon Lodge No. 80, Manila, Philippines in 1946.


            William A. Richardson (1811-1875)U.S. Senator from Illinois, 1863-65; U.S. Congressman to 30th-34th Congresses from Ill., 1847-56 and 37th Congress, 1861-63; Governor of Nebraska Territory, 1858-60. b. Oct. 11, 1811 in Fayette Co., Ky. Graduate of Transylvania U., studied law and began practice at Rushville, Ill., later moving to Quincy. Served in both houses of state legislature and speaker of house one year. Served in Mexican War as a captain and major. He was elected to the senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Stephen A. Douglas, q.v. A member of Rushville Lodge No. 9, he was master of same in 1844. d. Dec. 27, 1875.


            William A. Richardson (1821-?) U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, 187374. b. Nov. 2, 1821 in Tyngsborough, Mass. Graduate of Harvard in 1843 and Harvard Law School in 1846. Appointed to revise the Mass. statutes in 1855. Became assistant secretary of Treasury in 1869. Resigned from the cabinet in 1874 to accept a seat on the U.S. court of claims, of which he became chief justice in 1885. In 186375 he was an overseer of Harvard. Member of Ancient York Lodge, Lowell, Mass. from 1854-63 and 33° AASR (NJ).


            William M. Richardson (1774-1838) U.S. Congressman to 12th and 13th Congresses, 1811-14, from Mass., and Chief Justice of New Hampshire, 1816-38. b. Jan. 4, 1774 in Pelham, N.H. Graduate of Harvard in 1797; studied law and began practice in Groton, Mass. in 1804. Raised in Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C. on Feb. 1, 1813. d. March 15, 1838.


            Charles Robert Richet (1850-1935) French physiologist who discovered the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Was a professor at the University of Paris (Sorbonne) where he conducted research in serum therapy. He was awarded the Nobel prize for medicine and was a member of the French Academy. Member of the Lodge Cosmos, Paris, joining in 1876.


            L. P. Richie Vice President of Oliver Corp., manufacturers of farm and industry machinery. b. Oct. 14, 1897 in Louisville, Ky. Joined Oliver Corp. in 1933; vice president and director of purchases, 1947-56; vice-president and director of manufacturing and purchases since 1956. Member of Compass Lodge No. 223, 32° AASR (SJ) and Kosair Shrine Temple, all of Louisville, Ky.


            Charles, 2nd Duke of Richmond Grand Master of Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) in 1724.


            Jean Paul F. Richter (1763-1825) German humorist and prose writer. b. in Bavaria, he studied theology at the U. of Leipzig, 1781-84. Attempted to support himself by writing but fled creditors in 1784. Settled in Hof, where he lived in poverty and tutored from 1787-94. He met Charlotte von Kalb in Weimar; she was the "Linda" in his Titan. He settled in Bayreuth in 1804 and was pensioned by the government in 1808. Other writings include Die Unsichtbare Loge; Hesperus; Leben des Quintus Fixleins; Der Komet; and others. Was initiated in the Lodge Pforte sum Tempel der Lichts at Hof. d. 1825.


            George C. Rickards (1860-1933) Major General, U.S. Army and first chief of Militia Bureau. b. Aug. 25, 1860 in Philadelphia, Pa. Was in hardware business in Oil City, Pa. from 1882-1915. Joined Pa. National Guard in 1877; promoted through grades to brigadier general in 1919. Colonel of 16th Infantry, U.S.A. in Spanish-American War. Served in Puerto Rico and on Mexican Border. In WWI he commanded the 112th Infantry at Chateau-Thierry, Champaigne-M a rn e, Ainse-Marne, and Meuse-Argonne. Made chief of the Military Bureau with rank of major general, in 1921, and held that position until he retired in 1925, with 40 years state service and eight years Federal service. He was one of the ten major generals who acted as pallbearers at funeral of President Harding, q.v., and also at burial of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington Cemetery. Mason; was director of Zem Zem Shrine Temple Hospital for Crippled Children at Erie, Pa. d. Jan. 15, 1933.


            Edward V. "Eddie" Rickenbacker Aviator, Air Force officer, auto racer, and airline official. b. Oct. 8, 1890, in Columbus, Ohio. He was widely known in his early years as an auto racer, and won championships at many national and international meets. In WWI he accompanied General Pershing to France as a chauffeur, but on Aug. 25, 1917 was transferred to the Air Service at his own request. He became commanding officer of the 94th Aero Pursuit squadron, the first American aviation unit to participate in the Western front. This unit is credited with 69 victories, the largest of any American unit, and Rickenbacker headed the list with 26 victories to his credit. Captain Rickenbacker thus became the leading American "Ace." Following the war, he became assistant to the president of Aviation Corp., 1932-33; vice president of North American Aviation, Inc., 1933-34; general manager of Eastern Airlines, Inc. in 1935, and in 1938, president, general manager and director. He is now chairman of the board of Vncteni. In WWII his activities included special missions for the Secretary of War to England, the South Pacific, North Africa, Iran, India, China, Russia, Iceland, Greenland, and the Aleutians. He was forced down on a Pacific flight in 1942, but was rescued after spending three weeks on a life raft. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross with nine clusters and the Congressional Medal of Honor. A member of Kilwinning Lodge No. 297, Detroit, Mich., he received his degrees, April 17, June 12, 26, 1922. In 1926 he became a member of Palestine Chapter No. 159, R.A.M. Also member of Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T., Moslem Shrine Temple, all of Detroit. Is a 33° AASR (NJ). In 1942 he received the Distinguished Achievement Medal of the Grand Lodge of New York. In Sept., 1957, his Commandery, Detroit No. 1, K.T., named a class in his honor.


            Branch Rickey Baseball executive. b. Dec. 20, 1881 in Stockdale, Ohio. Graduate of Ohio Wesleyan U. in 1904 and 1906. Started his major league career in baseball in 1904 as catcher with the Cincinnati Reds. Was with the St. Louis Browns two years; with the Yankees in 1907; and with the St. Louis Browns as secretary and manager, 1913-15, and vice president and business manager in 1916. He became president of the St. Louis Cardinals in 1917 and was manager from 1919-42. From 1942-50 he was president and general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers. From 1950-55 he was vice president and general manager of the Pittsburgh Pirates; was chairman of the board and director from 1955. While with the Cardinals, he won pennants as manager in 1926-28-30-31-34-42, and four world championship pennants. With Brooklyn he won two pennants. Served with U.S. Army overseas in WWI. Was initiated in Tuscan Lodge No. 360, St. Louis, Mo. and dimitted to Montauk Lodge No. 286, Brooklyn, N.Y. on Oct. 2, 1946.


            Henry Scott Riddell (1798-1870) Scottish author of popular songs, as The Crook and Plaid and Scotland Yet. Listed as a Freemason by the bulletin of the International Masonic Congress in 1917.


            Thomas F. Riddick (1781-1830) "Father of Missouri Public School System" and first grand master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. b. June 5, 1781 in Suffolk, Va. Moved to Missouri Territory about 1804, settling in St. Louis, where he became an influential business man. Frederick Bates, q.v., appointed him assessor for levies in the St. Louis district in 1807, as well as clerk for court of common pleas. Bates, and also General William Clark, q.v., appointed him justice of the peace. In 1817 he became one of the first directors of the Territorial Bank of Missouri, and president of same in 1820. At the first session of the territorial legislature in 1812 he was elected clerk pro tem, and in 1818 he represented St. Louis in the fourth and last territorial legislature. He served in the Black Hawk War under Colonel Alexander McNair, q.v. He was the prime mover in the establishment of the first Episcopal church of St. Louis—Christ Church—in 1819. He was also an auctioneer. When congress passed an act in 1812 confirming land titles in the Missouri Territory, it became apparent that much land would not be claimed, because of errors, fraud, etc. Riddick rode on horseback to Washington, D.C., at his own expense, for the express purpose of ensuring that Representative Hempstead would insert a section into this law, giving these lands to the public schools. Riddick was originally a member of Solomon Lodge No. 30, Suffolk, Va. He twice visited Western Star Lodge No. 107, Kaskaskia, Ill. in 1806 (March 24, Dec. 27). It was 60 miles from St. Louis and the only lodge in the area. He registered as a visitor from Solomon Lodge. On Dec. 27, 1806 he signed a petition for a new lodge at Ste. Genevieve, Mo., to be known as Louisiana Lodge No. 109 (first Mo. lodge); but when it was constituted, he was not a member, so must have signed only to assist his Ste. Genevieve brethren. He signed an application for a dispensation for St. Louis Lodge No. 111, his name being second and directly following that of Meriwether Lewis, governor of the territory. He was installed senior warden of this lodge on Nov. 8, 1808. He was present at the conferring of the degrees on General William Clark, in Sept., 1809. He later became a charter member of Missouri Lodge No. 12. He was present at the formation of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, and on April 24, 1821, was elected first grand master. He was installed May 4, 1821. He moved to Sulphur Springs, Jefferson Co. in 1822, where he died, Jan. 15, 1830, at the early age of 49.


            Matthew Ridgeway Full General and Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, 1953-55. b. March 3, 1895 in Ft. Monroe, Va. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1917 and advanced through grades to full general in 1951. He served as technical adviser to the governor general of the Philippines, 1932-33; assistant chief of staff of 6th Corps Area, 1935-36; same for 2nd Army, 1936; assistant chief of staff of Fourth Army, 1937-39; on War Dept. general staff, 1939-42; assistant division commander of 82nd Infantry Division, 1942; commanding general of the 82nd Airborne Division, in Sicily, Italy, Normandy, 1942-44; commander of 18th Airborne Corps in Belgium, France, Germany, 194445; senior U.S. Army member of military staff, United Nations, 1946-48; chairman of Inter-American Defense Board, 1946-48; commander in chief of Caribbean Command, 1948-49; deputy army chief of staff and commanding general of the 8th Army in Korea, 1950-51; commander in chief of Far East Command; commander in chief of United Nations Command and Supreme Commander for Allied powers, 1951-52. Now retired. Became a member of West Point Lodge No. 877 (New York), receiving degrees on April 3,17, and May 1, 1924. Received 32° AASR (SJ) at Tokyo, Japan in October, 1951.


            Baron Friedrich Adolph von Riedesel (1738-1800) German Army officer. b. in Hesse. He commanded, as major general, the Brunswick mercenary contingent in the British Army under Burgoyne against the Americans, in the Revolution. He was captured at Saratoga in 1777 and exchanged in 1779. Was in command on Long Island from 1779-80. There were several Masonic lodges in the German regiments. Before he left Canada in 1783, an honorary Masonic title (presumably honorary deputy provincial grand master) was conferred upon him and upon others, at Quebec, "to entitle them to take a seat in the Germanick Grand Lodges.”


            Harold Riegelman Lawyer and alternate delegate of the U.S. to the General Asembly of the United Nations in 1959. b. Aug. 19, 1892 in Des Moines, Iowa. Graduate of Cornell in 1914 and Columbia in 1916. Practiced law in New York City since 1916. Legal advisor of Chinese embassy since 1938; special state attorney general in 1931 under Roosevelt; special counsel U.S. Treasury in 1935; acting postmaster of New York City in 1953; ran for Mayor of New York in 1953. Served in both WWI and WWII, retiring as a colonel. Was initiated in an Army field lodge, and presently a member of King Solomon Lodge No. 279, New York City.


            Rafael del Riego y Nunez (see under del Riego).


            R. Walter Riehiman U.S. Congressman to 80th-86th Congresses, 1947-60, from 36th N.Y. dist. b. Aug. 26, 1899 in Otisco, N.Y. He started as a bookkeeper for a wholesale drug company in Syracuse, N.Y. in 1920, later operated a general store and served as postmaster of Nedrow, N.Y. Since 1923 he has been the owner and operator of the Tully (N.Y.) Bakery. Received citation from Governor Dewey, and was awarded a gold cup by the people of Tully, N.Y. for outstanding community service in 1942. Member of Tully Lodge No. 896 since 1925 and past master of same; 32° AASR (NJ) at Syracuse, N.Y. Past district grand lecturer of the O.E.S.; member of Jesters Court No. 79, Syracuse.


            Elias E. Ries (1862-1928) Inventor. b. Jan. 16, 1862 in Baden, Germany and brought to the U.S. at the age of three. He attended Maryland Institute at Baltimore and Johns Hopkins. As an electrical, mechanical, and technical engineer he took out more than 250 patents. His principle pioneer inventions were the underground electric railway conduit; the modern alternating current system of generation, transmission and conversion of electricity for operating electric railways which made possible the operation to rapid-transit elevated, subway, and tunnel systems now operating in N.Y.C.; the original automatic electric motor starters; the Ries regulating socket, the first practical device for turning down the light of incandescent lamps; the controller system used on electric elevators; original methods for electric welding, riveting and soldering; methods and appliances for electric heating and cooking; original processes for manufacturing iron and steel tubes from hot billets in one continuous operation; the first practical self-starting electric motors adapted to operate on single phase alternating current; original methods for producing talking motion pictures directly from the film; and the audio scope for locating and detecting the presence of unseen vessels, icebergs, and submarines. Member of Mount Neboh Lodge No. 257, N.Y.C., receiving degrees on April 25, May 23, Nov. 17, 1904. d. April 20, 1928.


            Sidney Rigdon (1793-1876) Mormon leader. b. Feb. 19, 1793 in Allegheny Co., Pa. Worked on farm until 1817 and after some experience as a printer, studied for the ministry and licensed to preach by the Baptist church in 1819. In Jan., 1822 he became pastor of the first church in Pittsburgh, Pa. Following the example of Alexander Campbell and Walter Scott, he withdrew from the church and assisted in establishing the Disciples or Campbell denomination (now Disciples of Christ). Began preaching at Bainbridge, Ohio in 1828 and the following year at Mentor. Here the Mormon and gentile versions differ. Detractors of Mormonism state that he came into possession of a manuscript written by Solomon Spauling, former Presbyterian minister which gave a romantic and fanciful account on the nations inhabiting Canaan. This, they claim, he gave to Joseph Smith, who copied it, with alterations, into the Book of Mormon. The other version is that the Mormon elders Pratt, Peterson, Cowdery and Whitmer stopped in Mentor on their way to Missouri and Pratt, a former Baptist preacher obtained permission to speak in Rigdon's church. He then joined them. In a short time Rigdon, Frederick G. Williams and Smith were elected presidents of the church and styled "the first presidency." Smith and Rigdon fled to Missouri in 1838 to avoid arrest. In Far West, Mo. both were found guilty of "treason, murder and felony," allowed to escape and join the others at Nauvoo. When Joseph and Hyrum Smith were murdered at Carthage, Ill. in 1844, Rigdon aspired to the church leadership, but Brigham Young and the 12 apostles declared him "cutt off from the communion of the faithful, and delivered to the devil, to be buffeted in the flesh for a thousand years." He went to Pittsburgh, Pa. and thence to Friendship, N.Y. where he died July 14, 1876, still declaring firm belief in the truthfulness of the Book of Mormon. Both Rigdon and Smith were made Masons "at sight" by the grand master of Illinois in Smith's office at Nauvoo on March 15, 1842. This was one of the acts that precipitated closing of all Mormon lodges.


            Russell M. Riggins Oil and gas executive; rancher. b. Nov. 13, 1894 in Gainesville, Texas. Began as a railway clerk and was successively a livestock agent; traffic manager for packing plant; senior partner of Riggins & Beck, C.P.A.'s at Oklahoma City, Okmulgee, and Bartlesvile, Okla., Washington, D.C., and New York City. Served as comptroller of Phillips Petroleum Co., Independent Natural Gas Co., Parke, Davis & Co., way and tunnel systems now operating in N.Y.C.; the original automatic elecand others. Is the president of Texas Gas Corp., Texas Gas Pipe Line Corp., and New Ulm. Corp. at Houston since 1951. Is the owner and operator of Rancho Riachuelo and R-Bar ranches in New Mexico, raising Aberdeen-Angus cattle. In WWII he was a colonel and chief of army ordnance depots in the U.S. Mason, 32° AASR, and Shriner.


            Charles 0. L. Riley (1855-1930) Archbishop of Perth, Australia. He served as chaplain general of the Australian army units during WWI. As grand master of the Grand Lodge of Western Australia, he was one of the most popular members and his spiritual influence in the development of the Australian lodges still exists.


            John J. Riley U.S. Congressman to 79th-80th and 82-86th Congresses from 24th S. Car. dist. b. Feb. 1, 1895 in Orangeburg Co., S. Car. Graduate of Wofford Coll. (S. Car.) in 1915. Taught high school, and was English instructor at Clemson (S. Car.) Coll. until 1918. Has been president of Riley & Co., real estate and insurance at Sumter, S. Car. since 1920. Member of Claremont Lodge No. 64, Sumter, S. Car.


            Russell L. Riley U.S. Consul General at Malta. b. Feb. 11, 1911 at Mendon, Mo. Graduate of U. of Missouri in 1934. Began as a salesman, first for Montgomery Ward, and then with Swift & Co. Was division chief in office of export control; assistant chief of civilian personnel division, U.S. Army Air Force; executive assistant of War Assets Administration. Went with the State Department in 1948, becoming deputy director of office of educational exchange in 1951-52, and director of same after 1953. Member of Mendon Lodge No. 628, Mendon, Mo. and also affiliated with Abercorn Lodge No. 273, Casa Pawla, Malta (Irish Constitution). Member of Mt. Vernon Chapter, No. 14, R.A.M. at Alexandria, Va., Arlington Commandery No. 29, K.T. at Arlington, Va., and Kena Shrine Temple at Alexandria. Member of Missouri Lodge of Research.

             Valentin Rincon Justice of Supreme Court, Federal District of Mexico for 20 years. b. Oct. 8, 1901 in Chiapas, Mexico. Became a member of the Sons of Hiram Lodge No. 8, of the Orient of Tuxpan at Veracruz, Mexico, in Oct., 1926. Served two years as grand master of the Grand Lodge of Valley of Mexico during which time he secured regularity of lodges and recognition from other grand lodges. He is the representative of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, near the Grand Lodge of Valley of Mexico.


            William A. Riner (1878-1955) Former Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Wyoming. b. June 26, 1878 in Greene, Iowa. Graduate of U. of Southern Calif. in 1899 and U. of Michigan in 1902. Established law practice at Lansing, Mich., and moved to Cheyenne, Wyo. in 1902. He was city attorney, district attorney, judge of


39 Samuel Ringgold district court, and first appointed to the supreme court bench in 1928, serving until 1951. Was chief justice, 1939-43 and 1947-51. Received degrees in Acacia Lodge No. 11, Cheyenne, Wyo. on March 16, 28, April 19, 1907. Was master in 1910 and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Wyoming, 1922-23. 33° AASR (SJ) and Shriner. d. Nov. 20, 1955.


            Samuel Ringgold (1770-1829) U.S. Congressman to 12th-13th and 15th-16th Congresses, 1810-15 and 1817-21, from Maryland; Brigadier General of Maryland militia in War of 1812. b. Jan. 15, 1770 in Chestertown, Md. He received a limited education. Settled at Fountain Rock, near Hagerstown, Md., where he engaged in farming and became a large landowner. He was a member of the state house of delegates in 1794-95, and of the state senate in 1801-06. He was the father of Samuel Ringgold, Jr., q.v., the artillerist. The senior Ringgold was a member and past master of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 33, Hagerstown. In 1811 he served as junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Maryland. d. Oct. 18, 1829.


            Samuel Ringgold, Jr. (1800-1846) American artillerist. b. in Washington Co., Md. in 1800, the son of Samuel Ringgold, q.v., U.S. congressman from Md. and brigadier general of the War of 1812. Graduate of the U.S. Military Academy in 1818, he served for several years as aide-de-camp to General Winfield Scott. Was brevetted captain in 1836, and later major. He participated in the Florida War. In the Mexican War he organized a corps of "flying artillery" and was mortally wounded at Palo Alto, the first battle of that war. In addition to his introduction of "flying artillery," he invented a saddle-tree, which was subsequently known as the McClelland saddle; also originated a rebounding hammer of brass for ex-ploding primers of field pieces, that prevented the blowing away of the hammer. He was a member of Comfort Lodge No. 143, Old Point Comfort, Fort Monroe, Va. in 1826. The lodge is now defunct. d. May 11, 1846 at Point Isabel, Texas.


            The Ringling Brothers Kings of the Circus. Alfred T. (1861-1919); John Nicholas (?-1936); Albert Charles (1852-1916); Charles Edward (18661926); William Henry Otto (18581911); August George (1854-1907); and Henry William George (18681918). In the middle 1800's an Alsatian named Juliar had three daughters whose descendants were to make circus history. One married August Ringling, father of the Ringling Brothers; one married Gottlieb G. Gollmar, father of the Gollmar Brothers; and the third married Henry Moeller, father of the Moeller Brothers. The Ringlings and, in a more modest degree, the Gollmars were to acquire fame as circus owners and operators. The Moellers likewise became famous as manufacturers of circus wagons and materials. All of the branches of this family had early and strong connections with Masonry. This is most remarkable in view of the fact that these people were German in ancestry, members of a Lutheran Church in a synod in bitter opposition to Masonry. Memberbership in the fraternity terminated these church ties. Of the seven Ring-ling brothers, five were with the circus originally: Otto, Albert C., Alfred T., Charles E., and John. August G. was associated with them, but never a member of the firm. Upon the death of Otto in 1911, Henry, the youngest brother, became a member of the firm. Albert was the showman and the brother who sparked and encouraged the enterprise; later, John, who outlived the others, became the best known of the brothers. The circus had its first showing in Baraboo, Wis., the family home, on May 19, 1884, and then embarked as a "wagon show." In 1890, it became a "railroad show" and went on to become the "Greatest Show on Earth." After 1918 the circus no longer wintered in Baraboo, although descendants of the family are still there. Prior to the opening in 1884, Albert realized that their name might not be sufficient to "sell" the circus. He had met an old showman, "Yankee" Robinson, who was in his sixties, ill and feeble, but at one time the owner of his own circus of considerable size. Al brought him into the group, and the first circus was called "Yankee Robinson and Ring-ling Brothers Great Double Shows, Circus and Caravan." "Yankee" died that August in Jefferson, Iowa, a stranger and without friends. He wore a Masonic pin, and the brethren of Jefferson gave him a Masonic burial at lodge expense. When Al came back to check on his friend, he found him dead and buried. The Ringling Brothers then provided a monument. Previous to the organization of the circus, the brothers had operated the "Classic Concert Co.," in which each took a part, and later the "Ringling Bros. Comedy Concert Co." They played in small town halls. John, who survived the rest, became head of Ringling Bros., Barnum & Bailey Circus; was subsequently head of the American Circus Corp., which included Sells-Floto Circus, Hagenbach Animal Show (his second wife was Emily Haag Buck), and the John Robinson, Sparks, and Al G. Barnes shows. He financially aided Tex Rickard in building Madison Square Garden in N.Y.C., engaged in oil production in Oklahoma, and was noted for his philanthropies. August Ringling, the father of the seven brothers, was raised in Baraboo Lodge No. 34, Baraboo, Wis., on August 19, 1891, and held membership until his death in 1898. The seven brothers were all members of the same bodies: Baraboo Lodge No. 34, Baraboo Valley Chapter No. 49, R.A.M., St. John Commandery No. 21, K.T., all of Baraboo, Wis., and 32° AASR at Milwaukee. The brothers actually preceded their father into Masonry. First to petition was Alfred T., known as Alf T., who was raised Jan. 22, 1890, and died Oct. 21, 1919; John was raised March 1, 1890 and died Dec. 1, 1936; Albert C., known as Al, was raised March 29, 1890 and died Jan. 1, 1916; Charles E. was raised April 9, 1890 and died Dec. 3, 1926; Otto was raised April 9, 1890 and died March 31, 1911; August G. was raised Feb. 4, 1891 and died Dec. 18, 1907. Henry was raised March 18, 1891 and died Oct. 9, 1918. A picture of the Scottish Rite class of Nov. 17-20, 1891, in the Valley of Milwaukee, shows Alfred T., Charles E., Albert C., and William H. 0. as members of the class. The minutes of the meeting of Baraboo Lodge on April 8, 1891 are of interest. This was a special meeting called to hear a report of a committee relative to the purchase of a lot where the temple now stands. The meeting was opened by the regular officers, after which the following assumed the chairs; W.M., Alf T. Ringling; S.W., August Ringling; J.W., Al Ringling; S.D., Charles Ring-ling; J.D., Otto Ringling; and S.S., Henry Ringling.


            Duke of Rio Branco Brazilian statesman. b. in 1845. He formerly was Chancellor Jose Maria da Silva Parnahos. Was at one time president of the council of ministers of Brazil, and grand commander of the Scottish Rite in Brazil. In 1873 the Bishop of Pernambuco, Brazil, sought to enforce in his diocese the pontifical bull of excommunication against Freemasons issued by Pope Pius, q.v. A number of bishops joined a concentrated movement to have Masonic lodges banned, although the government had announced the right of Freemasonry to exist. The subject was debated before the senate of Brazil. Rio Branco, answering the attacks, gave a splendid explanation of Freemasonry which ended with the following plea: "God preserve us, indeed, from a principle of faith which denies to us the right to appreciate the character and tendencies of a Brazilian civil association upon the grounds that the spiritual power has declared it anti-religious. If today the principle is admitted in relation to Masonry, tomorrow the same power will say that another civil institution comes within its anathemas, will proscribe its members, leaving to them no other recourse than to be silent, obey and suffer.”


            Ezra Ripley (1751-1841) Clergyman. b. May 1, 1751 in Woodstock, Conn. Graduate of Harvard in 1776, taught, and subsequently studied theology; in 1778 was ordained to the ministry in Concord, Mass., where he continued for 63 years, preaching his last sermon the day after his 90th birthday. He was a leader in the temperance cause. His step-son was Ralph Waldo Emerson, the poet, who wrote of him, "In him perished more personal and local anectdote of Concord and its vicinity than is possessed by any survivor, and in his constitutional leaning to their religion he was one of the rear-guard of the great camp and army of the Puritans." In 1836 he gave the land upon which is built the monument that commemorates the Battle of Concord. Member of Corinthian Lodge, Concord, Mass. d. Sept. 21, 1841.


            1st Marquess of Ripon (see under Earl of De Grey).


            Emil Rittershaus (1834-1897) German lyric poet. Initiated in 1863. Served as master of the Lodge Leasing at Berman.


            Charles Ritz President of International Milling Co., 1943-55; chairman of board since 1955. b. Feb. 15, 1891 in Mitchell, Ont., Canada. Began as a stenographer. Became associated with Robin Hood Flour Mills, Moose Jaw, Sask., Canada in 1910, becoming general manager in 1931; has been president since 1938. Became vice president of International Milling Co., Minneapolis, Minn. in 1937, and president in 1943. Life member of Tudor Lodge No. 141, Mitchell, Ont., Canada, receiving degrees, Feb. 23, April 27, June 22, 1915. Exalted in Elliot Chapter No. 129, R.A.M., Mitchell, Ont., April 13, 1917. Life member of Richard Coeur de Lion Preceptory, Montreal; 32° AASR at Minneapolis, Minn., and member of Court No. 53, Royal Order of Jesters.


            Eurith Dickinson Rivers Governor of Georgia, 1937-41. b. Dec. 1, 1895 in Center Point, Ark. Graduate of Young Harris Coll. and Piedmont Coll. Has served as city attorney of Lakeland and Cairo, Ga.; county attorney of Grady and Lanier counties; member and speaker of state legislature; member and president pro tem of the state senate. He owns and operates radio station WGOV at Valdosta, Ga. Member of the national board of directors of Woodman of the World, Omaha, Nebr. Member of Lakeland Lodge No. 434, Lakeland, Ga. and received 32° AASR (SJ) at Savannah, April 16, 1937.


            L. Mendel Rivers U.S. Congressman to 77th-86th Congresses, 194160, from 1st S. Car. dist. b. Sept. 28, 1905 in Berkeley Co., S. Car. Attended Coll. of Charleston and U. of South Carolina Law School; was admitted to the bar in 1932. Served in state legislature, 1933-36. Raised March 15, 1939 in Landmark Lodge No. 76, Charleston, S. Car.


            Charles N. Rix (1843-1927) Banker; General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons. b. May 28, 1843 in Kalamazoo, Mich. Served in Union forces in Civil War and continued in pay department, U.S. Army, until 1867. He began in the banking business as a bookkeeper in 1867. Moved to Arkansas, where he was president of the Arkansas National Bank of Hot Springs for 27 years, and was president of several companies. Served as president of the Arkansas Bankers Assn. Received degrees in Dowagiac Lodge No. 10, Dowagiac, Mich. in 1866, and became member and past master of Hot Springs Lodge No. 62 in Ark. Served as grand high priest, grand master of the grand council, and grand commander of Arkansas. 33° AASR (SJ). Elected general grand high priest in 1924, resigning at the time of the election due to ill health. d. Sept. 2, 1927.


            George F. Rixey Brigadier General and Deputy Chief of Chaplains, 1942-45. b. March 2, 1888 in Jones-burg, Mo. Attended Central Coll. (Mo.), U. of Missouri, Vanderbilt U., and graduated from Central Wesleyan Coll., Warrenton, Mo. in 1909. Ordained elder in Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in 1913. Served churches in Louisiana, Troy, Gallatin, and Chillicothe, Mo. from 190917. Became chaplain in U.S. Army in 1917, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1944, and retiring in 1948. He was chaplain of the 65th Infantry, 1917-22, in El Paso, Texas and with A.E.F. in France. Served at Camps Funston, Meade, and Fort Washington. Was chaplain of the 26th Cavalry in the Philippines, 1929-30; post chaplain of the Presidio of San Francisco, 1930-35; chaplain of U.S. Army forces in China, Tientsin, 1935-37; at Fort Slocum, 1937-40; in office of Chief of Chaplains, Washington, D.C., 1940-42; deputy chief of chaplains, 1942-45; assistant to Inspector General, 1945-46; chaplain2nd Army, 1946-48; chaplain of U.S. Forces in Korea, 1947-48. He is a member of Moscow Lodge No. 558, Moscow Mills, Mo. Was exalted Dec. 23, 1909 in Pike Chapter No. 86, Louisiana, Mo., serving as high priest in 1911. He affiliated with Gallatin Chapter No. 11, Gallatin, Mo., on Jan. 9, 1914 and served as its high priest in 1915-16. Received Order of High-priesthood in 1911. Was knighted in Triumphal Commandery No. 65, K.T. (now defunct) at Louisiana, Mo. in 1911 and affiliated with Pascal Cornmandery No. 32, Chillicothe, Mo. in 1916. Was awarded 40-year Knight Templar certificate on Oct. 24, 1959.


            Jose Rizal (1861-1896) National hero of the Philippines. b. June 19, 1861 in Calamba, Laguna. Was educated in the U. of Madrid, Spain. A teacher and writer, he preached unity among the Filipinos. He was willing to live under the Spanish flag, but advocated reforms that gave the natives greater participation in the management of their internal affairs. He was exiled by the Spanish government for his political tale, Noli me Tangere (Touch Me Not), written in 1886. While in exile, he published a second political novel, El Filibusterismo (1891). On his return from exile he was arrested, and was shot on the field of Bagumbayam on Dec. 30, 1896. He was made a Mason in Acacia Lodge No. 9, Spain, in 1884, and the following year joined a French lodge in Paris. He is credited with the establishment of the lodge Filipino, in the Philippines, and was venerable master of Lakandola Lodge of Perfection, Scottish Rite. On Dec. 12, 1912 the remains of Rizal were removed from the home of his sfater to Solomon's Temple in Tondo. The lodges under the Gran Logia Regional de Filipinas, with Sinukuan Lodge No. 305 (now 16) in charge, participated in the Masonic services over the remains. On the next morning, again with Sinukuan Lodge in charge, the Masons marched in procession with full Masonic regalia to the sister's home, where the remains were turned over to the government's representatives. The remains were then taken to the legislative building where the government also held funeral services. A request that the remains be taken to the Roman Catholic cathedral for religious services was turned down. The Catholic Church claimed that Rizal had renounced Freemasonry on the eve of his execution and had reembraced the church. Every evidence refutes the reported "conversion," which was not claimed until many years after the execution, and after Rizal became the "George Washington of the Philippines.”


            Ross Rizley U.S. Congressman to 77th-80th Congresses, 1941-49, from 8th Okla. dist.; Federal Judge, Western District of Oklahoma. b. July 5, 1892 in Beaver, Okla. Graduate of U. of Kansas City in 1915, and admitted to Okla. bar that year, practicing at Beaver. He was state senator, 193135. In 1953-54 he was assistant secretary of agriculture. Received degrees in Beaver Lodge No. 7, Beaver, Okla. in 1918 and is presently a member of Guymon Lodge No. 335, Guymon, Okla. 32° AASR (SJ) at Guthrie; India Shrine Temple, Oklahoma City; Jester at Guthrie; Eastern Star at Guymon, and DeMolay Legion of Honor.


            Archibald Roane (1760-1819) Governor of Tennessee in 1801-03. b. in Lancaster Co., Pa. He was the second governor of Tennessee. He served in several judicial offices. Member of Tennessee Lodge No. 2 of Knoxville (was No. 41 under North Carolina). He died Jan. 4, 1819 and was buried in Pleasant Forest Cemetery at Campbell Station, Roane County, Tenn., the county being named in his honor.


            John S. Roane (1817-1867) Governor of Arkansas, 1848-52. b. Jan. 8, 1817 in Wilson Co., Tenn. Graduate of Cumberland Coll., Princeton, Ky., and served in the Arkansas legislature. Was speaker of same in 1844. He participated in the Mexican War as a lieutenant colonel of Arkansas cavalry under Col. Archibald Yell, q.v., and commanded the regiment after Yell was killed. In the Civil War he was a brigadier general in the provisional Confederate Army and commanded the district of Little Rock. From 1855-65 he was on the board of visitors from the Grand Lodge of Arkansas to St. Johns College (Masonic). d. April 7, 1867.


            Clair E. Robb Justice, Supreme Court of Kansas from 1954. b. April 13, 1905 in Wichita, Kans. Graduate of Washburn Coll. in 1933 and admitted to bar that year, practicing at Wichita. Served as city and district judge. Member of Albert Pike Lodge No. 303, Wichita, 32° AASR (SJ) at Wichita, and member of Milian Shrine Temple. He organized the Midian Quartet, which was dubbed Imperial Shrine Quartet. Past president of Wichita High Twelve and member of DeMolay Legion of Honor.


            Sir Alfred Robbins (1856-1931) English journalist. One of the most important Freemasons of his time, he was known as the "Prime Minister of Freemasonry" in Great Britain. b. Aug. 1, 1856, at Launceston, Cornwall. He was an active journalist for 50 years, 45 of which were spent in Fleet Street. He represented the Birmingham Post for 36 years as its London drama critic and correspondent. For many years he was chairman of the London District of the Institute of Journalists. He was initiated in Gallery Lodge No. 1928, London in Dec., 1888; exalted in Gallery Chapter No. 1928, R.A.M. in Oct., 1897; and in Oct., 1920 became a member of Tuscan Lodge No. 454, Royal Ark Mariners. On Jan. 8, 1929 Alfred Robbins Lodge No. 5083 of London was constituted in his honor. He was appointed past grand deacon of the Grand Lodge of England in 1908, and past grand warden in 1923. He was president of the important board of general purposes of that grand lodge from 1913 until his death on March 10, 1931. In 1924 he made a visit to the United States in the interests of Masonic unity and friendship, visiting many American grand lodges at that time.


            Daniel Roberdeau (1727-1795) First Brigadier General of Pennsylvania troops in the Revolution; member of the Continental Congress. b. in 1727 on the Island of St. Christopher, West Indies, he came to Philadelphia with his mother's family in his youth. Here he became a merchant, and was manager of the Pennsylvania Hospital, 1756-58 and 1766-76. He was closely associated with Franklin and Alexander Hamilton. Was an early member of the "associators," fitted out two ships as privateers, and was chosen a member of the council of safety. Elected brigadier general of the Pa. troops on July 4, 1776, he was called to the aid of Washington in New Jersey in 1777. Was active in supporting the Articles of Confederation, and affixed his name to that document on the part of Pa. He was three times elected to congress, and served until 1779. In 1778, there being a scarcity of lead for the army, he opened a lead mine in Bedford Co., where he was obliged to erect a stockade for protection from the Indians. Most of the expense of this operation was paid from his own pocket. After the war he moved to Alexandria, Va., where he often entertained General Washington. He was a member of the "first" lodge in Philadelphia; is recorded at one time as a visitor to Lodge No. 3 of that city, and was a contributor to the Masonic Hall erected there. d. Jan. 5, 1795.


            William G. Roberds Judge, Supreme Court of Mississippi, 1941-50; now justice. b. March 8, 1884 in Prairie, Miss. Graduate of Miss. Agricultural and Mechanical Coll., in 1907, and U. of Mississippi in 1910. Was in private law practice from 1910-26 and 1930-37. Was instructor of law at U. of Mississippi for seven years. Raised Feb. 5, 1917 in Aberdeen Lodge No. 32, Aberdeen, Miss. (now Walter W. Kimmel Lodge). Dimitted April 3, 1919 and on Aug. 9 affiliated with West Point Lodge No. 159, West Point, Miss.


            Robert I (1274-1329) Known as Robert the Bruce, king and liberator of Scotland. Was originally Robert VIII, but in 1306 he was crowned as Robert I at Scone. He was defeated by the English that year and took refuge on the coast of Ireland. He was excommunicated and outlawed. He returned in 1307, and in two years wrested most of Scotland from the English, routing Edward II's army at Bannockburn in 1314. He repulsed the English again and again, until finally Edward III recognized the independence of Scotland by the Treaty of Northampton in 1328. There is a legend that Robert the Bruce founded the Royal Order of Scotland. It is said that at the dissolution of the Order of the Temple, some of those persecuted individuals took refuge in Scotland, placed themselves under the protection of Robert the Bruce, and assisted him at the Battle of Bannockburn, which was fought on St. John's Day, 1314. After the battle the Royal Order was founded, and from the fact that the Templars had contributed to the victory, and because of subsequent grants to their order by King Robert, for which they were formally excommunicated by the church, it has by some been identified with that ancient military order. It was originally the Order of Saint Andrew of the Thistle, to which he afterwards united that of Heredom and Rosy Cross, for the sake of the Scottish Freemasons who made a part of the 30,000 men who fought with him. He reserved forever to himself and his successors the title of Grand Master. His titles have descended through the Elgin family to this date, Edward James Bruce, 10th Earl of Elgin, q.v., being the head of the Royal Order of Scotland, and possessor of the great sword of Robert the Bruce that has been handed down through the family. d. July 9, 1329.


            Albert H. Roberts (1868-1946) Governor of Tennessee, 1919-21. b. July 4, 1868 in Overton Co., Tenn. Graduate of Hiwassee Coll. (Tenn.) in 1889 and 1892. Taught school five years and was county superintendent of schools two terms. Practiced law in Overton Co. from 18941910. Member of Livingston Lodge No. 259, Livingston, Tenn. d. June 25, 1946.


            Bonny K. Roberts Justice, Supreme Court of Florida since 1949. b. Feb. 5, 1907 in Sopchoppy, Fla. Graduate of U. of Florida in 1928. In general law practice at Tallahassee, 1928-49, and a business executive since 1928. Mason and Shriner.


            Donald F. Roberts Vice President of Acacia Mutual Life Insurance Co. since 1941. b. Dec. 14, 1902 in Lakewood, Ohio. Graduate of Wharton School of Finance, U. of Pennsylvania in 1924. A director of Consolidated Title Corp., Washington, D.C. since 1935, and director of Lawyers Title Insurance Co. since 1935. Vice president of Acacia Mutual, 1941-56, and financial vice president since 1956. Member of Temple-Noyes Lodge No. 32, Washington, D.C.


            Ellsworth A. Roberts President and Director of Fidelity Mutual Life Insurance Co. of Philadelphia since 1943. b. July 3, 1896 in Houghton, Mich. Graduate of Yale in 1922. Practiced law in Duluth, Minn., 1922-25, and was vice president and general counsel of Minnesota Mutual Life Ins. Co., 1934-43. Is a director Bell Telephone of Pa., Delaware & Bound Brook R.R., Great American Insurance Co., National Fire Insurance Co., and many others. Served as second lieutenant in Army, 1918-19. Mason.


            Everett D. Roberts Judge, Supreme Court of South Dakota since 1930. b. Aug. 17, 1890 in Buena Vista Co., Ia. Graduate of U. of South Dakota in 1918, starting law practice at Chamberlain, S. Dak. in 1918. Was assistant attorney general of S. Dak., 1928-30; president of the state historical society, 1943-44. Raised April 16, 1918 in Incense Lodge No. 2, Vermillion, S. Dak.


            Field Marshal Frederick S. Roberts (1832-1914) 1st Earl Roberts of Kandahar, Pretoria, and Waterford, nicknamed by his soldiers "Bobs." b. at Cawnpore, India, the son of a British general, he served in the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857-58, winning the Victoria Cross for heroism at Khudaganj. He aided in the siege and capture of Delhi, the relief of Lucknow, and the Battle of Cawnpore. In the second Afghan War, he forced Afghan position at Peiwar Kotal, took Kabul, and reentered the Afghan capital in 1879. He made the memorable march from Kabul to the relief of Kandahar, and pacified Afghanistan in 1880. He was commander-in-chief of Ireland in 1895-99. He relieved Kimberley and compelled the Boers under Cronje to surrender at Paardeberg in 1900. He annexed the Orange Free State, the Transvaal, and occupied Pretoria. After retiring in 1904 he devoted himself to the creation of a civilian army. He was a member and past master of Kyber Lodge, Peshawur, India.


            Oran M. Roberts (1815-1898) Governor of Texas, 1879-83. b. July 9, 1815 in St. Car. Graduate of the U. of Alabama in 1836, studied law, and served in the Ala. legislature in 1839-40. Moved to Texas in 1841, where he was appointed district attorney and later district judge in 1846, holding the latter office for five years. In 1857 he was elected justice of the supreme court of Texas. He was elected president of the secession convention, and was a colonel in the Confederate Army from 1862-64, when he was called to return to the bench as chief justice. In 1866 he was elected to the U.S. senate, but denied the seat. He was again chief justice of Texas from 1876-79, and after his governorship was a professor of law in the U. of Texas. Raised in McFarland Lodge No. 3, San Augustine, Texas on Feb. 4, 1846. Later dimitted to Clinton Lodge No. 23, Henderson; then back to McFarland Lodge and finally to St. John Lodge No. 53, Tyler, Texas. d. May 19, 1898.


            Ralph H. Roberts Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Oct. 1, 1896 in Tuscola, III Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1918, and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1947. Was in overseas transport and escort duty in WWI. In WWII he commanded the cruiser, U.S.S. St. Louis in the Solomons, Bougainville, New Britain, Mariannas, and Philippine campaigns. He specialized in gunnery and ordnance. He was director of ordnance production of the bureau of ordnance, Navy Dept., W and since 1946 served as manager of the Elmira works of General Electric Co. Mason.


            William B. Roberts Protestant Episcopal Bishop of South Dakota from 1931. b. Dec. 10, 1881 in Detroit, Mich. Graduate of Trinity Coll. (Conn.) in 1905, and Berkeley Divinity School in 1908. Ordained deacon in 1908 and priest in 1909. Was missionary in charge of Dallas and other points in Rosebud Co., S. Dak., 1908-22, and consecrated suffragan bishop of S. Dak. in 1922. Was chaplain of the 313th Engineers, A.E.F. in 1918-19. Raised Jan. 18, 1911 in Gateway Lodge No. 150, Dallas, S. Dak. and was master of same in 1916; 33° AASR (SJ); Knight Templar and Shriner.


            Andrew W. Robertson Chairman of Board of Westinghouse Electric Corp., 1929-51, and now chairman of finance committee. b. Feb. 7, 1880 in Panama, N.Y. A.B. and LL.D. from Allegheny Coll., and LLB. from U. of Pittsburgh. Began law practice at Pittsburgh in 1910. Became general attorney for Philadelphia Co. and affiliated corporations (public utilities) in 1819; vice president, 1923-26; and president, 1926-29. Is also director of Chase National Bank, N.Y.C. Received degrees in Beta Lodge No. 647, Wilkinsburg, Pa. on March 25, April 22, May 27, 1912 and on Sept. 15, 1916 affiliated with Dormont Lodge No. 684, Dormont, Pa.


            Charles R. Robertson (1889-1951) U.S. Congressman to 77th, 1941-43, and 79th-80th Congresses, 1945-49, from N. Dak. b. Sept. 5, 1889 at Arlington, Wis. Entered wholesale dry goods field at Minneapolis, moving to Aberdeen, S. Dak. in 1910, Redfield, 1912, and Mandan, N. Dak. in 1917. Organized Robertson's, Inc. (women's wear) at Valley City, N. Dak. in 1921, and later opened branches at Jamestown, Wahpeton, and Bismarck. Raised in Aberdeen Lodge No. 38, Aberdeen, S. Dak. Affiliated with Mandan Lodge No. 8, Mandan, N. Dak. on Nov. 4, 1919; affiliated with Valley City Lodge No. 7., Valley City, N. Dak., June 1, 1926; affiliated with Bismarck Lodge No. 5, Bismarck, N. Dak., on Feb. 18, 1935, where he retained membership until his death on Feb. 18, 1951.


            David B. Robertson President of Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen from 1913-1922. b. May 13, 1876 in West Austintown, Ohio. Employed by a nut and bolt works in Youngstown, Ohio at age of 12, and later with brick works and machine shop. Entered railroading with Pennsylvania R.R. as an engine wiper in 1895, became a hostler, fireman, and engineer on the Erie R.R., 1898-1913. Became general chairman of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Engineers of the Erie system from 1905-13; president, 191322. Member of Western Star Lodge No. 21, Youngstown, Ohio, receiving degrees on Dec. 18, 1903, Jan. 22, April 7, 1904. Received 50-year medal from grand lodge.


            Edward V. Robertson U.S. Senator from Wyoming, 1943-49. b. May 27, 1881 in Cardiff, Wales. Served in Boer War, 1899-1902; engaged in mechanical and electric power engineering until he immigrated to the U.S. in 1912, and settled in Park Co., Wyoming. Here he engaged in raising livestock, and was in the mercantile business at Cody from 1912-42. Member of Shoshone Lodge No. 21, Cody, Wyoming, and served as master of same in 1928. Received the degrees on June 15, 30, July 27, 1922. Now lives in Denver, Colo.


            James Robertson (1742-1814) American pioneer and brigadier general. b. June 28, 1742 in Brunswick Co., Va. The family moved to Wake Co., N. Car. about 1750, where he worked on a farm and received no education. In 1759 he accompanied Daniel Boone on his third expedition beyond the Alleghenies. Here he found a valley, watered by the Watauga River, which he explored while Boone went to Ky. The following spring Robertson led 16 families tothe West. He was the first settler of Nashville. For many years this small group fought the Indians for the land. In 1776 Robertson and John Sevier, q.v., built a fort at Watauga, and with 40 men withstood a siege of 20 days. In 1779 he emigrated to the Cumberland region, leaving Sevier in charge at Watauga. Here they had a long conflict with the Cherokees, who outnumbered them 100-to-1. At the close of the Revolutionary War he was able to bring 500 trained Indian fighters into the field. Through his diplomacy, he made friends with the Choctaws and Chickasaws who severed their alliance with Great Britain, and in 1790 Washington appointed him brigadier general and Indian commissioner for the area. He fought the half-breed Creek chief, Alexander McGillivray, q.v., on many occasions after peace had been secured with the other Indians, and had great difficulty with Spain, who supported McGillivray. He was a member of Harmony Lodge No. 1 of Tenn. and was buried Masonically upon his death, Sept. 1, 1814.


            J. B. A. Robertson (1871-1938) Governor of Oklahoma, 1919-23. b. March 15, 1871 in Keokuk Co., Iowa. Moved of Oklahoma in 1893; admitted to the bar in 1898. Served as county attorney, district judge, and member of state capitol and supreme court commissions. Raised in Chandler Lodge No. 58, Sept. 18, 1900; later affiliated with Siloam Lodge No. 276 of Oklahoma City, and was life member of same. Was exalted in Chandler Chapter No. 51, R.A.M., Sept. 6, 1905, and knighted in Oklahoma Cornmandery No. 3, K.T. Received the Scottish Rite at Guthrie in April, 1903, and became member of India Shrine Temple, Oklahoma City in June, 1903. d. March 7, 1938.


            J. Ross Robertson ( 1841-1918) Canadian newspaper publisher, Masonic author, and philanthropist. b. Dec. 28, 1841 in Toronto, Ontario. Educated at Upper Canada Coll, and at the same time edited a small college paper from his father's home, 1857-60. He then edited Young Canada; the Grumbler; Sporting Life; and Canadian. Railway Guide. Entering the newspaper field, he was city editor of the Toronto Globe, and spent several years in England as its correspondent. In 1866 he founded the Daily Telegraph, in 1875, the Nation, and in 1876, the Evening Telegram. He published a 20-volume series dealing with the history of the city of Toronto. He was a collector of books, rare prints, and historical objects. He was chairman of the board of the Hospital for Sick Children, and visited the hospital every day for 35 years. He personally built many hospital buildings, and many civic benefits in Toronto are due to his efforts. He three times declined to be a candidate for mayor of Toronto, and in 1902 declined knighthood and a senatorship. He was invited by King Edward to attend his coronation in 1902. His Masonic writings are standard works in Canada, and include Talks With Craftsman; History of the Cryptic Rite; History of Knights Templar of Canada; and the two-volume History of Freemasonry in Canada. He was made a Freemason on March 14, 1867 in King Solomon's Lodge No. 22, Toronto, and was master in 1880. In 1879 he was master of Mimico Lodge No. 369. In 1890 he was elected grand master of the Grand Lodge of Canada, and was reelected the following year. As grand master he visited all 354 lodges of that jurisdiction. A member of King Solomon Chapter No. 8, R.A.M.; 33° AASR; prior of the Great Priory (K.T.) of Canada; and past grand master of the Grand Council R & S.M. His last act of benevolence was the donation of $111,000 to the Children's Hospital, eleven days before his death, May 31, 1918.


            Reuben Buck Robertson President of Champion Paper and Fibre Co., 1946-50, and now chairman of the board. b. June 11, 1879 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Graduate of Yale in 1900 and law student at U. of Cincinnati. Was an attorney from 1903-06, and on special assignments in manufacturing, 1907-12. Became general manager of Champion Fibre Co. in 1912, vice president in 1918, and president from 1925-35. Became executive vice president of Champion Paper & Fibre Co. in 1935, and president and chairman in 1946. Served on National War Labor Board; past president of American Paper and Pulp Assn.; and past director of National Assn. of Manufacturers. In 1951 he was named "Man of the South." Received degrees in Avon Lodge No. 542, Cincinnati, Ohio on June 16, Sept. 22, Oct. 20, 1903. Member of Scottish Rite. Dimitted Dec. 12, 1911.


            Reuben B. Robertson, Jr. President of Champion Paper and Fibre Co. since 1950. b. June 27, 1908 in Asheville, N. Car. Has been with Champion Co. since graduation from Yale in 1930, successively as assistant manager of the Canton division, production manager and vice president, general production manager of all divisions, and director of personnel. In 1955-57 he was deputy secretary of defense. Is a director of B. F. Goodrich Co., and Procter & Gamble Co. Served from captain to lieutenant colonel in Army. Received degrees in Pigeon River Lodge No. 386, Canton, N. Car. on June 4, 29, Aug. 13, 1934, dimitting in 1947 and affiliating with Benjamin Franklin Lodge No. 719, Hamilton, Ohio on Oct. 21, 1948.


            Edward D. Robie (1831-1911) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Sept. 11, 1831 in Burlington, Vt. Became assistant engineer, U.S.N., in 1852, was promoted through grades to commodore, and retired on Sept. 11, 1893. On May 29, 1906 Congress advanced him to the rank of rear admiral for his Civil War record. He circumnavigated the globe in the U.S.S. Mississippi in Perry's Japan expedition of 1852-55. He erected and operated the first line of electric telegraph ever seen in Japan, and instructed the Japanese in building and operating the first steam railroad. He took the first daguerreotypes to Japan. He was on the U.S.S. Susquehanna with the expedition to capture the filibusters in Nicaragua, and in the laying of the first ocean cable to Ireland in 1857, when the cable broke. Was a member of the board which designed the first iron floating dry dock for the U.S.N.; fleet engineer of the combined fleets at Key West, Fla., during trouble with Spain in 1874; and selected and fitted out vessels for the Spanish-American War in 1898. He was fleet engineer of the North Pacific station, 1866-69; European station, 1871-74; Pacific Fleet, 1879-81; Norfolk Navy Yard, 1874-77 and 188791; Boston Navy Yard, 1881-84; New York Navy Yard, 1884-87. Member of Binghamton Lodge No. 177, Binghamton, N.Y. d. 1911.


            Frederick Robie (1822-1912) Governor of Maine, 1883-87. b. Aug. 12, 1822 in Gorham, Maine. Graduate of Bowdoin in 1841, and M.D. from Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, in 1844. Practiced medicine at Biddeford, Maine, 1844-55, and at Gorham, 185960. Served in Civil War. He was president of the First National Bank of Portland from 1891, and also president of the Derigo Fire Insurance Co. of Maine. Member of the Maine house of representatives for eight terms, and was twice speaker. Member of the state senate, 1866-67. Was a member of Harmony Lodge No. 38, Gorham, Maine, as well as the chapter and commandery. d. in 1912.


            Abbe Claude Robin A French litterateur and curate of Saint Pierred'Angers. In 1776 he advanced his views on the origin of Freemasonry in a lecture before the Lodge of the Nine Sisters at Paris. He subsequently enlarged this, and it was published in 1770, under the title, Studies on Ancient and Modern Initiations. In this work the abbe deduces from the ancient initiations in the pagan mysteries, the orders of chivalry, whose branches, he says, produced the initiation of Freemasonry.


            Augustine W. Robins (1882-1940) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 18, 1882 in Gloucester Co., Va. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1907, and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1917. In 1935 he was chief of Air Corps material division at Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. Mason. d. June 16, 1940.


            Charles A. Robins Governor of Idaho, 1947-51. b. Dec. 8, 1884 in Defiance, Iowa. Graduate of William Jewell Coll. (Mo.) in 1907 and M.D. degree from U. of Chicago in 1917. Was in general medical practice at St. Maries, Idaho, 1919-46. Served several terms as state senator, and was president pro tern in 1943-44. Member of St. Maries Lodge No. 63, St. Manes, Idaho, and senior deacon at time of his election as governor.


            Sir Ellis Robins First Rhodes Scholar. An American by birth, he was born in 1884 in Philadelphia, his father being an army officer, and his mother a native of Berkshire, England. Graduate of the U. of Pennsylvania, he was chosen as the first Rhodes scholar for Oxford U., England, under the scholarships endowed by Cecil Rhodes, q.v., for students from England, its colonies, the U.S., and Germany. After his years at Christ Church, Oxford, he went to Africa, where he formed a close acquaintance with Rhodes, and became entrusted with important posts in the new territory, which had been given the name of Rhodesia. In 1914 he was mobilized to active service with the City of London Yeomanry, and served overseas in the Middle East and Egyptian expeditionary forces from 1915-21. Was awarded the D.S.O., and in 1933 was made a commander of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. He is resident director in Africa of the British South Africa Company, and a director of the Rhodesia Railway Trust, Rhodesia Land Bank, Anglo-American Corp. of South Africa, and others. In 1953 he was host to Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, on her visit to Rhodesia, at the centenary of the birth of Cecil Rhodes. He became district grand master for Rhodesia in 1937, as well as grand inspector of the Royal Arch chapters there. He was appointed past grand deacon of the Grand Lodge of England in 1934.


            Thomas Robins (1868-1957) Inventor of the belt conveyor, now largely used for carrying ores, coal, etc. b. Sept. 1, 1868 in Highland Falls, N.Y. Began a series of inventions in 1892 which eventually led to the belt conveyor. Was awarded the Grand Prize, Paris Expedition, in 1900. Was chairman of board of Hewitt-Robins, Inc. Received degrees in York Lodge No. 197, N.Y.C. on May 13, 27, June 24, 1904. d. Nov. 4, 1957.


            Arthur R. Robinson U.S. Senator from Indiana, 1925-35. b. March 12, 1881 in Pickering, Ohio. Graduate of Ohio Northern U. in 1901, Indiana Law School, 1910, and U. of Chicago, 1913. Admitted to Indiana bar in 1910. Was member of state senate, 1915-18, and later, judge of county superior court. Served as Infantry lieutenant in WWI overseas. Received degrees in Capital City Lodge No. 312, Indianapolis, Ind. on July 13, 20, 27, 1909 and master of same in 1916. Received 50-year button on Nov. 24, 1959. Member of Scottish Rite at Indianapolis; was master of Adoniram Lodge of Perfection in 1926-27 and received 33° AASR (NJ) in 1924.


            Charles Robinson (1818-1894) First governor of Kansas, when it became a state in 1861. b. July 21, 1818 in Hardwick, Mass. Medical graduate in 1843, he practiced at Belchertown, Springfield, and Fitchburg, Mass. until 1849, when he went overland to Calif. There in Sacramento he edited a daily paper called Settlers's and Miner's Tribune. He took part in the riots of 1850, and was arrested and indicted for conspiracy and murder, for upholding the squatter sovereignty. While under indictment, he was elected to the legislature, and the charges were later dropped without trial. He returned to Fitchburg, Mass. in 1852, where he edited a weekly paper called the News. In June, 1854, he went to Kansas as an agent of the New England emigrants' aid society. He settled in Lawrence, became the leader of the Free State party, and was commander-in-chief of the Kansas volunteers. He was a member of the Topeka convention that adopted a free-state constitution in 1855, and under it was elected governor in 1856. He was then indicted for treason and usurpation of office, but was acquitted by a jury. He was again elected by the Free-State party in 1858, and for the third time in 1859. He organized most of the Kansas regiments for the Civil War. Later he served one term. as representative and two terms as state senator. He was defeated for governor in 1882, and in 1887 became superintendent of the Haskell Institute at Lawrence. Member of Lawrence Lodge No. 6, being raised July 21, 1859 and dimitting April 13, 1880. d. Aug. 17, 1894.


            Fayette L. "Yankee" Robinson (1818-1884) Early circus showman. b. May 2, 1818 in Avon, N.Y. Was apprenticed to a shoemaker, learning tent-making as well. He spent his evenings studying the Bible and dramatics; gave dancing lessons. In 1845 he commissioned an artist to do a 12 by15 foot oil painting of "The Raising of Lazarus and the Baptism of Christ." He prepared a Biblical lecture on the subject, built a small stage, loaded it in a wagon, and left for Chicago. Here he lectured at Judge Fuller's Museum at the corner of Randolph and Dearborn streets. He then traveled with theatrical companies and owned the first "Uncle Tom's Cabin" company to play under a tent. He bought two circuses, consolidating them into a "175-horse circus." In that day the size of a circus was determined by the number of horses it took to pull the wagons. He lost this circus, but soon had a 225-horse circus which was the largest of the day. This too, he lost, and then found employment with W. W. Cole circus, and later with Sells Bros. On May 19, 1884 he combined with the Ringling Brothers, q.q.v., to form The Yankee Robinson Ringling Bros. Great Double Show at Baraboo, Wis. On Aug. 27 of that year, he became sick at Bayard, Iowa, and Al Ringling put him on the train to make the trip to Lake City, Iowa. He became so ill that the conductor put him off at Jefferson, Iowa, where he died in the Charlie Dean Hotel, unknown. Inasmuch as he wore a Masonic ring, the funeral was conducted by Morning Star Lodge No. 159. When Al Ringling returned to search for him, he had already been buried. The Ringling Brothers erected a monument with Masonic emblems over his grave. His lodge has never been determined, but it might have been almost any place, as he showed in 4,000 cities and towns scattered throughout the U.S. and Canada. d. Sept. 4, 1884.


            Frank H. Robinson Major General, U.S. Air Force. b. April 10, 1904 in Everett, Wash. Commissioned a 2nd lieutenant in 1927, and advanced through grades to major general, U.S.A.F., in 1951. He commanded the 44th Bomb Group in England, 194243; was inspector general of Eastern Flying Training Command, 1943-45; then commanded Moody Field and Williams Field. Was chief of staff of 13th and 20th air forces at Okinawa, 1947-49; inspector general of Far East Air Forces, Japan, 1949-50; deputy commander of Central Air Defense Force, 1951-53; and since 1956 has commanded crew training at Randolph Field, Texas. Member of Centralia Lodge No. 63, Centralia, Wash. since 1921; 32* AASR in Balboa, C.Z.; Afifi Shrine Temple of Tacoma, Wash.; and Randolph Chapter No. 403, National Sojourners, Randolph AFB, Texas.


            George F. S. Robinson (see Earl of De Grey).


            James F. Robinson (1800-1882) Governor of Kentucky, 1862-63. b. Oct. 4, 1800 in Scott Co., Ky. A member of Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 14, Georgetown, Ky., he received his degrees on April 2, 23, 27, 1821, and was master of the lodge in 1822. He was buried with Masonic honors. Member of Georgetown Chapter No. 13, R.A.M. and past high priest of same. d. Nov. 1, 1882.


            John C. Robinson (1817-1897) Major General, U.S. Army. b. April 10, 1817 in Binghamton, N.Y. Attended U.S. Military Academy, but left a year before graduation to study law. Commissioned in 1839, and served in Mexican War. Was at battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, and the concluding operations of that war. He then campaigned against the hostile Indians of Texas, led expeditions against the Seminoles in Florida, and took part in the Utah expedition. At the beginning of the Civil War, he was in command of Fort McHenry, Baltimore. Commissioned brigadier general of volunteers in 1862 and commanded a brigade at Newport News. Transferred to the Army of the Potomac, he took part in the seven days' battles before Richmond, and commanded a division at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. Was also at Mine Run, Wilderness, and Spotsylvania Court House, being wounded in the latter battle and losing his left leg. Was breveted major general of volunteers in 1864, and major general, U.S. Army in March, 1865. He later commanded the Department of the South and the Department of the Lakes; retired on May 6, 1869 with full rank of major general. In 1877-78 he was commander-in-chief of the G.A.R., and served as president of the Society of the Army of the Potomac in 1887. Member of Binghamton Lodge No. 177, Binghamton, N.Y. He was first master of Rocky Mountain Lodge No. 205, Camp Floyd, Utah Territory. Recorded as a visitor to Otseningo Lodge No. 435, Binghamton, N.Y., on Jan. 5, 1860. Knighted in Monroe Commandery No. 12, Rochester, N.Y. on Feb. 4, 1851. d. Feb. 18, 1897.


            John G. Robinson Vice President of Container Corp. of America since 1949, and chairman of board of California Container Corp. since 1952. b. Dec. 23, 1904 in Cincinnati, Ohio. With the Container Corp. of America from 1926, successively as assistant sales manager at Cincinnati, general manager of Rock Island (Ill.) plant, and general manager of West Central division at Chicago. Mason, 32° AASR, and Shriner.


            John M. Robinson (1794-1843) U.S. Senator from Illinois, 1930-41. b. April 10, 1794 in Georgetown, Ky. Graduate of Translyvania U. at Lexington, Ky. Studied law and began practice in Carmi, Ill., in 1818. He was a judge of the state supreme court, andserved as a general in the state militia. Member of Western Star Lodge at Kaskaskia, Ill. d. April 25, 1843.• Jonathan Robinson (1756-1819) U.S. Senator from Vermont, 1807-15. b. Aug. 11, 1756 in Harwick, Mass. Studied law and began practice in Bennington, Vt. Was town clerk, member of state house of representatives, judge of probate court, and chief justice of the supreme court of Vermont, 1801-07. Member of Hiram Lodge No. 8, Pawlet, Vt., and at one time served as its master. d. Nov. 3, 1819.


            Joseph T. Robinson (1872-1937) Governor of Arkansas, 1913; U.S. Congressman, 58th-61st Congresses, 1903-13; and U.S. Senator, 1913-37. b. Aug. 26, 1872 in Lonoke Co., Ark. Admitted to bar in 1895, and began practice at Lonoke, Ark. He was Democratic majority leader of the senate from 1923-37. In 1928 he was unsuccessful candidate for vice president of the U.S. on the Democratic ticket, with Alfred E. Smith. Appointed member of the board of regents, Smithsonian Institution, in 1927. Member of Lonoke Lodge No. 51, Lonoke, Ark.; Scottish Rite at Little Rock, and Al Amin Shrine Temple, Little Rock. Also York Rite Mason. d. July 14, 1937.


            Simon W. Robinson (1792-1868) Sovereign Grand Commander of Supreme Council, 33° AASR Northern Jurisdiction, 1865-68. b. Feb. 19, 1792 in New Hampton, N.H. Served in the War of 1812, and one term in the Mass. state legislature. Initiated Nov. 29, 1819 in Mount Lebanon Lodge, Boston, Mass., he served as master for several years, and 15 years as treasurer. In 1839 was acting grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Mass.; grand master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts from 184648; and presided over the Grand Encampment, K.T. of Mass. and Rhode Island. Received the 33° at Boston in 1851; was lieutenant grand commander of the AASR (SJ) from 1861-65. d. Oct. 16, 1868.


            "Sugar Ray" Robinson One-time middle weight and light heavyweight boxing champion of the world. Member of Prince Hall affiliated lodge, Joppa No. 55, New York City.


            William D. Robinson (1856-1931) Pennsylvania doctor who was founder of the Volunteer Medical Service Corps, which at the time was the largest medical organization in the history of the world. b. March 25, 1856 in Fulton Co., Pa. Graduate of Philadelphia Coll. of Pharmacy in 1876, and received M.D. degree from U. of Pennsylvania in 1880. He practiced at Philadelphia. He was chairman and member of the board of the Sesquicentennial International Exposition at Philadelphia in 1926. Member of Corinthian Lodge No. 368, Philadelphia, Pa., receiving degrees on Feb. 19, March 19, April 16, 1895. d. Jan. 24, 1931.


            John Robison (1739-1805) Professor of natural history at the University of Edinburgh and secretary of the Royal Society in that city. He is said to have been initiated at Liege early in life, and for some time was a working Freemason. His importance to Masonry, however, stems from an anti-Masonic book published in 1797, entitled Proofs of a Conspiracy Against All the Religions and Governments of Europe Carried on in the Secret Meetings of the Freemasons, Illuminati, and Reading Societies Collected From Good Authorities. It created a great sensation, and Lord Moira, q.v., called for a defense on the part of Freemasonry. In his second edition, however, he admitted that Freemasonry had "retained in Britain its original form, simple and unadorned, and the lodges have remained the scenes of innocent merriment, or meetings of charity andbeneficence." The book was used in the U.S. by the anti-Masons of the Morgan period to bolster their claims.


            John M. Robison (1878-1948) U.S. Senator and U.S. Congressman from Kentucky. b. Jan. 2, 1878 in Bracken Co., Ky. Graduate of National Normal U. at Lebanon, Ohio, and Centre Coll., Danville, Ky. Began law practice at Barbourville, Ky. in 1898. Was faculty member of Union Coll. in that city. Served as congressman from Ky. to 66th-70th congresses, 1919-29, and 74th-80th congresses, 1935-48. From Jan. 9, 1930 to March 3, 1931 he was U.S. senator from Ky., filling an unexpired term. Member of Mountain Lodge No. 187, Barbourville, Ky., receiving degrees on Sept. 28, Nov. 23, Dec. 28, 1903. d. Feb. 17, 1948.


            Jean Baptiste Comte de Rochambeau (1725-1807) French General of American Revolution, and later Marshal of France. His father, who was governor of Vendome, sent his son to a Jesuit college to be educated for the priesthood. On the death of his older brother, however, his plans were changed. He entered the army in 1742, serving in central Europe and the Lowlands, receiving several wounds in action. Became a colonel in 1747, succeeding his father as Governor of Vendome, and after service in the Mediterranean and German campaigns, was made a brigadier general and decorated as a Knight of the Order of St. Louis. As a lieutenant general, he was given command of the expeditionary force sent by France to help the American colonies, and he landed at Newport, R.I. in Sept., 1780, where his troops went into winter quarters. The names of many Frenchmen appear on the old lodge records of Newport and Providence during 1780-83. He joined Washington's Continentals at White Plains, N.Y. in July, 1781. The joint forces marched southward, besieged Cornwallis at Yorktown, and with the French fleet preventing an escape by sea, forced Cornwallis to capitulate on Oct. 19, 1781. After a tour of the states, Rochambeau returned to France, where he received many honors from the king. He was made Marshal of France and head of the army. During the French Revolution, he was arrested, imprisoned, and narrowly escaped the guillotine. With the rise of power of Napoleon, however, Rochambeau was accorded recognition as a famous soldier of France, and was pensioned by the emperor. His membership has not been established, but he and Lafayette and nearly 100 others, were listed as visiting brothers at the institution of the Lodge of Saint John de Candeur at Paris on Oct. 25, 1775.


            Princess of Rochelle Italian noblewoman who was grand mistress of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem —an early emanation of Masonry in the 18th century. Other grand mistresses were the Duchess of Wisembourg (Germany), Princess de Latour, and Countess of Maille (both of France).


            Knute Rockne (1888-1931) Football player and coach. b. at Voss, Norway, and came to the U.S. in 1893, settling in Chicago. Graduate of Notre Dame in 1914; was captain of its football team in 1913. He was assistant coach from 1914-18, and head coach from 1918-31. Killed in an airplane crash on March 31, 1931. He was definitely not a Freemason although the Masonic press has carried many references to his "membership." Our information is from Carl L. Hibbard, past grand master of Indiana, who was a good friend of Rockne's, and who discussed Freemasonry with him several times.


            Robert F. Rockwell (1886-1950) U.S. Congressman to 77th-80th Congresses, 1941-49, from 4th Coloradodist b. Feb. 11, 1886 in Cortland, N.Y. Was a cattle raiser and rancher in Colorado from 1907. Served in both branches of the state legislature, and was lieutenant governor of Colo. in 1922-24. Raised in Paonia Lodge No. 121, Paonia, Colo. on Jan. 15, 1912. Served through chairs from 1914 and was master in 1917. Exalted in Zion Chapter No. 46 (now merged with Delta No. 38 of Delta, Colo.), being exalted April 26, 1912 and served as chapter officer 10 years between 1913-27; greeted in Terruride Council No. 10, R. & S.M. Aug. 2, 1923; knighted in Delta Commandery No. 34, Delta, Colo. on April 19, 1918; 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner. d. Sept. 28, 1950.


            William S. Rockwell (1804-1865) Lawyer, Egyptologist, and Lieutenant Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite, S.J. b. in Albany, N.Y. Entered law practice at Milledgeville, Ga. as a young man. Member of Benevolent Lodge No. 3 of that city; master in 1845, and grand master of Georgia in 1856-62. Member of Temple Chapter No. 6, R.A.M., Georgia Council No. 4, R. & S.M., and St. Omer Commandery No. 2, K.T., and later Palestine Coinmandery No. 7, heading each of these bodies, and offices in the state organizations. Became lieutenant grand commander of the Scottish Rite.


            Seaborn A. Roddenbery (18701913) U.S. Congressman to 61st-62nd Congresses, 1910-13, from 2nd Ga. dist. b. Jan. 12, 1870 in Decatur Co., Ga. Admitted to the bar in 1894, and began practice at Thomasville, Ga. He engaged in farming after 1897. Member of Thomasville Lodge No. 369, Thomasville, Ga., receiving degrees on March 30, April 12, June 10, 1897. d. Sept. 25, 1913.


            Homer A. Rodeheaver (1880-1955) Evangelistic music director. b. Oct. 4, 1880 in Union Furnace, Ohio. Was musical director for William A. "Billy" Sunday in his evangelistic campaigns, 1909-31. He directed choruses in nearly all leading cities of the U.S. He was president of The Rodeheaver Hall-Mack Co., gospel music publishers at Winona Lake, Ind., and founder of Rodeheaver's Boys Ranch, Inc., in Florida. He played the trombone with the 4th Tenn. regimental band in Cuba, during the Spanish-American War. He was the author of Song Stories of the Sawdust Trail; 20 Years With Billy Sunday; and Singing Black. He also wrote several gospel songs. In 192324 he toured the world with evangelist W. E. Biederwolf, and made a tour of the Belgian Congo in 1936. Received degrees in Lake City-Warsaw Lodge No. 73, Warsaw, Ind. on Dec. 22, 25, 30, 1914. Dimitted Nov. 16, 1934 and reaffiliated Dec. 1, 1952. Knight Templar and Shriner. d. Dec. 18, 1955.


            Dorrance D. Roderick Newspaper publisher. b. Dec. 24, 1900 in Brooklyn, Iowa. Graduate of U. of Oklahoma in 1922. Began as reporter on Tulsa World in 1918, and was subsequently with Associated Press in Oklahoma City; Wichita (Kan.) Eagle; and Lubbock (Tex.) Journal. Was publisher of the latter from 1926-29, as well as the Lubbock Avalanche. Publisher of the El Paso Herald and Times, 1929-31, and the El Paso Times since 1931. Is president of the El Paso Times, Inc. and Roderick Broadcasting Corp., as well as the Southwest Broadcasting Corp., and stations KROD and KROD-TV. Served overseas as a major in military government in WWII. Director of Federal Reserve Bank, El Paso, 1945-51, and chairman of same 1948-51. Vice president of Roderick Land and Cattle Co. Member of Fraternity Lodge No. 130, El Paso, Texas since 1924; 32° AASR (SJ) at El Paso; and member of KCCH. Past potentate of El Maida Shrine Temple, El Paso, and member-of Jesters and National Sojourners.


            George W. Rodgers (1787-1832) Commodore, U.S. Navy. b. Feb. 22, 1787 in Harford Co., Md. He entered the Navy as a midshipman in 1804, and was commissioned lieutenant in 1810. Served on the sloop Wasp in the capture of the Frolic in 1812, for which he received commendation of congress. He commanded the brig, Firefly, in the Algerian War of 1815, and the Peacock in 1816-18, in the Mediterranean. At the time of his death, he was commodore of the Brazilian squadron. He married a sister of Commodore Perry. Member of Union Lodge No. 31, New London, Corns. d. May 21, 1832.


            Clarence J. Rodman Manufacturing executive. b. July 10, 1891 in Milwaukee, Wis. Graduate of Ripon Coll. in 1913 and U. of Wisconsin in 1914. Was successively a research chemist with Eastman Kodak, Westinghouse Electric, consulting engineer. Was vice president, secretary and director of Alliance Mfg. Co., 1925-44; president, treasurer and director of Steel Sanitary Co., 1927-34; chairman of board, treasurer, and director of Alliance Porcelain Products Co., 193444; vice president, director of Alliance Ware, Ltd., Vancouver, 1945. Officer of many other corporations. Holds numerous patents, and was cited by the Navy for research and development of special anti-submarine device in WWII. He has given $500,000 to Mt. Vernon College at Alliance, Ohio and offered $250,000 to the city for a new library if the citizens will match that amount. Received degrees in Beta Lodge No. 647 of Wilkinsburg, Pa. on April 18, May 23, June 27, 1921. Affiliated with Conrad Lodge No. 271, Alliance, Ohio on Feb. 1, 1927 and has served as master of same. Member of chapter and commandery at Alliance as well as 32° AASR (NJ) and Shriner.


            Hugh Rodman (1859-1940) Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Jan. 6, 1859 in Frankfort, Ky. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1880, and promoted through grades to rear admiral in 1917, and full admiral in 1919, retiring in 1923. Served on the Raleigh in the Spanish-American War. Was later on the Cincinnati and Wisconsin. Subsequently commanded the El Ca no, West Virginia, Cleveland, Connecticut, and Delaware. He was transportation superintendent of the Panama Canal, and director of Panama R.R. Co., 1914-15. Was member of the general board of the Navy, 1916-17. In WWI he first commanded Division 3 of the Atlantic Fleet, then Squadron 1 of the Battleship Force; Division 3 of the Battleship Force One; Division 9, of same; and 6th Battle Squadron in North Sea, with British Grand Fleet. Was commanding admiral and commander-in-chief of Pacific Fleet in 1919. Was U.S. delegate to the coronation of King George VI, London, in 1938. Mason. d. June 7, 1940.


            Caesar A. Rodney (1772-1824) Attorney General of U.S.; U.S. Senator and Congressman; First U.S. Minister to Argentina. b. Jan. 4, 1772 in Dover, Del. The son of Thomas Rodney, he was a nephew of the Declaration signer of the same name. Graduate of the U. of Pennsylvania in 1789, he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1793, practicing at Wilmington, Del. He served Delaware as U.S. congressman from 1803-05, and again from 1820-22. In 1807 President Jefferson appointed him attorney general of the U.S.; he resigned in 1811. During the War of 1812 he commanded a rifle corps, which was afterward changed to a light artillery company. In 1817 he was a member of the Delaware committee of safety. In 1817 he went to South America as a commis-sioner of President Monroe, to report on the propriety of recognizing the independence of several South American republics. He was U.S. senator from Delaware from 1822-23, resigning to become our first minister to Argentina. He was raised July 10, 1800 in Lodge No. 14, Wilmington, Del. (under the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania). He was elected senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Delaware in 1812. He is recorded as having delivered a Masonic oration before his lodge on June 24, 1803. He was on a grand lodge committee in 1809, and the 1812 proceedings record him as past master of Washington Lodge No. 1, Delaware, in 1812. d. June 10, 1824 in Buenos Aires, S.A., while minister to that country.


            Richard S. Rodney Federal Judge for District of Delaware since 1946. b. Oct. 10, 1882 in New Castle, Del. Admitted to bar in 1906, and began practice at Wilmington. Was mayor of New Castle, 1911-17, and associate judge of the supreme court of Delaware, 1922-46. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 2, New Castle, Del. since 1910.


            Cristobal Rodriguez Mexican General and journalist. b. in Coahuayutla, Guerrero. Attended San Nicolas de Hidalgo Coll., and National Military Coll. at Chapultepec. In 1910 he joined the revolutionary forces of Francisco I. Madero, q.v., and in 1913 joined Generals Sanchez and Amaro as a colonel fighting against the usurpation of Victoriano Huerta. As chief of the press section of the War Secretary's office, he was in charge of the publication of the newspapers, The Fatherland and The Soldier, as well as the magazine Army and Navy. He is presently publisher of the newspaper, Voice of Juarez, an anticlerical publication. He has written many books and pamphlets on clericalism including, Influence of the Clergy in the Latin America; Cauteries and Whips; Fire's Dart; and The Catholic Church and Christ's Rebellion in Mexico. He is a member of the World Union of Freethinkers, a fellow of the Unity Press of the Republic, president of the Constitutional Democratic Federation, as well as the Front of Liberal Action and Revolutionary Orientation. A founder and master of the lodge Constitucionalims No. 16, he was grand master of the Mexican Independent Grand Lodge in 1935-36. In the Scottish Rite, he is sovereign grand inspector general, 33° of the Supreme Council of Mexico.


            Elias Rodriguez Catholic Bishop. Member of the Lodge Philantropia, established in Santo Domingo (now Dominican Republic) in 1819. It met in the vestry of a Catholic church called Cony ento Dominico. The lodge also had five friars among its members.


            Louis J. Zalce y Rodriguez (18751955) Mexican Senator and former Governor of the State of Zacatecas. b. in 1875, he had been a Freemason 59 years. Was an officer of the Supreme Council, AASR, and a past grand master of the Grand Lodge, Valle de Mexico. Served as director general of timber for the Mexican government. He was the author of Apuntes para. la Historia de la Masoneria en Mexico. d. Nov. 4, 1955.


            Charles F. Roe (1848-1922) Major General of Volunteers in Spanish-American War. b. May 1, 1848 in New York City. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1868. Served in the Indian campaigns of the frontier for 21 years, including the Custer massacre. Was in First and Second Cavalry. Resigned from the Federal service in 1888 and engaged in real estate business. Became brigadier general of N.Y. national guard in 1898, and major general same year,retiring in 1912, due to age. Member of Kane Lodge No. 454, New York City. d. Dec. 1, 1922.


            Clifford G. Roe (1875-1934) Father of the first "White Slave" law in America. b. June 26, 1875 in Rolling Prairie, Ind. Graduate of U. of Michigan in 1899 and 1902. Began law practice in Chicago, Ill. Was state's attorney of Cook Co. from 1906-09, and special prosecutor against panders (white slave traders), from 190911. Was attorney for Wilson & Co., packers from 1918, and president of American Bureau of Moral Education from 1909. Became judge of the Ill, court of claims in 1931. Was attorney for commission headed by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., during New York investigation of 1911-12. Author of The Great War on White Slavery. Member of South Park Lodge No. 662, Chicago, Ill., being raised Jan. 21, 1901. d. June 28, 1934.


            Dudley G. Roe U.S. Congressman to 79th Congress, 1945-47 from 1st Md. dist. b. March 23, 1881 in Sudlersvilla, Md. Graduate of Washington Coll. (Chestertown, Md.) in 1901, 1903, and LL.B. from U. of Maryland in 1905.. President of Sudlersville Bank since 1928, and publisher of the Centreville (Md.) Observer, 193647. Served one term in Md. lower house and four terms in state senate. Member of Centreville Lodge No. 180, Centreville, Md., receiving degrees on Jan. 30, Feb. 20, March 20, 1911. Served two years as trustee of the lodge.


            Francis A. Roe (1823-1901) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Oct. 4, 1823 in Elmira, N.Y. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1847, and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1884. Served in China, Japan, West Indies, Mediterranean, and on Polar exploration expedition. Was executive of the Porpoise in 1854, when it defeated 13 heavily armed pirate junks at Koulan Bay, China, destroying six and dispersing the others. Was executive officer of the Pensacola in 1861, when it passed down the Potomac through nine miles of Confederate batteries. Was in Farragut's first fleet, 1862-63, and in many naval battles of the Civil War. He suppressed two insurrections on the Great Lakes during the Civil War. He was in command at Vera Cruz when Maximilian, q.v., was executed by the Republican Army of Mexico. He commanded the U.S.S. Saxcacus on May 5, 1864, in action with the rebel ram, A/beniar/e, off N. Car., defeating it. Member of Union Lodge No. 95, Elmira, N.Y. d. in Dec., 1901.


            Carl Roessler A German Masonic writer (under the name of R. S. Acerrellos), who translated from French into German, the work of Reghellini on Freemasonry, in its relations to the Egyptian, Jewish, and Christian religions. It was published at Leipsic in 1834-35.


            Arthur H. Rogers Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Oct. 27, 1892 in Mitchell, S. Dak. Enlisted in the 4th South Dak. Inf. in 1909, commissioned in 1914, and advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1944. Served in Mexican Border, WWI, Army of Occupation, 1919. In WWII he served in Alaska, French Morocco, Tunis, Italy, and Army of Occupation. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, Yankton, S. Dak. Received 32° AASR (SJ) at Yankton on July 18, 1917 and dimitted from Scottish Rite Aug. 15, 1929. National Sojourner and member of Heros of '76.


            Austin L. Rogers (1855-1937) President of Rogers Bros. Seed Co. and developer of new varieties of seed. b. Oct. 29, 1855 in Cape Vincent, N.Y. He founded in 1876, with his brother Everett, the Rogers Bros. Seed Co. at Alpena, Mich. He continued in the business under same title after deathof brother in 1890, and was president of same from incorporation in 1902. He specialized as a breeder and grower of garden varieties of peas and beans, and originated the Rogers Green Seeded Admiral and Rogers Winner (both peas) as well as the Rogers Improved Kidney Wax and Rogers Stringless Refugee (both beans). Mason. d. Oct. 19, 1937.


            Henry H. Rogers (?-1909) Capitalist. b. in Fairhaven, Mass., he was one of the large stockholders and vice president and director of Standard Oil Co. He was also president and director of Amalgamated Copper Co., National Transit Co., National Fuel Gas Co., N.Y. Transit Co., and Righmont Light and R.R. Co. He was a trustee and director of several large corporations. He made many gifts to his native town, including a library, town hall, school and church. Was made a Mason in Star in the East Lodge at New Bedford, Mass., and later a member of Tabor Lodge, Fairhaven, Mass. He built and presented a temple to the latter lodge. d. 1909.


            Hiram C. Rogers Brigadier General. Member of Binghamton Lodge No. 177, Binghamton, N.Y.


            Horatio Rogers (1836-1904) Brigadier General (brevet) in Civil War; Justice, Supreme Court of R.I., 18911903. b. May 18, 1836 in Providence, R.I. Graduate of Brown U. in 1855. Admitted to bar in 1858. Held many local offices in Providence and state of R.I. Was member of the general assembly, and attorney general of the state. Mason. d. 1904.


            John R. Rogers (1838-1901) Governor of Washington, 1896-1904. b. Sept. 4, 1838 in Brunswick, Maine. Worked in drug store at Boston, 185256, and was manager of a drug store in Jackson, Miss. in 1856. From 186066 he was a school teacher and farmer in Illinois, and in the drug business in that state from 1866-76. He went to Kansas in 1876, where he farmed and became a Farmers' Alliance organizer. He was later editor of the Kansas Commoner at Wichita. In 1890 he moved to Washington, where he was a member of the state legislature for seven terms. Was made a Mason in Neoga, Ill. in 1875, becoming a member of Burrton Lodge No. 182, Burrton, Kans. while in that state, and in 1890 affiliated with Corinthian Lodge No. 38, Puyallup, Wash. d. 1901.


            Molten C. Rogers Secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and later supreme court justice for 25 years. Member of Lodge No. 43 at Lancaster, Pa. and one of the signers of James Buchanan's petition, q.v., to that lodge. Buchanan was initiated Dec. 11, 1816. Rogers received his degrees on March 23, April 8, 17, 1812 and resigned June 10, 1829 after having served as master in 1814.


            Moses Rogers Captain of the Savannah, first ship equipped with a steam engine to cross the ocean in 1819. The ship was "a failure by almost every standard," and yet today she is reckoned one of the world's most illustrious ships because of her history-making voyage, begun May 22, 1819 from Savannah, Ga. Built in New York, it used steam for only 31/2 days out of the 29-day voyage. It was sent to Europe in the hope that it could be sold for a fancy price to the Czar of Russia, but found no buyer. Restored to a sailing craft, she blew ashore off Long Island when only three years old. Moses Rogers is traditionally believed to have been a Freemason, but it is not verified. His cousin and brother-in-law, Stevens Rogers, was the navigator and a member of Union Lodge No. 31, New London, Conn.


            Robert Rogers (1731-1800) Leader of "Rogers' Rangers" in French-Indian Wars, and controversial character in American Revolution. b. 1731 in Methuen, Mass. He raised a company of rangers in 1756, which saw much service in the region of Lake George. In 1758 he was promoted to major by Gen. Abercromby. His rangers became famous for their raids. In March, 1758 he defeated 750 French-Indian troops with 170 men, losing all but 70 of his command. In 1759 he was sent by Sir Jeffrey Amherst from Crown Point to destroy the Indian village of St. Francis, which he did, killing 200 Indians. In 1760 he was ordered to take possession of Detroit and other western posts that were ceded by the French to the English after the fall of Quebec. He was appointed governor of Mackinaw, Mich. in 1765, but while holding this office was accused of plotting to plunder his own fort. Was sent in irons to Montreal, and tried. In 1769 he visited England the second time, and while there was imprisoned for debt. At the start of the American Revolution, he dealt with both sides. He was imprisoned by Washington on suspicion of espionage, even though he wrote him "I love America; it is my native country, and that of my family, and I intend to spend the evening of my days in it." He was paroled by congress to the provincial congress of New Hampshire, and while on parole, accepted a colonel's commission in the British Army and organized the "Queen's Rangers." He went to England in 1778, and was banished from this country. He was a member of St. Johns Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, N.H., receiving his degrees in April, 1756. d. in England between 17951800.


            Roy Rogers Actor-singer in movies, radio, and television. b. Nov. 5, 1912 in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1932-38 he organized and appeared with the band, "Sons of the Pioneers." In 1938 he appeared in his first movie, Under Western Stars, and since that date has starred in 89 Western pictures. Has been a radio singer since 1937, and since 1952 has been an actor and producer of TV films. He is president of Roy Rogers Enterprises. Member of Hollywood Lodge No. 355, Calif. receiving degrees in April, May and June, 1946. 32° AASR (SJ) at Los Angeles and member of Al Malaikah Shrine Temple. Honorary member of DeMolay Legion of Honor.


            Stephens Rogers Navigator of the Savannah, first ship equipped with steam engine to cross the ocean in 1819. The captain of the ship was Moses Rogers, q.v., a cousin and brother-in-law of Stephens. Stephens was a member of Union Lodge No. 31, New London, Conn., and usually carried the Bible board at its funerals—but not at his awn, which was attended by more than 200 members of the Craft from miles around. He has a curiously wrought gravestone, more maritime than Masonic.


            Warren L. Rogers (1877-1938) Protestant Episcopal Bishop. b. Nov. 14, 1877 in Allentown, N.J. Graduate of U. of Michigan in 1907; Union Theol. Seminary, 1911; General Theol. Seminary, 1912; and Kenyon Coll., 1925. Became deacon and priest in Protestant Episcopal Church in 1911, and then served churches in Detroit, Pittsburgh, Jersey City, N.J. and again in Detroit. Became coadjutor bishop on April 30, 1925, and bishop in Sept. 1930. In 1929 he was a member of the national council of his church. Raised in Palestine Lodge No. 357, in 1923; exalted in Palestine Chapter No. 159, R.A.M., in 1923; knighted in Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T. in 1924; greeted in Monroe Council No. 1, R. & S.M., 1925 (all of Detroit, Mich.). Dirnitted to Holyrood Commandery No. 32, K.T. of Cleveland, Ohio and was grand prelate of Grand Commandery of Ohio in 1929. Received32° AASR (NJ) at Cleveland in 1925 and 33° at Boston on Sept. 16, 1930. d. Nov. 6, 1938.


            Will Rogers (1879-1935) Full name was William Penn Adair Rogers. American humorist. b. Nov. 4, 1879 at Oologah, Indian Territory (now Okla.). His great grandmother on his father's side was a Cherokee. His father, Clem, served as a captain in the Confederate Army under the Cherokee General Standwaite, q.v. His father, who was a rancher of some means, attempted to give Will the best education possible, but young Will did not like being tied down to anything so formal as education. He attended Willie Halsell Coll. at Vinita, Okla., Scarritt Coll., at Neosho, Mo., and Kemper Military Academy at Boonville, Mo. He ran away from Kemper to punch cattle in Texas, but returned to his father's ranch for a time before setting off for the cattle country of Argentina. From there he went to Africa, where he joined Texas Jack's Wild West Circus. Next he joined Wirth Brothers Circus in Australia, and returned to America to join the Cummins Wild West Show. In St. Louis he turned to burlesque, and made his first appearance on the New York stage, June 11, 1905. He then played in England and Europe, and just before the outbreak of WWI, was in the Empire Theater of London in the musical show, The Merry-GoRound. He entered the Ziegfeld Follies in 1916, where he perfected his monologue technique, and stayed with Ziegfeld until his death, with the exception of the years out for motion pictures. His best remembered pictures were In the Land of Jubilo; Al- most a Husband; The Strange Border; Jes' Call Me Jim. His first talking picture was They Had to See Paris, followed by State Fair; A Connecticut Yankee; David Harurn; In Old Kentucky; and Steamboat Round the Bend. His writings included What We Laugh. At; Illiterate Digest; Letters of a Self-Made Diplomat to His President; There's Not a Bathing Suit in Russia; The Cowboy Philosopher on the Peace Conference; The Cowboy Philosopher on Prohibition. His first weekly article as a columnist appeared in the New York Times in 1922, and later was syndicated and appeared as a Sunday feature in many U.S. newspapers. He petitioned Claremore Lodge No. 53, Jan. 21, 1905, at the age of 25, listing his occupation as that of a fanner. He received the degrees, Feb. 18, 1905; March 10, and 13, 1906. On April 16, 1908 he received the Scottish Rite degrees in the Webber Memorial Class in the Valley of McAlester, Okla. He was twice suspended from the Scottish Rite (1918 and 1921), but each time reinstated (1918 and 1927). Joined Akdar Shrine Temple at Tulsa, Nov. 20, 1914. He had applied for, and was scheduled to receive, the York Rite degrees, but for various reasons was never able to make satisfactory arrangements. He was an honorary member of the Bedouin Shrine Temple at Muskogee, and had attended a Shrine ceremonial in Fairbanks, Alaska, just prior to his death. The Rogers Memorial in Claremore, Okla. exhibits his Masonic petition, and the Bible on which he took his obligation. He was killed in an airplane accident near Point Barrow, Alaska on Aug. 15, 1935, in a plane piloted by his friend Wiley Post.


            William Rogers (1751-1824) Last surviving chaplain of the American Revolution. b. July 22, 1751 in Newport, R.I. He was the first (and for several days the only) student at Rhode Island Coll. (now Brown), from which he graduated in 1769. He became principal of an academy at Newport in 1772-75, pastor of the First Baptist Church in Philadelphia. In 1776 he was chosen chaplain to Col. Samuel Miles's Pa. rifle regiment,and served until June, 1778, when he was made brigade chaplain in the Continental Army. He retired from service in June, 1781. In 1789 he became a professor at the Coll. of Philadelphia, and in 1792 held the same post in its successor, the U. of Pennsylvania. He was active in societies for the gradual abolishment of slavery and for alleviating the miseries in public prisons. He was made a Mason in Proctor's Military Lodge No. 19, and admitted a member of Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia, Oct. 17, 1786. He is recorded as a visitor to American Union Lodge, and from 1803 until his death on April 7, 1824, was grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.


            Wynne G. Rogers (1874-1946) Justice, Supreme Court of Louisiana from 1924. b. Dec. 26, 1874 in New Orleans, La. Graduate of Tulane U. in 1895, and admitted to La. bar the following year, practicing at New Orleans. Was judge of the civil district court, Parish of Orleans, 192024. Was professor of civil procedure at Tulane U. from 1920. Raised Nov. 17, 1904 in Union Lodge No. 172, New Orleans; master in 1909 and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana in 1920. Received KCCH in Scottish Rite in 1923 and 33° in 1924. Was exalted in Orleans Delta Chapter No. 1, Sept. 12, 1910; high priest in 1917 and grand high priest of Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Louisiana in 1928. Greeted in Louisiana Council No. 2, R. & S.M. and knighted in Indivisible Friends Commandery No. 1, K.T. Potentate of Jerusalem Shrine Temple in 1920. d. Sept. 15, 1946 and buried by his lodge.


            Quincy Alvin W. Rohrbach President of Pennsylvania State Teachers College since 1934. b. June 6, 1894 in Mertztown, Pa. Graduate of Keystone State Normal, Kutztown, Pa. in 1912; Franklin and Marshall Coll., Lancaster, Pa. in 1922, and master's and doctor's degrees from U. of Pittsburgh. Was a high school teacher and principal, 1912-24. Joining the U. of Pennsylvania's teaching staff, he was head of the department of history and education, 1925-31, and professor of administration, 1931-34. Member of Huguenot Lodge No. 377, Kutztown, Pa. since 1917. Received 32° AASR (NJ) at Reading, Pa. and 33° in Sept., 1956. Member of. Rajah Shrine Temple, Reading, Pa.


            Edward G. Rohrbough (?-1956) U.S. Congressman to 78th, 1943-45, and 80th, 1947-49, Congresses from W. Va. b. in Buckhannon, W. Va. Graduate of Allegheny Coll. in 1900 and Harvard in 1906. Taught school in Pa. and W. Va. from 1900-07. Was president of Glenville State Coll., 1908-42, and president emeritus since 1942. Member of Gilmer County Lodge No. 118, Blenville, W. Va. d. Dec. 12, 1956.


            Luis Manuel Rojas Principal author of the Mexican constitution of 1917. A lawyer, he was named as president of the body to draw up a new liberal constitution for Mexico upon the victory of Venustiano Carranza. His position as president of the constitutional congress enabled him to collaborate with other prominent Freemasons to give Mexico a liberal and progressive constitution. It has since become known as the Magna Carta of Mexico. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge Valle of Mexico in 1918-19, and served as grand commander of the Supreme Council, AASR of Mexico.


            Alexander Rojnesky Polish General who became deputy grand master of the Grand Orient of Poland in 1816. He was a close friend of N. N. Novosilzov, the high Russian commissioner of Poland, who later "liquidated" Polish Masonry in 1822, as being political. Rojnesky strengthenedthe Grand Orient numerically, and united Polish and Lithuanian lodges in 1819. In 1816 he proposed the adoption of a new Masonic constitution which would have brought Masonry under the control of the Russian government. This brought about the founding of a Polish "National Masonry" which was strongly nationalistic, and thereby helped bring about the eventual closing of all Polish lodges by Russia.


            Edward H. Rollins (1824-1889) U.S. Senator, 1877-83, and U.S. Congressman to 37th-39th Congresses, 1861-67, from New Hampshire. b. Oct. 3, 1824 in Strafford Co., N.H. Engaged in mercantile pursuits at Concord, and active in state politics many years. Was member of the lower house, 1855-57. He was secretary of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1869, and treasurer in 1871, but resigned both positions to take his seat in the senate. Was president of the Boston, Concord & Montreal R.R., 1886-89, and founder of the First National Bank of Concord and the banking house of E. H. Rollins & Sons at Concord. Member of Blazing Star Lodge No. 11, Concord, and served as commander of Mt. Horeb Commandery, K.T. of that city. d. July 31, 1889.


            James M. Rolph, Jr. (1889-1934) Governor of California, 1931-35. b. Aug. 23, 1869 in San Francisco, Calif. He began as an office boy in a shipping firm in 1888. He was senior member of an insurance firm from 1928, and president of James Rolph & Co., shipping and commission merchants. He was mayor of San Francisco five terms, 1911-32. Made a Mason March 5, 1903 in California Lodge No. 1; member of Mission Chapter No. 79, R.A.M.; California Commandery No. 1, K.T.; Islam Shrine Temple and Jinnistan Grotto No. 76. He received the 32° AASR (SJ), Sept. 17, 1904, and was a member of Pyramid No. 1, of the Sciots. d. June 2, 1934, while serving as governor.


            Enotrio Romano (see Giosue Car-ducal).


            Fred W. Rombach Vice President of Philco Corp., in charge of Watson-town Cabinet Division, since 1946. b. Oct. 13, 1898 in Watsontown, Pa. Graduate of Cornell in 1921. Was an engineer with Bell Telephone Co. at Pittsburgh in 1921-22, going with the Watsontown Table & Furniture Co. in 1922. He was vice president and treasurer of that company from 192536. He was chief cabinet engineer of the Philco Corp. at Philadelphia from 1936-38, and vice president and general manager of the Watsontown Cabinet Co., 1938-46. Member of Watson-town Lodge No. 401, Watsontown, Pa., receiving degrees on March 20, April 27, June 29, 1920. Served as master in 1936. Past president of Masonic Temple Assn.


            Sigmund Romberg (1887-1951) Composer of light opera. b. in Hungary, he was educated in the elementary and high schools of Zeged, Hungary, and at the U. of Vienna. He described himself as a "middle-brow" composer—"too low for a symphony conductor, and too highbrow for a jazz conductor." He wrote some of the outstanding hits of the 1900's, including Maytime (1917); Student Prince (1924); Blossom Time (1926); Desert Song (1926);• New Moon (1927); Nina Rosa (1929); East Wind (1931); Melody (1933); May Wine (1935) as well as The Night Is Young, Rosalie, My Golden Girl, and My Maryland. He was a member of Perfect Ashlar Lodge No. 604, New York City. He was made a Scottish Rite Mason "at sight" on Oct. 25, 1946, in Baltimore, Md. by Dr. Edgar C. Powers, sovereign grand inspector general in Maryland. Romberg had a very fine pipe organ, specially de-signed for him, that had been in storage in N.Y. He offered it to the Scottish Rite of Baltimore for what the storage had cost him over the years. The Scottish Rite Temple thereby acquired a $50,000 organ for a total cost of $14,000, including installation. Romberg also gave $1,000 to help defray the expense, and on the evening of Oct. 25, 1946, gave a concert in the temple. He refused to play the pipe organ, pleading that he had not had sufficient practice, but entertained an audience of 1,000 for an hour on the piano, building harmonies around groups of two or three notes suggested by the audience. d. Nov. 9, 1951.


            Milton Andrew Romjue U.S. Congressman to 65th-66th Congresses, 1917-21, and 68th-77th Congresses, 1923-43, from Mo. b. Dec. 5, 1874 in Macon Co., Mo. Received LL.B. from U. of Missouri in 1904, and was class orator and valedictorian. Began law practice in Macon, Mo. in 1904, and served as probate judge from 190715. Member of Censer Lodge No. 172; exalted in Macon Chapter No. 22, April 20, 1915; knighted in Emmanuel Commandery No. 7, K.T. Aug. 23, 1915, all of Macon, Mo.


            Lawrence Alfred Merwyn Dundas, Earl of Ronaldshay The eldest son, heir of the 2nd marquess of Zetland. The family's connections with Freemasonry extends, unbroken, back to the time of the union of the two English grand lodges in 1813. During that time it has provided a grand master of England with 26 years tenure; two deputy grand masters and a pro grand master. The present earl was named junior warden in 1943, and in 1952 became grand superintendent over the Royal Arch province of Yorkshire, a position which his father relinquished to him after serving 29 years. He was initiated in Lennox Lodge No. 123, and was master in


64 Franklin Delano Roosevelt


1937. Member of Lennox Chapter of the Royal Arch which is attached to his lodge.


            Finn Ronne Antarctic explorer and geographer. b. Dec. 20, 1899 in Horten, Norway. A graduate mechanical engineer and naval architect of Horten Technical Coll, in 1923, he came to the United States in that year and was naturalized in 1929. He was the leader of the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition of 1946-48, which claimed 250,000 square miles of new land, including Edith Ronne Land (named for his wife), for the United States. Wintered three times on the Antarctic continent. A captain in the U.S. naval reserve, he is a consultant with the U.S. department of defense. He is commanding officer of the Weddell Sea Station, Antarctica, and scientific director of the International Geophysical Year, 1956-58. Received congressional silver medal in 1935, and the gold medal in 1943. Member of Norseman's Lodge No. 878, New York City.


            Hans Johndal Ronneberg (18671941) Norwegian attorney and judge. Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Norway from 1928-41, and as such had the sad task to acknowledge the receipt of the decree of the German occupation forces on Sept. 20, 1940, dictating dissolution of Freemasonry in Norway.


            Charles Roome (1812-1890) Union Brigadier General (brevet) in Civil War, and 14th Grand Master, Knights Templar, U.S.A., 1886-89. b. Aug. 4, 1812 in New York City. Was first a clerk, and then employed by the Manhattan Gas Light Co. of N.Y.C., as an assistant engineer. Became chief engineer and finally, in 1855, president of the company, continuing in that capacity until a short time before his death. He raised the 37th N.Y. regiment in the Civil War and led it in person. For bravery he was breveted brigadier general of volunteers. Made a Mason in Kane Lodge No. 454, N.Y.C. in Jan., 1866, and in 1868 served the first of his four terms as master of the lodge. In 1879 he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of New York. Exalted in Jerusalem Chapter No. 8, R.A.M. in 1866, and subsequently knighted in Coeur de Lion Commandery No. 23, K.T., serving as commander for three years. Received 32° AASR (NJ) in 1866, and 33° in 1872. Was grand commander of Grand Commandery, K.T. of New York in 1875, and grand master of the Grand Encampment in 1886 at St. Louis. d. June 28, 1890.


            A. W. Roos (1824-1895) Postmaster General of Sweden, 1867-89. He reorganized that country's postal service. Was initiated in St. John's Lodge Den Nordiska Forsta, the first of Scandinavia.


            Elliott Roosevelt Writer and rancher. b. Sept. 23, 1910 in New York City, son of Franklin D. Roosevelt, q.v., 31st president of the U.S. Educated at Groton School, 1923-29. Was in various advertising, writing and editing work from 1929-41. Vice president and director of Dalco Uranium, Inc., from 1957. Ordered to active duty as a captain, U.S. Air Corps in 1940, advanced to brigadier general in 1945, and retired that year. He is the author of As He Saw It, and editor of F.D.R., His Personal Letters, Early Years; Personal Letters, 1905-28; and Personal Letters, 1928-45. He was raised in Architect Lodge No. 519, New York City, Feb. 17, 1933. His father, then president-elect, served as acting master and presided in the East during the conferring of the degree. His brothers, Franklin D. and James, qq.v., were later raised in this same lodge with their father present. Suspended NPD, Dec. 21, 1955.


            Franklin Delano Roosevelt (18821945) Thirty-first President of the


65 Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr.


            United States. b. Jan. 30, 1882 in Hyde Park, N.Y. Graduate of Harvard in 1904, and attended Columbia U. Law School, 1904-07. Practiced law in New York City from 1907-33. Was member of N.Y. state senate, 1910-13, when he resigned to become assistant secretary of the Navy, 1913-20. Elected to governorship of New York two terms, 1929-33. Was Democratic nominee for vice president in 1920. Became president in 1933, serving until his death in 1945. Elected to four terms, he was the only president ever to serve more than two terms. A member of Holland Lodge No. 8, N.Y.C., he received his degrees, Oct. 10, Nov. 14, Nov. 28, 1911. Received the 32° AASR (NJ) at Albany, N.Y. Feb. 28, 1929, while governor of N.Y. Member of Cypress Shrine Temple, Albany, N.Y.; Tri-Po-Bed Grotto, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.; Greenwood Forest Tall Cedars of Lebanon, Warwick, N.Y. In 1930 he was appointed representative of the Grand Lodge of Georgia near the Grand Lodge of New York. He was present and took part in the degree, when his son Elliott was raised Feb. 17, 1933 in Architect Lodge No. 519, N.Y.C., and was made and honorary member of that lodge on this occasion. He was at the time president-elect. On Nov. 7, 1935 two more sons, James and Franklin D. were raised in this lodge, and their father was present. He was an honorary member of Washington Centennial Lodge No. 14 (March 15, 1933), and Stansbury Lodge No. 24, Nov. 21, 1919, both of Washington, D.C., as well as Capitol Forest No. 104 of the Tall Cedars in that city (March 31, 1933). He was elected an honorary member of Almas Shrine Temple, Washington, D.C. on March 23, 1934. Made honorary member of Tri-City Chapter No. 103, National Sojourners, Londonville, N.Y., on Feb. 18, 1931. During his years as president, he received many delegations of Freemasons at the White House. On April 13, 1934 he became the first honorary grand master of the Order of DeMolay. d. April 12, 1945.


            Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. U.S. Congressman to 81st-83rd Congresses from 20th N.Y. dist. b. Aug. 17, 1914 on Campobello Island, N.B., Canada, son of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, q.v., the 31st president of the United States. Graduate of Harvard in 1937, and U. of Virginia in 1940. Served in U.S. Navy in WWII, 1941-45. He and his brother James, q.v., were raised the same night-Nov. 7, 1935-in Architect Lodge No. 517, N.Y.C. with their father present. Brother Elliott had been raised in the same lodge two years previously.


            James Roosevelt U.S. Congressman, 84th-86th Congresses from 26th Calif. dist. b. Dec. 23, 1907 in New York City, son of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, q.v., 31st President of the United States. Graduate of Harvard in 1930, and began as an insurance broker in that year. Organized Roosevelt & Sargent, Inc. in 1937, resigning in 1938 to enter the motion picture industry. Reentered Roosevelt & Sargent as executive vice president, establishing a West coast office in 1946. Is chairman of board of Roosevelt, Sargent & Haines, Inc. and president of Roosevelt & Co., Inc. Was Democratic candidate for governor of Calif. in 1950. Entered U.S. Marine Corps as captain in 1940, and promoted to colonel in 1944, leaving service in 1945. Was raised in Architect Lodge No. 519, New York City, November 7, 1935. His brother Franklin D., Jr., q.v., was raised the same evening with their father present. Brother Elliott had been raised in the same lodge two years previously.


            Nicholas Roosevelt (1767-1854) American inventor. Invented the vertical paddle wheel, and was associ-


66 Theodore Roosevelt ated with Robert Fulton in introducing steamboats on Western rivers. b. Dec. 27, 1767 in New York City, he was a great grand-uncle of Theodore Roosevelt, q.v. His efforts in the steamboat field were mentioned by John H. B. Latrobe, q.v., in his Lost Chapter in the History of the Steamboat (1871). He moved to N.Y.C. shortly after the withdrawal of British troops. Here he made a small wooden boat, across which was an axle projecting over the sides, with paddles at the ends. He became interested in the Schuyler copper mines in New Jersey on the Passaic river. He built engines for various purposes, including the water works of Philadelphia. He erected a rolling-mill, and held the government contract for copper drawn and rolled guns, for six 74-gun ships. In 1797, with Robert R. Livingston, q.v., and John Stevens, he agreed to build a boat for which the engines were to be constructed by Roosevelt, and the propelling agency by Livingston. The experiment failed, but the following year, Roosevelt described his vertical wheel to Livingston, and the later strongly recommended it. Robert Fulton rejected it as being "out of the question." It later proved one of the principles that made steam navigation a success. In 1802 Livingston and Fulton adopted Roosevelt's vertical wheels. In 1809 Roosevelt and Fulton associated themselves to introduce steamboats on Western waters, and in 1811, Roosevelt built the New Orleans, the pioneer boat that descended the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers from Pittsburgh to New Orleans in 14 days. Member of Holland Lodge No. 8, N.Y.C. d. July 30, 1854.


            Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) Twenty-Sixth President of the United States. b. Oct. 27, 1858 in New York City. Graduate of Harvard in 1880;held honorary degrees from 13 universities. Member of the N.Y. state legislature, 1882-84, and in the latter year purchased a large ranch in N. Dak., where he resided for his health until 1886. Was U.S. civil service commissioner, 1889-95, and president of the N.Y. Police Board, 189597. Was assistant secretary of the Navy, 1897-98, but resigned to organize with Leonard Wood (later major general) the 1st U.S. Cavalry, popularly known as Roosevelt's Rough Riders. Distinguished himself in the Spanish-American War in Cuba. Was governor of New York from 1899-1900. Elected vice president of the U.S. for the term of 1901-05, he succeeded to the presidency on the death of William McKinley, q.v., on Sept. 14, 1901. He was elected to the presidency for the term 1905-09 by the largest popular majority recorded at that time. In 1912 he was defeated for the presidency as a Progressive Party candidate. In 1906 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize ($40,000). In 1910 he was special ambassador of the U.S. at the funeral of King Edward VII of England. Did much big game hunting in the West and in Africa. In 1914 he headed a party in Brazil, exploring a tributary of the Madeira River for about 600 miles; later it was named Rio Teodoro in his honor. He offered to raise a division in WWI and go with it to France, but President Wilson declined the offer. Wrote many books, including History of the Naval War of 1812; Winning of the West; Hunting Trips of a Ranchman; Life of Thomas Hart Benton; Life of Gouverneur Morris; Ranch Life and Hunting Trail; History of New York; The Wilderness Hunter; The Rough Riders; and many others. A member of Matinecock Lodge No. 806 of Oyster Bay, N.Y., he received his degrees, Jan 2, March 27, April 24, 1901, shortly after his election to the vice presidency. Was made honorary member


67 Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.


            of Pentalpha Lodge No. 23, Washington, D.C., on April 4, 1904; honorary member of Illinois Masonic Veterans Ass'n., in 1903; honorary member of Masonic Veterans Ass'n. of the Pacific Coast, in 1901. He reviewed the annual inspection and review of Knights Templar on the ellipse of the White House on May 26, 1902; delivered an address at the Masonic laying of the cornerstone of the Army War College, Feb. 21, 1903; laid cornerstone of the north gate to Yellowstone Park, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Montana, April 24, 1903; assisted in laying the cornerstone of the Masonic Temple at Tacoma, Wash. and gave a short address, May 22, 1903; broke ground for the Masonic Temple at Spokane, Wash. on May 26, 1903; was present at the memorial service by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania on April


19, 1906 at Christ Church, Philadelphia, in honor of the 200th anniversary of the birth of Benjamin Franklin; attended the Masonic cornerstone laying of the House of Representatives' office building in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1906, delivering the address; delivered the address at the laying of the cornerstone of the new Masonic Temple, 13th St. and New York Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C., June 8, 1907; was present in Masonic regalia at the laying of the cornerstone of the Pilgrim Memorial Monument, Provincetown, Mass. on Aug.


            20, 1907, and delivered an address; visited the Grand Lodge of New York on May 11, 1917, and made an address. He visited lodges in many parts of the world, including Africa, Europe, and South America. His correspondence contains many letters to Masonic groups. He was a proud and active Freemason. d. Jan. 6, 1919.


            Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. (1887-1944) Brigadier General, U.S. Army, author and publisher. b. Sept. 13, 1887 in Oyster Bay, N.Y., son of Theodore Roosevelt, q.v., 26th President of the United States. Graduate of Harvard in 1908. Was member of N.Y. state assembly in 1919-20; assistant secretary of the Navy, 1921-24. In 1922 he was chairman of the commission of naval experts at the Limitation of Armament Conference. Defeated for governor of N.Y. in 1924. He was leader of the James Simpson-Roosevelt-Field Museum Expedition to Asia in 1925, and of the Kelley-RooseveltField Museum Expedition to Asia in 1928-29. From 1929-32 he was governor of Puerto Rico, and from 1932-33 was governor general of the Philippines. Was chairman of the board of the American Express Co, 1934-35, and vice president of Doubleday Doran & Co., publishers, from 1935 until death. Was commissioned major in the 26th Infantry in 1917, and later promoted to lieutenant colonel. In WWI he participated with the 1st Infantry Division in the battles of Cantigny, Soissons, Argonne-Meuse, St. Mihiel, and was twice wounded. In WWII he returned to active duty as a colonel commanding his old regiment—the 26th Infantry of the 1st Division in 1941, and was advanced to brigadier general in Dec. of that year. He died in the early days of the invasion of France and was buried in the American Military Cemetery at St. Laurent, France. He was made a Freemason on July 7, 1920 in his father's lodge, Matinecock Lodge No. 806 of Oyster Bay, N.Y. Was a member of the Scottish Rite in Washington, D.C., and of the Kismet Shrine Temple, Brooklyn, N.Y. d. July 12, 1944.


            Erastus Root (1773-1846) U.S. Congressman from N.Y. and leader of the "anti-rent war" of Delaware Co., N.Y. in the 1840's. b. March 16, 1773 in Hebron, Conn. Graduate of Dartmouth in 1793. Studied law and began practice in Delhi, N.Y. Was in state legislature, 1798-1802, and a member of congress in 1803-05; 1809-11; 1812-


68 Philip S. Rose



15 and 1831-33. He was lieutenant governor of N.Y. in 1829-22, and state senator 1840-44. He was nominated for governor by the Working Man's Party in 1830 but declined on the ground that there was no chance of being elected. The "anti-rent war" led to the passage of the Homestead Act of 1862 which opened the West to settlement. He was affiliated with St. Andrews Lodge No. 45 of Stamford, N.Y. in July, 1799, and later became a charter member and first master of Cassia Lodge No. 180, New Delhi, N.Y. The latter lodge was forced to surrender its charter because of the "anti-rent war." d. Dec. 24, 1846.


            Daniel C. Roper (1867-1943) U.S. Secretary of Commerce, 1933-38 under Franklin D. Roosevelt. b. April 1, 1867 in Marlboro Co., S. Car. Graduate of Duke U. in 1888, and LL.B. from National U., Washington, D.C. in 1901. Served in state legislature of S. Car. in 1892-94; was clerk for U.S. senatorial committee 1894-97; special agent U.S. Census Bureau, 1900-10, and clerk of ways and means committee of U.S. house of representatives, 1911-13. From 1913-16 he was first assistant postmaster general; commissioner of Internal Revenue, 1917-20. Raised in Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C. on April 28, 1896, becoming a charter member of Barristers Lodge No. 48, of that city, on Dec. 19, 1928. Received 32° AASR (SJ) in Washington, D.C. on Dec. 17, 1929, and member of Almas Shrine Temple, Washington, D.C. d. April 11, 1943.


            Alberto T. Roraback (1849-1923) Justice, Supreme Court of Connecticut, 1908-19. b. Aug. 23, 1849 in Sheffield, Mass. Admitted to bar in 1873; was judge of common pleas court of Litchfield Co., 1889-97; judge of superior court of Conn., 1897-1908. Raised in Housatonic Lodge No. 61 of Canaan, Conn. in 1875. d. Feb. 1, 1923.


            Carl A. N. Rosa (1843-1889) German operatic impresario in England. He started the Carl Rosa Opera Co. in 1875, popularized opera in English, and encouraged native English composers of opera. His original surname was Rose. Became a Freemason towards the end of his life.


            Philip Samuel Rosa Mystic alchemist and Masonic charlatan. b. at Ysenberg, he was at one time a Lutheran clergyman, and in 1757 was rector of the Cathedral of Staint James in Berlin. Was initiated in the Lodge of the Three Globes. He was made a deputy to Von Printzen, who established a system of higher degrees at Berlin, based on the French system. He traveled in Holland, Germany, Denmark, and Sweden and had some success in organizing lodges of advanced degrees in Holland and Germany. His moral conduct has been questioned by some historians. He faded from the Masonic picture and nothing is known of his subsequent life.


            Francis Rose Commodore, U.S. Navy, Member of Union Lodge No. 95, New York.


            Herschel IL Rose (1877-1945) Judge, Supreme Court of Appeals, West Virginia, 1941-45. b. April 20, 1877 in Mannington, W. Va. Graduate of West Virginia U. in 1906. Taught school, 1897-1900; was bank teller, 1900-03. Admitted to the bar in 1906, he practiced in Wetzel Co. and Fairmont until 1940. Mason, Knight Templar, and 33° AASR (SJ), he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of West Virginia, 1937-38. Raised in Grafton Lodge No. 15, April 25, 1904, dimitting to Littleton Lodge No. 131 in 1909 and becoming a charter member of Acacia Lodge No. 157, Fairmont, W. Va. in 1919. d. June 17, 1945.


            Philip S. Rose Editor-in-chief of Country Gentleman, 1927-40. b. July


69 Uriah M. Rose


13, 1872 in Allendale Center, Mich. Graduate of Michigan State Agricultural Coll. in 1899. Became member of engineering faculty of N. Dak. Agricultural Coll. in 1900-09, and was one of the pioneers in agricultural engineering education. Was associate editor of The American Thresherman, 1909-17, and also editor of the Gas Review during those years. Became associate editor and feature article writer for the Country Gentleman, 1917-27. Received first two degrees on April 16, Aug. 27, 1909 in Shiloh Lodge No. 1, Fargo, N. Dak. with third degree conferred by Madison Lodge No. 5, Madison, Wis. as a courtesy to Shiloh Lodge. Dimitted Jan. 8, 1915 from Shiloh and no further record in N. Dak.


            -Uriah M. Rose (1834-1913) U.S. delegate to 2nd Hague Peace Conference in 1907, with rank of ambassador. b. March 4, 1834 in Marion Co., Ky. Received LL.B. from U. of Missouri in 1888 and also U. of Arkansas. Practiced law at Batesville, Ark., 1853-60, and at Little Rock after 1865. Was president of the American Bar Association, 1901-02, and was often called the "foremost citizen of Arkansas." His statue is in the National Hall of Fame, Washington, D.C. Was author of Rose's Digest of Arkansas Reports. Received Entered Apprentice degree in Mount Horeb Lodge No. 4, Washington, Ark. (now defunct). d. Aug. 12, 1913.


            Alfred Rosenberg (1893-1946) Nazi Reichsleiter and Anti-Mason. Was editor in chief of Volkischer Beobachter in 1921, and editor of Nationalsozialistische Monatshefte in 1930. He entered the Reichstag in 1930, and was the director of the newly established foreign policy office of the Nazi party in 1933. He was the founder and leader of Kampfbund for German culture. Hitler chose him to lead in the persecution of Freemasonry. On March 1, 1942, Hitler ordered Rosen-berg to seize all libraries and materials found in Masonic lodges in occupied countries. In 1930 Rosenberg wrote: "The idea of honor-national honor-will be for us the beginning and end of all our thoughts and deeds. It does not permit besides itself any other equivalent center of power, be it of whatever kind, neither Christian love, nor the humanity of the Freemasons, nor the Roman philosophy." Among his writings was the book, The World Policy of Freemasonry. At his trial in Nurnberg, he was closely questioned concerning his attacks on Freemasonry and Jews and his confiscation of Masonic libraries and records. Hanged as a war criminal in 1946.


            Marvin B. Rosenberry (1868-1958) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Wisconsin, 1929-50. b. Feb. 12, 1868, in River Styx, Ohio. Graduate of U. of Michigan in 1893, and began law practice in Wausau, Wis. that year. Was appointed a justice of the supreme court in 1916, and elected for four terms, ending in 1950. Raised in Forest Lodge No. 130, Wausau, Wis. on Aug. 21, 1895; exalted in Wausau Chapter, R.A.M. June 8, 1898; greeted in Madison Council No. 3, R. & S.M. Dec. 14, 1945; knighted in St. Omer Commandery No. 19, Wausau, Feb. 26, 1902. Received 32° AASR (NJ), April 30, 1943, and 33° in Sept., 1945. d. Feb. 15, 1958.


            William F. Rosenblum Rabbi of Temple Israel, New York City since 1930. b. Aug. 10, 1892 in Grodno, Poland, and brought to U.S. in 1897. Graduate of Coll. of City of New York in 1910 and of Tulane U. School of Law (New Orleans) in 1916. Was with the Cleveland Educational Alliance, 1911-13; assistant superintendent of Jewish Orphan's Home, New Orleans, 1913-16; assistant superintendent of Chicago Hebrew Institute, 1916-17; general secretary of Y.M.H.A. in Nashville, 1917; vice president of


70 John Ross Purity Co. and sales manager of N. Martin & Co., Nashville, 1918-23. Was student rabbi at Temple Beth-El, Steubenville, 0., 1924-26, and assistant rabbi of Washington Hebrew Congregation, 1926-30. Is creator of TV series, Crossroads. Served in U.S. Navy in WWI. Active in interfaith and Jewish welfare movements. Received 33° AASR (NJ) in Sept., 1957, and has been grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of New York since 1937. Affiliated with Mount Neboh Lodge No. 257, N.Y.C. on March 27, 1933 from Cumberland Lodge No. 8, Nashville, Tenn.


            Charles C. Rosewater (1874-1946) Publisher. b. May 24, 1874 in Omaha, Nebr. Graduate of Cornell in 1894 and Columbia in 1895. Joined staff of Omaha Bee in 1895, and was vice president of the Bee Publishing Co., 1905-17. Organized and published the Twentieth Century Farmer in 1900. Was general manager of Los Angeles Express in 1917 and Los Angeles Times in 1918. President of Kansas City Journal Co., 1912-21; vice president of Success Magazine, N.Y.C., 1924-27, and also of The New Age, Illustrated. Mason, 32° AASR. d. Oct. 3, 1946.


            William St. Clair of Roslin First Grand Master Mason of Scotland, in 1736.


            Edmund G. Ross (1826-1907) U.S. Senator from Kansas, 1866-71, and Governor of Territory of New Mexico, 1885-89. b. Dec. 7, 1826 in Ashland, Ohio. Learned printing trade in Sandusky, Ohio; moved to Milwaukee, Wis. in 1849 and was connected with the Milwaukee Sentinel. Moved to Topeka, Kans. in 1856, where he published the Topeka Tribune until 1859, then established the Kansas State Record. He was a promoter and director of the Santa Fe Railroad, and it was his suggestion that it be named the Atchinson, Topeka and Santa Fe.


            Served in Civil War in Union Army from private to major. Edited Kansas Tribune in 1865-66, and appointed to U.S. 'senate to fill a vacancy in 1866. In the impeachment of President Johnson he voted "not guilty," although he knew it meant political suicide for him—and it was. He then moved to New Mexico Territory, settling at Albuquerque (1882). He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1889, and practiced in Albuquerque. He was secretary of the U.S. bureau of immigration, 1894-96. Member of Topeka Lodge No. 17, Topeka, Kans. d. May 8, 1907.


            George Ross (1730-1779) Signer of Declaration of Independence. b. May 10, 1730 in New Castle, Del. Several Masonic publications have claimed he was a Freemason, but there is no evidence to support these claims.


            James Ross (1762-1847) U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania, 1794-1803. b. July 12, 1762 near Delta, York Co., Pa. Was Latin instructor in what is now known as Washington and Jefferson Coll., Washington, Pa. Studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1784, practicing in Washington, Pa. Was delegate to state constitutional conventions of 1789 and 1790. Moved to Pittsburgh in 1795. Was twice an unsuccessful candidate for governor. Member of Lodge No. 45, Pittsburgh, Pa. d. Nov. 27, 1847.


            John Ross (1726-1800) Revolutionary War patriot and purchasing agent for Continental Army. b. Jan. 29, 1726 in Tain, County Ross, Scotland. Entered mercantile business in Perth, Scotland, but came to Philadelphia in 1763, where he became a shipping merchant. He early espoused the cause of the colonies. In 1775 he was appointed muster-master of the Pennsylvania navy, serving until Feb. 23, 1776. In May, 1776 he was employed by the committee of commerce


71 John Ross of the Continental Congress to purchase clothes, arms and powder for the use of the army. He established agencies in Nantes and Paris, and made several visits there during the war. He pledged his credit for £20,000 more than was supplied by congress and lost heavily from his personal fortune. Washington's diary makes several references to dining at the home of Ross during the constitutional convention. Member of the Tun Tavern Lodge of Philadelphia.


            John Ross (1790-1866) Cherokee Indian Chief. b. Oct. 3, 1790 in Ross-vine, Ga. His father was a Scotchman, and his Cherokee mother was three-quarters white. His boyhood name was Tsanusdi (Little John) and this was exchanged when he reached manhood for that of Guwisguwi or Cooweescoowee. He was an uncle of William P. Ross, q.v., another Cherokee chief and Freemason, whom he educated. John, himself, received a good education at Kingston, Tenn. In 1809 he was sent on a mission to the Cherokees in Arkansas by the Indian agent, and from this time on he remained in the public service of his nation. He was adjutant of the Cherokee regiment in their war with the Creeks (1813-14). He resisted Georgia's attempt to secure their removal West of the Mississippi, and fought his tribe's rights to the Supreme Court. Nevertheless in 1835 a treaty was made with the Cherokees, and 15,000 under the leadership of Ross, migrated into Indian Territory (later Oklahoma) ; 1,200 remained in Georgia and other states, becoming known as the "Eastern Band." From 1828 until the removal to Indian Territory in 1839, he was principal chief of the Cherokee nation, and headed the various national delegations that visited Washington to defend the right of the Cherokees to their territory. After the arrival in Indian Territory, he was chosen chief of the united Cherokee nation, and held that office until his death, with the exception of a short time during the Civil War, when he was deposed by Federal authorities, due to the dissensions over slavery within the tribe. The Indian artist, George Catlin described Ross as "civilized, highly educated, accomplished, devoted, urbane and temperate." He was, without question, a Freemason, but his initiation dates and lodge are not known. He is named in the proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas for 1850 as a member of Cherokee Lodge No. 21, Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory. However the minutes of that lodge in 1850 list him under the title of "names of brethren, not members." In his capacity as chief, he approved the action of the Cherokee National Council when it gave the ground for the first Masonic temple at Tahlaquah. It consisted of lots 5 and 6 in square 10, the title to be held by the board of trustees. He was given Masonic burial at his death on Aug. 1, 1866 in Washington, D.C.


            J. Walker Ross (1868-1937) Editor and publisher of Daily States, New Orleans, 1931-37. b. Feb. 22, 1868 in Gretna, La. Began as copyholder on the newspaper in 1885, advancing as reporter, city editor, and managing editor from 1909. Received degrees in Louisiana Lodge No. 102, New Orleans, La. on Oct. 16, Dec. 4, 18, 1890. d. Sept. 30, 1937.


            Lawrence S. Ross (1838-1898) Governor of Texas in 1886. b. Sept. 27, 1838 in Bentonsport, Iowa. Graduate of Florence Wesleyan U., Florence, Ala. He commanded Texas frontier troops under General Samuel Houston, q.v., and became colonel of the 6th Texas Cavalry in the Confederate Army on May 24, 1862; was made brigadier general on Dec. 21, 1863. He led a brigade in Wheeler's cavalry corps of the Army of Ten-


72 William P. Ross nessee. Member of Waco Lodge No. 92, Waco, Texas, receiving degrees on March 23, May 11 and June 6, 1861. Suspended NPD June 4, 1892. d. Jan. 3, 1898.


            Leonard F. Ross (1823- ) Brigadier General of Volunteers in Civil War. b. July 18, 1823 in Fulton Co., Ill. Admitted to the bar in 1845. He joined the 4th Ill. Volunteers the following year for service in the Mexican War, and served at Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo. He commanded the bodyguard of General James Shields, q.v. Resumed his law practice after the war. In May, 1861, was chosen colonel of the 17th Ill. Regiment, which he raised and commanded in Missouri and Kentucky. Commissioned brigadier general in April, 1862, he commanded a brigade, and later, a division at Bolivar, Tenn. Following the war he devoted himself to livestock raising. Member of Lewistown Lodge No. 104, Lewistown, Ill.


            Silas E. Ross Grand Standard Bearer, Supreme Council, 33°, AASR (SJ), and Sovereign Grand Inspector General in Nevada. b. Feb. 11, 1887 in Truckee Meadows, Nev. Graduate of U. of Nevada in 1909. Was assistant professor of chemistry at U. of Nevada, 1909-14, and chemist for state department of foods, drugs and soils. After a short time as an insurance agent at Reno, he became president of the Ross-Burke Co. (funeral service) in that city. He was a regent of the U. of Nevada from 1932-57, and chairman of the board. A York Rite Mason, he is past sovereign of Red Cross of Constantine, and past grand master of the Grand Lodge of Nevada. Also past grand patron of the Eastern Star. Received 32° in 1910; KCCH in 1913; 33° in 1925; appointed deputy in Nevada in 1931, and crowned active member in 1953. Appointed to his present office in 1957, after having served as grand herald and grand sword bearer.


            William B. Ross (1873-1924) Governor of Wyoming, 1923-27. b. Dec. 4, 1873 in Dover, Tenn. Settled in Cheyenne, Wyo., in 1901. He was prosecuting attorney of Laramie Co., 1906-07, and member of board of law examiners of Wyoming, 1910-22. Mason. d. Oct. 2, 1924.


            William P. Ross (1820-1891) Cherokee Indian Chief. b. Aug. 28, 1820, a nephew of Chief John Ross, q.v., who bore the expense of his education. Graduate of Princeton U. in 1842. He taught school in the Cherokee country and was clerk of the Cherokee senate. In 1844 he became editor of the Cherokee Advocate and was frequently sent to Washington on official business for the tribe. He participated in the grand council of Indian tribes at Okmulgee, Indian Territory, in 1871, and in 1874, became chief of the Cherokee. He was editor of the Indian Journal at Muskogee, the Indian Chieftain at Vinita, and the Indian Arrow at Fort Gibson. An active Freemason throughout his life, he was elected in Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C. on April 4, 1848, and received his degrees April 4, 18, 25, 1848. He was also a member of Columbia Chapter No. 15, R.A.M. of Washington, but is listed as withdrawn in the 1850 proceedings. He was a charter member of Cherokee Lodge No. 21 at Tahlequah, the first lodge in the Indian Territory, and served as its first secretary in 1849. In 1851 he was master of the lodge. Ross and Federal lodge played an important part in uniting the Cherokee nation, which was split over the removal from Georgia to the newly created Indian Territory. Ross, and the other headmen of the Cherokee nation, were at the capital to arrange a treaty and they were arrayed in two hostile factions with negotiations at a standstill. But at one of the meetings of Federal lodge, the rival leaders, all Freemasons, were brought


73 William R. Ross together by the exertions of St. Yorke Atlee, the master, and other members, and the treaty was then successfully concluded. d. July 28, 1891.


            William R. Ross President of Colorado State College of Education since 1948. b. Aug. 25, 1899 in Fort Collins, Colo. Graduate of Colorado A. & M. in 1921. Taught mathematics in Longmont, Colo. high school, and was then superintendent of schools in Erie, Delta, and Trinidad. Was president of the Trinidad State Jr. Coll., 1933-39. Became professor of education in Colorado State Coll. in 1942, and president in 1948. Is archaeological researcher on Folsum and Yuma Man. Member of Garfield Lodge No. 50, Erie, Colo., receiving degrees on Jan. 6, 20, Feb. 3, 1926 and was junior warden in 1929. Exalted in Delta Chapter No. 38, R.A.M., Delta, Colo. and dimitted in 1951; greeted in Rocky Mountain Council No. 2, R. & S.M. May 11, 1936 and dimitted in 1953.


            Albert B. Rossdale U.S. Congressman to 67th Congress, 1921-23, from 23rd N.Y. dist. b. Oct. 23, 1878 in N.Y.C. Was proprietor of Rossdale Co., wholesale jewelry. Was postoffice clerk in N.Y.C., 1900-10, and former president of National Federation of Post Office Clerks. Took an active interest in post office affairs and effected various reforms in the postal service. He long advocated the enactment of the present pension system for government employees. Became member of Bronx Lodge No. 860, Bronx, N.Y., receiving degrees on Oct. 27, 1909; Jan. 12, 26, 1910. This lodge forfeited charter in 1927.


            Richard, 1st Earl of Rosse Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1725-30.


            Francis Robert, 4th Earl of Rosslyn Sixty-ninth Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1860-72.


            James, 2nd Earl of Rosslyn Forty-eighth Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1810-11.


            George William, 11th Earl of Rothes Sixty-fourth Grand Master Mason of Scotland in 1840.


            James Meyer Rothschild (1792-1868) Financier. Son of Meyer Amschel Rothschild, founder of the family banking empire which became one of the richest and most affluent of all times. James established a branch at Paris. His brother Nathan, q.v., founded the London branch. A 33° AASR of the French Supreme Council. Listed as attending six "fete de l'Ordre" between 1841-45.


            Nathan Meyer Rothschild (17771836) Financier. Son of Meyer Amschel Rothschild, German-Jewish founder of the family banking empire which became one of the richest and most affluent of all time. Nathan established the London branch and his brother James, q.v., founded the Paris branch. Member of the Lodge of Emulation, London, on Oct. 4, 1802.


            Frank C. Roundy (1858-1955) Imperial Potentate of the Shrine, 190708. b. Jan. 15, 1858 in Lake Geneva, Wis. In his long life, he personally knew every imperial potentate from its founding in 1876 until his death in 1955 (64) and had installed many of them in office. At the time of his death he was the oldest living 33° AASR (NJ). Was potentate of the Medinah Shrine Temple in Chicago, 1899-1900. He had organized more Shrine auxiliary units than any other man. He held many offices in both York and Scottish rites. d. Feb. 12, 1955.


            Lovell H. Rousseau (1818-1869) Major General, U.S. Army. b. Aug. 4, 1818 in Lincoln Co., Ky. Studied law, and moved to Bloomfield, Ind. where he was admitted to the bar in 1841.


            74 John Rowan Served in Indiana legislature, 1844-45. Raised a company for the Mexican War. Elected to Indiana senate on his return from war in 1847, and served two terms. Moved to Louisville, Ky. in 1849, where he continued law practice, and was a member of the state senate. Appointed colonel of the 5th Kentucky Volunteers in 1861; commissioned brigadier general of volunteers in Oct. of that year. Took part in the Battle of Shiloh, Stone River, Tullahoma campaign, and Battle of Chickamauga. Made raids into Alabama, destroying railway lines, and was in command of the middle Tenn. district. Elected to U.S. congress from Ky. and served from 1865-66, when he resigned after being censured for publicly assaulting Josiah B. Grinnell. However he was reelected and served again from 1866-67. President Johnson appointed him brigadier general in the regular army in 1867; at same time he was breveted major general for Civil War service. He was sent to receive Alaska from the Russian government, and assumed control of that territory. He was then assigned command of the Dept. of the Gulf, with headquarters at New Orleans, where he died Jan. 7, 1869. His lodge is not known, but he was referred to as a "brother," when he accompanied Andrew Johnson on one occasion; was present at the dedication of the Masonic temple in Boston, June 24, 1867. He was buried Masonically by Past Grand Master Samual A. Todd of Louisiana.


            John L. Routt (1826-1907) Territorial Governor of Colorado, 1875-76, and first Governor of Colorado, in 1876. b. April 25, 1826. Was sheriff of McLean Co., Ill. in 1860-62, and served 1861-65 as capt. of Co. E, 94th Ill. Vols. Was in business in Bloomington, Ill., 1865-69, and U.S. marshal of Southern Ill., 1869-71. From 1871-75 he was 2nd assistant postmaster general of the U.S. He served a second term asgovernor of Colorado from 1890-92. Member of Union Lodge No. 7, Denver, Colo. d. 1907.


            Robert K. Row (1858-1932) President of Row, Peterson & Co., publishers of educational books from 1906. b. Aug. 28, 1858 in Woodstock, Ont., Canada. Graduate of Queen's U., Kingston, Ont., in 1897. Was teacher, principal, and superintendent of schools in Kingston, Berwyn, Ill. Author of a number of educational books. d. Dec. 22, 1932.


            Charles A. Rowan (1874-1940) Chairman of board of Westinghouse Air Brake Co. b. Sept. 27, 1874 in Pittsburgh. Started as a bookkeeper, and later, bank cashier. Associated with Westinghouse in 1903 as assistant auditor; auditor, 1910-16; comptroller, 1916-19; and vice president and comptroller after 1919. Was president of Westinghouse International Brake & Signal Co. from 1927 to its dissolution in 1936. Member of Beta Lodge, Wilkinsburg, Pa., receiving degrees on Oct. 26, Nov. 30, 1908 and Feb. 1, 1909. d. Sept. 13, 1940.


            John Rowan (1773-1843) U.S. Senator from Kentucky, 1825-31; U.S. Congressman, 1813-17, 1822, and 1824. b. July 12, 1773, near York, Pa. His family moved to Kentucky in 1783, settling in Louisville, where he received his early education under Dr. Priestly in his school at Danville, Ky. Studied law at Lexington in the late 1790's, and became a member of Lexington Lodge No. 1 (then No. 25 of Virginia) in 1799. This same year he was a member of the state constitutional convention. Was secretary of state of Ky. from 1804-06, and judge of the court of appeals, 1819-21. He built "Federal Hill," his home in Bardstown, and lived there. Here he was a member of Washington Lodge No. 6, Bardstown (charter forfeited in 1806). While living in Frankfort, Ky. he became a member of Hiram


75 Stephen C. Rowan Lodge No. 4 and served as master in 1803. In 1816 he helped reorganize Bardstown Lodge No. 38 and was its first master on reorganization. Later he moved to Louisville and became affiliated with Clark Lodge No. 5L d. July 13, 1843.


            Stephen C. Rowan (1808-1890) Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Dec. 25, 1808 near Dublin, Ireland, and brought to this country in 1818. Appointed midshipman in 1826. During Seminole War, he cruised in the sloop Vandalia on the West coast of Florida. Was executive officer of the sloop Cyane of the Pacific squadron, 1846-48, and during the Mexican War took part in the capture of Monterrey and San. Diego, hoisting the American flag at the latter on July 29, 1846. His sloop captured 20 Mexican vessels. Commanded land expeditions into Mexico. He was then on ordnance duty until the outbreak of the Civil War. He commanded the Pawnee at Acquia Creek, and here participated in the first naval engagement of the war, by attacking Confederate batteries there. Made commodore in 1855, rear admiral in 1866, and vice admiral in 1870. In many engagements in Civil War, including destruction of Fort Ocracoke; captured forts at Roanoke Island, New Berne, N. Car., and Fort Macon, Beaufort, N. Car. In 1862 he commanded the New Ironsides. Commanded Norfolk Navy Yard, 1866-67; commander-in-chief of Asiatic squadron, 1868-70; naval station at New York, 1872-79; superintendent of Naval observatory in 1883; and chairman of light-house board from 1883. Made a Freemason in Montgomery Lodge No. 19, Philadelphia, May 4, 1865. d. 1890.


            Gilbert Roweliff Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. July 22, 1881 in Peoria, Ill. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1902, and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1936, retiring fromactive duty in 1945, after 25 years of sea service. Before WWI he was gunnery officer on U.S.S. Virginia and U.S.S. New York. In WWI he was executive officer of the U.S.S. New York; commander of destroyer division of scouting fleet, and with British Grand Fleet. He commanded the U.S.S. Cincinnati, 1928-30; a destroyer squadron, 1933-35; a cruiser division and heavy cruiser force, 193841. In WWII he was a member of the General Board, Navy Dept., 1941-45. His shore service included that of naval aide to Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and W. H. Taft; head of engineering dept. U.S. Naval Academy; commanding office Naval Training Station, Newport, R.I.; director of Naval communications. Since his retirement he has been in charge of the Washington office of Fitch Investors Service. Mason.


            John Rowe (?-1787) Revolutionary patriot who first suggested throwing the tea in Boston harbor by his question, "Who knows how tea will mingle with salt water?" Made a member in St. John's Lodge, Boston, in 1740, master of same in 1749, and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in 1768-87.


            Thomas A. Rowley (1808-?) Brigadier General (Union) in Civil War. b. Oct. 5, 1808 in Pittsburgh, Pa. Entered Mexican War as 2nd lieutenant of Pa. volunteers. At beginning of Civil War he enlisted as a captain in the 13th Pa. volunteers, and later re-enlisted as a colonel of the 102nd volunteers. Made brigadier general for services at Fredericksburg, Va. in 1862, resigning commission in Dec., 1864. From 1866-70 he was U.S. marshal for Western district of Pa.; after that practiced law in Pittsburgh. Member of Lodge No. 45, Pittsburgh, Pa. Received degrees on April 20, June 13, Aug. 29, 1845 and was suspended Dec. 26, 1853.


            76 Friedrich Ruckert William Rowley Archbishop of Canterbury. Initiated in Royal George Lodge, Bristol, about 1789.


            William R. Rowley (1824-1886) Union Brigadier General (brevet) in Civil War. b. Feb. 8, 1824 in Gouverneur, N.Y. After teaching in Ohio, he settled in Galena, Ill., where he held various civil offices. Entered military service as 1st lieutenant in the 45th Ill. regiment. After the capture of Fort Donelson, he was commissioned captain and appointed aide-de-camp to General Grant, q.v. He distinguished himself at Shiloh by riding into the thickest of the fight with orders to General Lew Wallace, q.v. to bring his troops to the field. For this he was promoted to major. When Grant was promoted to lieutenant general, Rowley was made a lieutenant colonel and military secretary to Grant. He held this office until Aug. 30, 1864, when impaired health forced him to resign. He was then breveted brigadier general of volunteers on March 13, 1865. Back in Galena, he was elected county judge in 1877, holding this office until his death. Was raised May 15, 1858 in Miners Lodge No. 273, Galena, Ill.; exalted in Jo Daviess Chapter No. 51, Galena, June 11, 1859; greeted in Ely S. Parker Council, Galena, July 9, 1873; knighted in Galena Commandery No. 40, Sept. 29, 1871. d. Feb. 9, 1886.


            Manuel A. Roxas (1892-1948) First President of the Philippine Republic, 1946-48. b. Jan. 1, 1892 in Capiz, island of Uanay, Philippines. Graduate of U. of Manila in 1913, and admitted to bar that year. Was municipal councilor of Capiz in 1918, and provincial governor of same, 1920. In house of representatives, 1924-36; secretary of finance, 1938-41; senator, 1941-45, and president of senate in latter year. Was member of constitutional convention of 1934, and head of the Philippine independence missions to Washing-ton four times after 1923. Entered Philippine Army as a colonel in Dec., 1941, and in 1942 was a brigadier general and aide to General MacArthur, q.v. Roman Catholic. He was past master of Makawiwili Lodge No. 55 in his native town of Capiz. Received 32° AASR in Rizal Consistory on Nov. 13, 1923. d. April 15, 1948.


            Gustave Royers (1848-1923) Belgian engineer and director of public works for city of Antwerp. Elected to the Belgian Chamber in 1910 and was one of the vice presidents of the Liberal Party. In 1876 he joined the Lodge Les Amis du Commerce et la Perseverance Reunis and was its master from 1899-1902. Later he was grand master of the Grand Orient of Belgium, presiding as such at the opening of the port of Antwerp. On this occasion he used a silver gavel for the three symbolic raps, which he explained as "wisdom, strength and beauty." For this he was attacked by the Catholic press of Belgium.


            Pascual Ortiz Rubio President of Mexico, 1930-32. b. in 1877. He was minister to Germany in 1923, and ambassador to Brazil in 1926. He was elected to succeed the provisional president Emilio Portes Gil, q.v., in 1929, and to fill out the unexpired term of Alvaro Obregon. He resigned in Sept., 1932. At the time he became president, he had been a Mason for 30 years. He received the 32° AASR at Chapultepec Castle on Feb. 6, 1931, and was also invested with membership in the Anezeh Shrine and Royal Order of Jesters.


            Friedrich Ruckert (1788-1866) German poet. He was a professor of Oriental languages at the University of Erlangen and later the University of Berlin. He was particularly famous for his Love Poems and the Wisdom of the Bramas, as well as his translations of famous Eastern literature. In


77 Herbert B. Rudolph his lyrics, we find many allusions to Freemasonry, one being: "Do you accept that we are building you within our house; we shall make of you a perfect ashlar, fitting well in the invisible building of our dreams." In 1861 he became a member of the Lodge Zum Rautenkranz at Hildesburghausen.


            Herbert B. Rudolph (1894-1957) Judge, Supreme Court of South Dakota since 1931. b. May 22, 1894 in Canton, S. Dak. Graduate of U. of South Dakota in 1916, and U. of Michigan in 1918. Began law practice at Canton in 1919. Was circuit court judge from 1924-29. Raised Feb. 5, 1919 in Silver Star Lodge No. 4, Canton, S. Dak. and was master of same in 1922. d. Sept. 3, 1957.


            Rafael Ruego Spanish colonel in command of troops at Cadiz, Spain scheduled to leave for an expedition to Mexico. On Jan. 1, 1820 he led a successful revolt at Cadiz against the king in favor of the constitution of 1812. His expedition failed to sail and a new envoy, Juan O'Donoju, q.v., was sent. Ruego was initiated in France in 1813, three years before his departure from Cadiz. He succeeded Count Montijo as grand master of the Grand Orient of Spain.


            Henry W. Rugg (1833-1910) Twenty-first Grand Master of the Grand Encampment, K.T., of the U.S. b. Sept. 3, 1833 in Framingham, Mass. Raised in Fraternal Lodge, Barnstable, Mass. on Sept. 12, 1854. Affiliated with St. John's Commandery, Providence, R.I. in 1869. 33° AASR (NJ). Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island. d. July 21, 1910.


            Daniel Ruggles (1810-?) Confederate Major General in Civil War. b. Jan. 31, 1810 in Barre, Mass. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1833. He entered the 5th U.S. Infantry and served on the frontier, andin recruiting duty, until the Mexican War. Promoted to captain in June, 1846, and was soon breveted major, and then lieutenant colonel, for gallantry at the Battles of Contreras, Churubusco, and Chapultepec. At the latter, his command raised the first American flag over the fort. He then served in Texas until his resignation on May 7, 1861. He joined the Confederate Army and was commissioned brigadier general in the same year. He served at New Orleans; led a division at Shiloh, and at Baton Rouge, and in 1863, became a major general in command of the Department of Mississippi. He repelled raids on the Northern and Southern borders. After the war he took charge of his large estate near Palafox, Texas, and also resided at Fredericksburg, Va. Member of Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, Fredericksburg, Va. Affiliated with the lodge on Dec. 25, 1868 and dimitted Jan. 8, 1875.


            Harry L. Ruggles First treasurer of Rotary International, and last surviving original officer. Member of Exemplar Lodge No. 966, Chicago, Ill.


            H. R. Runnels Former Governor of Texas. Member of Austin Lodge No. 12, receiving degrees on Jan. 20, 26, March 17, 1848.


            William N. Runyon (1871-1931) Federal Judge, District of New Jersey, 1923-31. b. March 5, 1871 in Plainfield, N.J. Graduate of Yale in 1892 and New York Law School in 1894. Resided at Plainfield, where he was city judge, 1899-1910, a member of the house of representatives, 1915-17, and of state senate, 1918-22 (president of same in 1919), and acting governor of New Jersey from May 16, 1919 to Jan. 13, 1920. Member of Anchor Lodge No. 149, Plainfield, N.J., receiving degrees on May 10, June 14, July 26, 1898. d. Nov. 9, 1931.


            78 Jeremiah M. Rusk Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) Signer of the Declaration of Independence and probably the outstanding physician of the American Revolution. b. Dec. 24, 1745 in Byberry, Pa., he was educated at Princeton and studied medicine in Philadelphia, Edinburgh, London, and Paris. Began practice in Philadelphia in 1769. Appointed treasurer of the U.S. mint in 1779, and served in that office until his death on April 19, 1813. Although referred to as a Freemason many times, there is no documentary proof of his membership. He joined with Washington in the burial of Captain William Leslie (of the British forces) with Masonic honors. Vandever says his membership is unknown, but is said to have "recanted his Masonry." In a dispute with Joseph Reed, of Philadelphia, he referred to the "leather apron majority in Pennsylvania." His son, Richard, q.v., was anti-Mason.


            Richard Rush (1780-1859) Anti-Mason; U.S. Attorney General, 181417; U.S. Secretary of State, 1817; U.S. Secretary of Treasury, 1825-28; Minister to Great Britain, 1817-25 and to France, 1847-49. b. Aug. 29, 1780 in Philadelphia. Graduate of Princeton in 1797. Was sent to England by President Jackson to obtain the legacy of James Smithson, left to found the Smithsonian Institution. He was an intimate friend of John Quincy Adams, q.v., another anti-Mason, and undoubtedly was .greatly influenced in his beliefs by Adams. Rush was initiated in Union Lodge No. 121, Philadelphia on Sept. 19, 1811, and withdrew in Jan., 1827. In a letter to the Anti-Masonic Almanac for 1832, Rush wrote Editor Edward Giddens: "Many years ago I became an entered apprentice, went to a lodge once—and but once. On my return from England, after an absence in the service of the United States, I voluntarily withdrew fromthe body, by a letter to that effect. My separation from it was in 1826." He was a son of Benjamin Rush, q.v., Declaration Signer.


            Sylvester R. Rush (1860-1932) Lawyer who was special government prosecutor of many important cases. b. July 24, 1860 in Greene Co., Pa. Began law practice at Omaha, Neb., in 1888. Was special assistant to U.S. attorney general from 1907-22, and again after 1923. He successfully represented the government in cases arising from unlawful enclosure of public lands in Neb., Wyo., Colo.; in the prosecution of fraudulent sales of swamp lands in Fla.; fraudulent entry of coal lands in Alaska; in Mabray foot and horse race swindling scheme; in the case against Dr. Cook, alleged discoverer of the North Pole. Mason. d. March, 1932.


            John Rushworth (see Earl of Jellicoe).


            Jeremiah M. Rusk (1830-1893) Governor of Wisconsin, 1882-89; U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, 1889-93; U.S. Congressman, 1871-72. b. June 17, 1830 in Morgan Co., Ohio. His varied career saw him as a stage driver, railroad construction foreman, tavern keeper, sheriff, coroner, and farmer. He moved to Wis. in 1853, and in 1862 was commissioned major in the 25th Wis. regiment. He served under General Sherman from the siege of Vicksburg until the close of the war, receiving the brevet of brigadier general of volunteers in 1865 for meritorious service at the Battle of Salkehatchie. As governor he ordered troops out to halt the mob violence of strikers at Bay View, Wis. in 1886. Five strikers were killed. It was on this occasion that Rusk made the now-famous utterance: "I seen my duty and I done it!" Previously, in 1882, he had sided with labor in the case of the bankrupt Chicago, Portage and


79 Thomas J. Rusk Lake Superior Railroad. He was mentioned several times as a candidate for president and vice president of the U.S. He was known nationally as "Uncle Jerry." He was initiated in 1855 in Frontier Lodge No. 45 at La Crosse, Wis., and became a charter member of La Belle Lodge No. 85, Viroqua, Wis. This lodge's dispensation was issued Dec. 20, 1856 and its charter dated June 10, 1857. He was one of the six charter members. He was master of the lodge in 1859, 1860, and 1866. Was exalted in Smith Chapter No. 13, R.A.M., La Crosse, and knighted in Robert Macoy Cornmandery No. 3, K.T., at Madison. Received the Scottish Rite at Milwaukee in April, 1886. Seven months after his death (June 13, 1894), Jeremiah M. Rusk Lodge No. 259, South Milwaukee, was chartered. Also member of Tripoli Shrine Temple at Milwaukee. d. Nov. 21, 1893.


            Thomas J. Rusk (1803-1857) U.S. Senator from Texas (first), 1846-57. b. Dec. 5, 1803 in Pendleton Dist., S. Car. Admitted to the bar and began practice in Georgia, moving to Nacogdoches, Texas in 1835. He was a delegate to the convention which declared for the independence of Texas on March 21, 1836, and was the first secretary of war under the new republic. At the Battle of San Jacinto, he took command of the forces after General Houston was wounded, retaining command until Oct., 1836, when he resumed his duties as secretary of war. Was thief justice of the supreme court of Texas, 1838-42. In 1843 he was appointed brigadier general of militia of the Republic of Texas. He was president of the convention that confirmed the annexation of Texas to the U.S. in 1845. He was a member of Milan Lodge No. 40, Nacogdoches, Texas, and at one time was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Texas. d. July 29, 1857.


            Chevalier Bartholomew Ruspini (1728-1813) Early English surgeon-dentist. b. near Bergamo, Italy in 1728, he studied surgery under Monsieur Copran, dentist to the King of France. In 1766 he settled in London under the patronage of Dowager Princess of Wales, and became surgeon-dentist to the Prince if Wales, afterward King George IV, q.v. Was initiated in the Mourning Bush Tavern Lodge No. 116, Bristol, England, April 7, 1762, and over a period of 51 years he held membership in several lodges, and was most active in the Craft. In 1777 he was a founder of the Lodge of the Nine Muses No. 235, London, and in 1787, it was at his instigation that the Prince of Wales founded Prince of Wales Lodge No. 259. He served the Grand Lodge of England as grand steward and grand sword bearer and was active in Royal Arch Masonry. His greatest contribution, however was the foundation, in 1788, of the Royal Cumberland Freemasons School, which has now become the Royal Masonic Institution for Girls. Strangely, although of modest wealth, his property was wasted by his children, and two of his grandchildren became recipients of the benefits of the institution he had founded. He was probably the leading dental surgeon of his day in England and Europe, and was known for his generosity and benevolences. Although a noted Freemason, the Pope conferred on him the title Chevalier and made him a Knight of the Golden Spur, in return for his concern and hospitality towards foreigners in England. d. Dec. 14, 1813.


            Archibald D. Russell (1811-1871) Philanthropist b. at Edinburgh, Scotland in 1811, his father, James, was president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for many years. He graduated from the U. of Edinburgh in philosophy, law, and medicine, and later studied at the U. of Bonn, Ger-


80 Lee M. Russell many. In 1836 he settled in New York City. Here he founded the Five Points Mission, of which he was president for 18 years; aided in establishing the Half-Orphan Asylum, of which he was vice president; was an active member of the Christian Commission during the Civil War; established the school system of Ulster Co., N.Y. and built the Presbyterian church near Glen Albyn. Member of Holland Lodge No. 8, N.Y.C. d. April 12, 1871.


            Benjamin Russell (1761-1845) Early American journalist. b. Sept. 13, 1761 in Boston, Mass. Was apprenticed to Isaiah Thomas, q.v., printer, at Worcester, Mass., but before completing his term, enlisted in the Revolutionary Army and contributed war news to the Spy, Thomas's paper. He began the publication of the Columbian Centinel about 1784. It was a semiweekly journal which had no equal at the time. In 1788 he attended the Mass. convention for ratifying the constitution of the U.S. and made the first attempt at reporting for any Boston newspaper. His paper was conspicuous in collecting foreign intelligence, and he visited all ships that came into the Boston harbor. When congress was holding its first session, Russell offered to publish gratuitously all the laws and other official documents; and the treasury being almost bankrupt, his offer was accepted. After several years he was called on for his bill, which he sent marked "paid." Washington, however, said: "This must not be. When Mr. Russell offered to publish the laws without pay we were poor. It was a generous offer. We are now able to pay our debts." A few days later Russell was paid $7,000. From 17951830 he published a paper called the Gazette. He retired from the Centinel in 1829. Member of Rising States Lodge, Boston and St. John's Lodge, Boston. Was grand sword bearer in1792-95; grand marshal 1796-1810; junior grand warden, 1811-12; senior grand warden, 1813 and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Mass., 181416. d. Jan. 4, 1845.


            Charles H. Russell Governor of Nevada, 1950-58; U. S. Congressman to 80th Congress, 1947-49. b. Dec. 27, 1903 in Lovelock, Nev. Graduate of U. of Nevada in 1926. After two years in a mine office at Ruth, Nev. he became editor of The Ely Record, 192946. Member of state legislature, 193540, and state senator, 1941-46. Member of Ely Lodge No. 29, Ely, Nev. and past master of same. He addressed the Grand Lodge of Nevada in 1951 while governor. A Royal Arch Mason, 32° AASR, Shriner, and Jester.


            T. Stuart Russell Editor. b. May 27, 1892 in Newton, Iowa. Graduate of Grinnell Coll. (Iowa) in 1913. Was a farmer from 1914-18, and published a weekly newspaper at Sac City, Iowa, 1919-26. Was farm editor of the Des Moines Register and Tribune, 1926-42. During 1942-43 he was with the War Food Administration in Iowa and Washington. Returning to Des Moines, he became managing editor of the Register and Tribune from 1943-46. He has been farm editor since Jan. 1943, and also editor of the Iowa Farm and Home Register since 1946. Was chairman of the president's Famine Emergency Committee in 1946. He is deputy chairman of the board of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, and active in many farm organizations. Served in Army in WWI. Member of Occidental Lodge No. 178, Sac City, Iowa, since 1920.


            Lee M. Russell (1875-1943) Governor of Mississippi, 1920-24. b. Nov. 16, 1875 near Oxford, Miss. Graduate of Toccopola Coll. in 1897, and U. of Mississippi in 1901 and 1903. Began law practice at Oxford, Miss. in 1901, and was in real estate business at Gulfport, 1912-16. Served as


81 Louis A. Russell lieutenant governor of Miss. from 1916-20. Raised May 4, 1905 in T.S. Gathright Lodge No. 33, Oxford, Miss. d. May 16, 1943.


            Louis A. Russell (1854-1925) Composer and musician. b. Feb. 24, 1854 in Newark, N.J. Studied extensively in New York and London. Was organist and choirmaster of the South Park Presbyterian Church, Newark, N.J., for 17 years, and Peddie Memorial Church, Newark, 12 years. Was founder and conductor of Oratorio Society, Newark Symphony Orchestra; director of Newark College of Music from 1879. He was director of the Normal Institute of Music, Carnegie Hall, N.Y. Was managing editor of the Essex Publishing Co. and founder of American Guild of Organists. He composed A Pastoral Rhapsody and The Triumph of Freedom and Peace, both cantatas; the Suite Fantastique and Suite Psychique for the piano and Suite Lyrique for the violin, as well as many songs. He wrote a number of books on singing, piano, and organ. Member of Pythagoras Lodge No. 118, Newark, N.J., receiving degrees on Jan. 17, June 21, Sept. 20, 1909. d. Sept. 5, 1925.


            Richard B. Russell (1861-1938) Judge, cotton planter, editor, business executive. b. April 27, 1861 near Marietta, Ga. Graduate of U. of Georgia in 1879 and 1880. Fathered 18 children, five of them dying in infancy. One son, Richard B. Russell, Jr., q.v., became governor and U.S. senator. Practiced law at Athens, Ga. Served two terms in state legislature, and was author of bill for Georgia State Coll, for Women, in 1887. Judge of superior courts eight years; candidate for governor in 1906; judge of state court of appeals, 1906-21, and chief judge of same, 1913-16. Elected chief justice of state supreme court in 1922. An extensive cotton planter, he was president or owner of telephone,street railway, and manufacturing companies and newspapers. Mason. d. Dec. 3, 1938.


            Richard B. Russell, Jr. Governor of Georgia, 1931-33; U.S. Senator from Georgia since 1933, present term ending in 1961. b. Nov. 2, 1897 at Winder, Ga., son of Richard B. Russell, q.v., and one of 18 children. Graduate of U. of Georgia in 1918, he served as county attorney of Barrow Co. and was a member of the state house of representatives, 192131, serving as speaker of same, 192731. Served in U.S. Navy in WWI. Initiated June 10, 1921 in Winder Lodge No. 33, Winder, Ga.


            William H. Russell (1812-1872) Partner in the pioneer Western freighting firm of Russell, Majors & Waddell. b. Jan. 31, 1812 in Burlington, Vt. His father was a veteran of the War of 1812, and on his death, the mother remarried and moved to Missouri. Russell served in the Black Hawk War of 1832 and the Seminole War of 1837. In the Mexican War he served as a colonel under General Fremont, on the West coast. He was a principal witness at the trial of Fremont in 1848. In 1854 he formed a partnership with Wm. B. Waddell, owner of a general store in Lexington, with branches along the Missouri River. Waddell had freight lines operating in 1850. By 1855 the partnership had expanded to include Alex Majors, q.v., and in two years they had cleared $300,000. In 1859, Horace Greeley, visiting their depot near Ft. Leavenworth, Kans. said they had two million dollars invested, employed 6,000 teamsters, and worked 45,000 oxen. It was their firm that opened up the West to the pioneer, and hauled the supplies that enabled the settler to exist. It was also the forerunner of the famous Pony Express. They established a fast pony express from St. Joseph, Mo. to Placerville, Calif., the


82 William Harry Rylands first rider leaving St. Joseph on April 3, 1860. Previous to this, they had express riders on a line from the Missouri River to Pike's Peak region of Colo., and a semi-monthly line from St. Joseph to Salt Lake City. All these lines were failures. The St. Joseph-Placerville line was facing ruin in its first summer, and it was sold to Ben Holliday, a member of Weston Lodge No. 53, Weston, Mo., who in turn sold it to Wells, Fargo & Co. Initiated in Lafayette Lodge No. 32, Lexington, Mo., in 1848, Russell served as master in 1852. In 1856 he transferred membership to Lexington Lodge No. 149. He was active in the Lexington bodies for many years, being exalted in Lexington Chapter No. 10, R.A.M., Nov. 14, 1849, and a member of DeMolay Commandery No. 3, K.T., both of Lexington. d. Sept. 10, 1872.


            Albert G. Rutherford (1879-1941) U.S. Congressman to 75th and 76th Congresses, 1937-41, from 15th Pa. dist. b. Jan. 3, 1879 at Watford, Ont., Canada, and brought to U.S. in 1883. Graduate of U. of Pennsylvania in 1904, admitted to bar that year, and practiced at Scranton until 1918, and at Honesdale, Pa. after 1918. Member of Peter Williamson Lodge No. 323, Scranton, Pa., receiving degrees on April 4, May 9, June 6, 1907. d. Aug. 10, 1941.


            Wiley B. Rutledge (1894-1949) Justice, Supreme Court of the U.S., 194349. b. July 20, 1894 in Cloverport, Ky. Graduate of U. of Wisconsin in 1914, and U. of Colorado in 1922. Taught in high schools of Indiana, N. Mex., and Colo., 1915-22. Admitted to bar in 1922 and began practice at Boulder, Colo. He taught law at the U. of Colorado, 1924-26, and at Washington U. (St. Louis, Mo.), 1926-35. Was acting dean of the latter, 193031, and dean 1913-35. From 1935-39 he was dean of the college of law at the State U. of Iowa. In 1939 he be-came associate justice of U.S. Court of Appeals for D.C., retaining that bench until named to the supreme court bench in 1943. Member of Boulder Lodge No. 45, Boulder, Colo., receiving degrees, Sept. 9, 23, Oct. 19, 1921. d. Sept. 10, 1949.


            Count Frederick Augustus. Rutovsky (1702-?) Polish nobleman who is considered the founder of Freemasonry in Poland. b. May 1, 1702. His name in the Masonic order was Chevalier de L'Aigle. In 1738 he founded the Saxon lodge of "Three White Eagles" in Dresden. In 1741 he became grand master of Upper Saxony, and in the same year he was governor of Dresden with the rank of general field-marshal. In his youth, he was in the French service, and the Lodge of the Three Eagles was strongly tinged with French influence.


            Julien Rybinsky (?-1957) French general. He was grand master of the French Rectified Rite and grand master of the Great Priory of Gaul (C.B.C.S.) at the time of his death on Aug. 14, 1957 in Paris.


            Abraham Viktor Rydberg (18281895) Swedish poet, writer, and critic, who was a champion of liberalism and tolerance. He was a professor of the history of civilization at Stockholm from 1884. Was the author of many tales, historical novels, and volumes of lyrics. His most controversial work was The Teachings of the Bible About Christ in 1862. Wrote also on history of art and Germanic mythology. Was initiated in 1865 in St. John's Lodge Salomon, Gothenburg.


            William Harry Rylands (1846-1923) English lawyer and fellow of Society of Antiquaries. Was initiated in the Lodge of Faith and Unanimity No. 417, Dorchester. He was a founder of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1886,


83 Walter H. Ryle and in 1901 succeeded Speth as its secretary. He made many valuable contributions to its early transactions. Was the author of Masons' Marks, and editor of Vol. 1 of Records of The Lodge Original No. 1 (now the Lodge of Antiquity No. 2).


            Walter H. Ryle President of Northeast Missouri State Teachers College, Kirksville, Mo., since 1937. b. June 1, 1896 in Yates, Mo. In 1919 was graduate of the school he now heads; masters and doctorate from George Peabody Teachers Coll. in 1927 and 1930. Was a principal and public school superintendent in Mo. until 1927. He then taught at Northeast Mo. State Teachers Coll., and later at Peabody Coll., Nashville, Tenn. Returned to Northeast State Coll. in 1930 as professor of social science, and was made president in 1937. Member of Palmyra Lodge No. 18, Palmyra, Mo., since 1920.


            84 S Dwight M. Sabin (18434902) U.S. Senator from Minnesota, 1883-89. b. April 25, 1843 near Marseilles, Ill. Moved with parents to Conn. in 1857 and attended Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. Moved to Stillwater, Minn. in 1868, where he engaged in lumbering and the manufacture of railroad cars and agricultural machinery. Member of state senate, 1872-75, and lower house, 1878-81. Mason. d. Dec. 22, 1902.


            Carl E. A. Sachs (1829-1909) German lexicographer and language scholar. Together with Cesaire Villatte, he prepared the German-French Dictionary, which is still today a basic book for French-German translations. Initiated in 1854 in the Lodge Friedrich, Wilhelm zur Gekroenten Gerechtigkeit. Was master of the Lodge Friedrich sur Tugend at Brandenburg from 1877-87 and an honorary member of the Lodge Teutonia zur Weisheit at Berlin.


            Morris B. Sachs (1896-1957) Owner of Morris B. Sachs, Inc., Chicago retail apparel store. b. March 23, 1896 in Lithuania, coming to the U.S. in 1910, and naturalized in 1924. Engaged in retailing wearing apparel as Morris B. Sachs, Chicago, from 1923. Was city treasurer of Chicago, 195557. In 1934 he was the founder of the radio Amateur Hour. A director of the Chicago Medical School Research Foundation, he received numerous awards for his civic interests. Member of Monroe C. Crawford Lodge No. 1042, Chicago, being raised June 30, 1922. d. Sept. 23, 1957.


            Julius F. Sachse (1842-1919) Masonic author and researcher. b. Nov. 22, 1842 in Philadelphia, Pa. He was librarian and curator of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania from 1906. Was the author of Benjamin Franklin as a Freemason, 1906; Freemasonry in Pennsylvania, 1727-1907; Old Masonic Lodges of Pennsylvania, 17301800; Quaint Old Germantown; History of Masonic Knights Templar in Pennsylvania, 1797-1919. Member of Columbia Lodge No. 91, Columbia, Pa. d. Nov. 14, 1919.


            Buel Sackett Revolutionary soldier who was one of the guards at the execution of Major Andre on Oct. 2, 1780. Raised in Unity Lodge No. 17, New York in 1796.


            Lord George Sackville (1716-1785) The third son of the first duke. In 1770 he changed his name to Germain. Was wounded and captured at Fontenoy in 1745, and was second in command of the St. Malo expedition in 1758. He failed to lead the cavalry charge needed to complete the victory at Minden, and was dismissed from the service. He attained the rank of lieutenant general. As secretary of state for the colonies in 177582, he virtually directed the British efforts in the War of the American Revolution. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1751. The title became extinct with the death of his son, Charles, in 1843.


            Henry Sadler (1840-1911) English Masonic historian. b. Oct. 19, 1840, he was initiated in Lodge of Justice No. 147 in 1862 while serving in the Mer-


85 McGruder Ellis Sadler cantile Marine; served as master in 1872. He was the founder and first master of two other lodges. Exalted in the Royal York Chapter of Perseverance No. 7, R.A.M. in 1869. From 1879-1910 he was grand tyler of the Grand Lodge of England. During his years in this office there was no librarian, and Sadler devoted much of his time to arranging and collecting the archives. In 1887 he was appointed sub-librarian. It was Sadler who discovered the long lost minutes of the "Ancients," written by Dermott. A reliable investigator, he published many books, his outstanding work being Masonic Facts and Fictions (1887). Also wrote Thomas Dunckerley, His Life, Labours and Letters; Masonic Reprints and Historical Revelations; and Illustrated History of Emulation Lodge of Improvement, No. 21. d. Oct. 15, 1911.


            McGruder Ellis Sadler President of Texas Christian University since 1941. b. Nov. 5, 1896 in Hobucken, N. Car. Graduate of Atlantic Christian Coll. (N.C.) in 1919; Vanderbilt U. in 1921; Yale in 1925 and 1929. He was director of leadership training of the Disciples of Christ in Va., 1922-27 and nationally, 1929-31. From 1931-36 he was dean of Lynchburg Coll., and from 1936-41, minister of Central Christian Church at Austin, Texas. Active in many national organizations, such as Y.M.C.A., Red Cross, Conference of Christians and Jews, and Federal Council of Churches. Was president of the international convention of Disciples of Christ, 1944-46. He delivered the address before the Grand Lodge of Texas at its 1955 communication. Raised May 21, 1921 in Lafayette Lodge No. 151, Lafayette, Ky.; then affiliated with Hill City Lodge No. 183, Lynchburg, Va.; affiliated with Austin Lodge No. 12, Austin, Texas on Sept. 5, 1936 and affiliated with Cooke-Peavy Lodge No. 1162, Ft. Worth on May 12, 1958. Member of Scottish Rite and Shrine.


            Percy L. Sadler Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. March 30, 1893 in Mobile, Ala. Served through grades from private to brigadier general, 1942, retiring in 1946. Served in Mexican Border, WWI and WWII. Was commander of Task Force 5889 in 1942; commanding general U.S. Army Forces in Central Africa, 1943-44; deputy commander U.S. Forces in Middle East, 1944. Mason.


            Reinhold Sadler (1848-1906) Governor of Nevada, 1896-1903. b. Jan. 10, 1848 in Prussia. Elected lieutenant governor in 1895, and on death of Governor Jones in 1896, assumed governorship and elected for a second term. Initiated in Escurial Lodge No. 7, Virginia City in 1867, and later affiliated with Eureka Lodge No. 16, Eureka, Nev. Exalted in White Pine Chapter, R.A.M. of Hamilton, and later affiliated with St. Johns Chapter, Eureka (both now defunct). Knighted in DeWitt Clinton Commandery No. 1, Virginia City, in 1880, and affiliated with Eureka Cornmandery No. 2. 32° AASR (SJ). Was past master and past high priest. d. 1906.


            Charles G. Sage Brigadier General, A.U.S. and Adjutant General of New Mexico since 1846. b. April 10, 1895 in Sparks, Kans. He published the Deming (N.M.) Headlight from 1926-41 and since 1949. Served as second lieutenant with 326th Field Artillery in WWI. In WWII he was commanding officer of the 200th Coast Artillery (AA) and Philippine provisional coast artillery brigade in the Philippines, surrendering to Japanese on April 9, 1942. He was a prisoner of war on Bataan until Aug., 1945. Advanced to brigadier general, A.U.S., in Jan., 1946 and major general of national guard from 1954 until retirement in 1957. Member of Deming Lodge No. 12, Deming, N. Mex., and master of same in 1925; member of Deming Chapter No. 5, R.A.M. and


86 Saint Alban high priest in 1926; 32° AASR (SJ) at Santa Fe; Ballut Abyad Shrine Temple at Albuquerque and Royal Order of Jesters.


            Comfort Sage (1731-1799) Brigadier General of Connecticut militia in Revolution; merchant and West Indian trader of Middletown, Conn. A man of wealth and influence, he answered the Lexington alarm as a captain of a light horse troop. He rose to command a militia regiment, and was later brigadier general. He participated in the fighting at Long Island, New York, Harlem Heights, White Plains, Fort Washington, Danbury, New Haven and elsewhere. He gave asylum to the children of Benedict Arnold. He was often in the general assembly, and frequently a local office holder. Was made a Mason June 12, 1754 in St. John's Lodge No. 2 at Middletown. He was once fined a shilling for "coming to lodge in a check shirt." Nevertheless he served as master in 1768-83. He was exalted Oct. 8, 1783 in the "grand" chapter at Middletown (now Washington Chapter No. 6). His mark was the "Bible." He was high priest of the chapter from 1785-95. In 1783 he was moderator of a convention to consider a grand lodge in Conn. A cousin of Nathan Sage, q.v.


            Nathan Sage (1752-1833) Privateer commander in Revolutionary War. Shipbuilder, merchant, and West Indian trader, he was a cousin of Comfort Sage, q.v. He brought in many prizes during the war, including an English vessel loaded with powder, which was sorely needed by the Americans. He succeeded in bringing this prize safely into the New London harbor, although closely pursued by the British. For this he was publicly honored by Congress. He invested in Western New York lands; was county judge at Redfield; and served as collector of customs at Oswego, where he died in 1833. On Jan. 16, 1786 he wasmade a Mason in St. John's Lodge No. 2, Middletown, Conn., and became a Royal Arch Mason soon after, in what is now Washington Chapter No. 6. His mark was a "ship.”


            Russell Sage (1816-1906) Capitalist. b. Aug. 4, 1816 in Oneida Co., N.Y. Brought up on a farm, he attended school in winter and began business career as an errand boy in his brother's grocery at Troy, N.Y. Became a retail grocer from 1837-39 and wholesale grocer, 1837-57, at Troy. He served in the U.S. Congress from 1853-57, and was the first to advocate the purchase of Mount Vernon by the government. Moving to New York City, he began his financial rise by investing in small Western railroads and disposing of them to trunk lines. He was president of the Milwaukee & St. Paul for 12 years and was closely associated with Jay Gould in the management of many interests, including the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific, Missouri Pacific, M.K.&T., D.L.&W. railroads, the American Cable Co., and Western Union. Received degrees in King Solomon's Primitive Lodge No. 91, Troy, N.Y. on May 20, June 17, 25, 1852, withdrawing on June 30, 1853 to become a charter member of Mount Zion Lodge No. 311, Troy, N.Y. Withdrew from latter on June 14, 1858. d. 1906.


            Saint Alban Early English Christian martyr. b. at Verulam (now St. Albans) in Hertfordshire. In his youth he visited Rome and served seven years as a soldier under the Emperor Diocletian. On his return to Britain, he embraced Christianity, and was the first to suffer martyrdom in the great persecution which raged during that time. Anderson, in his Constitutions of 1738, says this appeared in the old constitutions: "Saint Alban loved Masons well and cherished them much, and he made their pay right good: viz two shillings per week and three pence to their cheer; whereas




1st Earl of St. Albans before that time, through all the land, a Mason had but a penny a day and his meat, until Saint Alban amended it. He also obtained of the King a Charter for the Free Masons, for to hold a general council, and gave it the name of Assembly, and was thereat himself as Grand Master and helped to make Masons and gave them good charges." Anderson's Constitutions contain much that is tradition.


            1st Earl of St. Albans (?-1684) Henry Jermyn, English courtier and statesman. Was vice-chamberlain to Queen Henrietta Maria in 1628, and her master of the horse in 1639. Fought in Royalist army, and accompanied queen to France in 1644. After execution of Charles I, in 1649, Jermyn remained in France with Charles II, and after the Restoration was created earl in 1660 and lord chamberlain in 1674. In his constitutions of 1738, Dr. Anderson, q.v., recorded that the Earl of St. Albans was grand master in 1663, with Sir John Denham as his deputy grand master, and Sir Christopher Wren, q.v., and John Webb as his grand wardens. Anderson stated that: "According to a copy of the old constitutions this grand mason held a general assembly and feast on St. John's Day, 27th December, 1663.”


            Saint Augustine Was sent to England with 40 monks, near the end of the sixth century, to evangelize the country. No reference is made to him in the Old Charges, but Lenning, vv., states that according to a tradition, Augustine placed himself at the head of the corporations of the builders and was recognized as their grand master.


            William St. Clair of Roslin (17001778) By both tradition and fact, the St. Clair family of Roslin, Scotland, held an intimate connection with the history of Freemasonry inthat country for more than 300 years. By tradition, King James II appointed William St. Clair, Earl of Orkney and Caithness, the protector of Freemasonry in Scotland in 1441. The family connection was passed from generation to generation until Nov. 30, 1736 when the above William St. Clair, who was childless, gathered the members of the Edinburg and nearby lodges and tendered a resignation of his hereditary office. At that meeting he was elected grand master, thus becoming the first grand master of Scotland (1736-37). He had been made a Mason in the Lodge Canon-gate Kilwinning only the previous year, and it is thought by several Masonic historians that he was made a Mason in order that he might dramatically resign these family powers (which had ceased to be of practical value) in order to gain election as first grand master over the Earl of Home, supported by another faction.


            Arthur St. Clair (1734-1818) Major General in American Revolution and first Governor of the Northwest Territory, 1789-1802. b. March 23, 1734 in Thurso, Scotland, a member of the St. Clair of Roslyn, q.v., family so prominent in Freemasonry of that country. He inherited a fortune from his mother. Joined the 60th Foot on May 13, 1757, and came to America with Admiral Boscawen's fleet. Was under General Wolfe at Quebec in 1758. Resigned his British commission on April 16, 1762, and settled in Ligonier Valley, Pa., where he became prominent in all political and cultural affairs of that area, building a residence and erecting mills. Became a colonel of militia in July, 1775, joining General John Sullivan in Canada, where, by his counsel, he aided that officer in saving his command at Three Rivers. Made brigadier general on Aug. 9, 1776, organized the New Jersey militia, participating in the Battles of Trenton and


88 Elizabeth St. Leger Princeton. Appointed major general, Feb. 19, 1777; succeeded Horatio Gates in command at Ticonderoga. Here he was overwhelmed by the superior forces of Burgoyne. For this he was tried by courtmartial in 1778, but "acquitted with the highest honor." He assisted General Sullivan in preparation for his expedition against the Six Nations; was a member of the courtmartial that tried Major Andre at West Point, which he commanded in Oct., 1780. He was a member of the Pa. council of censors in 1783, and a delegate to the Continental Congress, 1785-87, from Pa. While governor of the Northwest Territory, he fixed the seat of justice at Cincinnati, Ohio, which he named in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, of which he was president for Pa. in 1783-89. Was appointed commanderin-chief of the army operating against the Indians in 1791. When this army suffered a defeat, he resigned his commission as major general. He died in poverty at Greensburg, Pa. on Aug. 31, 1818, attempting to settle his claims against the government. His original lodge is not known, but presumed to be a British military lodge. On Sept. 8, 1791, he was one of those signing a request to the Grand Lodge of New Jersey for a lodge at Cincinnati (Nova Caesarea Harmony Lodge No. 2). He is recorded at many meetings of this lodge, and in 1798, the anniversary oration of that lodge was dedicated to him. At his burial, Masonic services were first conducted and the ceremonies then turned over to the ex-soldiers of the town. After several years of neglect, the lodge at Greensburg, Pa. erected a sandstone monument over his grave, but wind and weather obliterated all inscriptions on the stone. The local lodge must have had the help of several Pa. lodges in erecting this first monument, as the minutes of Washington Lodge No. 164, Washington, Pa., for April 5, 1830 record a subscription of ten dollars "to assist the Greensburg lodge in erecting a suitable monument to the memory of our distinguished brother, Gen. Arthur St. Clair." In 1913 Westmoreland Lodge erected a second granite monument over the grave.


            Comte de Saint Germain (?-1784) Masonic charlatan. An unusual scamp, who is best described by Frederick II of Prussia, q.v., as "a man no one has ever been able to make out." He claimed to be more than 500 years of age, and to have achieved the highest rank of Freemasonry. He said that he was born in Chaldea, and claimed to possess the secrets of the ancient Egyptians, including the ability to transmute metals and to produce pure diamonds by carbon. He was handsome, an able musician, expert magician, linguist, and a gambler. He was known as Count de Bellamura in Venice; Chevalier de Schoning at Pisa; Chevalier Welldone at Milan; and Count Soltikow at Genoa. He became an intimate of Frederick the Great, q.v., and remained at his court for some time.


            C. F. St. John Major General, U.S. Army. Became commanding general of Walter Reed Medical Center, Nov. 2, 1959, succeeding Lt. General Leonard D. Heaton, q.v. A member of Jamestown Lodge No. 352, Jamestown, Ohio, receiving the degrees at the age of 21. Also member of the National Sojourners and Heroes of '76.


            Elizabeth St. Leger (1693-1773) probably the only "Lady Freemason" whose membership is now generally accepted as authentic. Her initiation occurred in Cork Co., Ireland about 1710, when she was 17. She was the daughter of the 1st Viscount Doneraile, who, as was the custom in that day of the nobility, held lodges in his house. When it was discovered that she had been listening to the


89 Louis Claude de Saint Martin ceremonies through a wall that was being repaired, it seemed to her father and brothers that the only course was to complete her knowledge by making her a Mason. After her marriage to Richard Aldworth in 1713, Elizabeth became a patroness of the Craft. After her death the memory of "our sister Aldworth" was toasted by the Freemasons of Ireland. Her Masonic jewel and apron exist to this day. d. April, 1773, at the advanced age of 80.


            Louis Claude de Saint Martin (17431803) French mystic philosopher and member of the Illuminati. b. Jan. 18, 1743 at Amboise, France. After six years of army service, he traveled throughout Europe, and at one time studied three years in a state of almost absolute seclusion. He fell under the influence of Martinez Pasqualis early in his Masonic career, but later attempted to reform the Pasqualis system into what he called a "Rectified Rite" of ten degrees; this has since taken his own name, and is known as Martinism. He later devoted himself to the philosophical speculations of Jakob Bohme, q.v., His concepts were introduced into the Masonic lodges of Russia and Germany.


            Joseph Remi Valliere de St. Real (1787-1847) First French-Canadian to receive an important political appointment under the British regime. The son of a blacksmith, he became one of the best educated men of his day in Canada. Attended the Quebec Seminary studied law, and served as a British officer in the War of 1812. A political rival of Louis Papineau, leader of the Canadian rebellion of 1837-38, St. Real served as speaker of the provincial parliament, 1823-25, and chief justice of the Queen's Bench for the district of Montreal, 1842-47. He was named to the executive council of Lower Canada by the Earl of Durham in 1838, but that same year was suspended from the bench forgranting a writ of habeas corpus to a prisoner of the rebellion (two other judges had been suspended previously for the same thing). He is believed to have received his degrees in the lodge known as Les Freres du Canada, under warrant from the Provincial Grand Lodge of Lower Canada (Ancients). He was senior grand warden of the provincial grand lodge in 1820; junior grand warden of the District Grand Lodge of Quebec and Three Rivers in 1821, and senior grand warden of the same in 1822. He was buried from the Roman Catholic church, Sacre Nom de Marie in Montreal.


            Louis Guillemain de Saint Victor French Masonic writer, either established Adonhiramite Masonry, or modified it into a working system. In 1781 he published Choice Collection of Adonhiramite Masonry, which contained instructions of the first four degrees. This was followed by another in 1787, which contained the higher degrees of the rite. His Origins of Adonhiramite Masonry sought to trace the source of Masonic initiation to the mysteries of the Egyptian priesthood.


            Ceran St. Vrain (1797-1870) Pioneer trader and Indian fighter. b. in St. Louis in 1797. He was closely associated with Charles, q.v., and William Bent, and Kit Carson, q.v. In fact he was a partner of Charles Bent in a chain of early day trading posts and forts. His headquarters in the New Mexico Territory was at Taos and Santa Fe. When the Civil War broke out, he organized the First New Mexico Cavalry and became its colonel, with Kit Carson as a lieutenant colonel. Following the war he moved to Mora near Fort Union, then the principal military base in the Southwest. Here it was more convenient for him to conduct his business of furnishing supplies to the government. He was raised in Montezuma Lodge No. 109 (now No. 1) of Mis-


90 Francesco Salfi souri charter, Jan. 25, 1855. In 1860 he dimitted and secured a warrant from the grand master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri to constitute Bent Lodge No. 204 at Taos on Aug. 4, 1860. He was the first treasurer, and Kit Carson the first junior warden. War conditions forced the surrender of this charter in 1864. d. at Mora, Oct. 28, 1870, and his funeral on Oct. 30 was attended by General Gregg and nearly all officers of Fort Union. The 8th Cavalry acted as an escort and the general and his staff as pallbearers. Masonic services were held. The Daily New Mexican (Oct. 29) said: "Col. St. Vrain came to New Mexico 40 years ago and has been one of its most highly respected and influential citizens. Possessed of good education, fine natural abilities, the highest style of courtesy, and very good energy and enterprise, he at once engaged in merchandising and manufacturing, by the legitimate profits of which he has accumulated a handsome property. His upright dealing, fairness and courteous treatment of all with whom he came in contact, win him hosts of friends who will sincerely sorrow at his death.”


            Marquis de Saisseval French nobleman. On March 11, 1775, the marquis, assisted by several distinguished brethren, formed the Lodge of Candour, under the constitution of the Grand Orient of France. The Duke of Chartres was then grand master. Fourteen lays later (March 25) this lodge gave a fete d' adoption for the female counterpart of Freemasonry known as adoptive Freemasonry. It was a gala affair attended by 1,000 of the elite of French society. The Duchess of Bourbon was at this time installed as the first grand mistress of adoptive Masonry.


            George A. H. Sala (1828-1895) English writer. b. in London; his father was an Italian and his mother a native of the West Indies. He waseducated for an artist, but became a journalist, contributing to several London magazines. During the Civil War, he was the American correspondent of the London Daily Telegraph. From 1870-71 he was in France, and later in Russia and Australia. He authored a number of books on travel, social satire, and novels. Among his volumes were America in the Midst of War; America Revisited; Quite Alone (a novel); and Life and Adventures. He was a member of Drury Lane Lodge No. 2127, London, for many years. d. 1895.


            Duke of Saldanha (1791-1876) Portuguese soldier and statesman. Name in full was Duque de Joao Carlos de Oliveirea e Daun. He held military and diplomatic posts in Brazil between 1810-22, and was Portuguese minister of foreign affairs in 1825. In 1826-27 he was governor of Oporto. Was appointed marshal in 1834, and minister of war and president of the council in 1835. After instigating a counter-revolution against the Septembrists, he was exiled from 183646. Returning to Portugal, he was premier in the years 1846-49; 185156 and 1870. After the Peninsular War, he was head of Freemasonry in Portugal.


            Charles P. "Chic" Sale (1885-1936) American humorist and actor. b. in Huron, S. Dak. in 1885, he was educated in the public schools of Urbana, Ill. He became a character actor in vaudeville in 1908. He appeared in motion pictures, including The Star Witness; The Expert; and When a Fellow Needs a Friend. His greatest fame, however, came from his publication of a small book entitled The Specialist, an humorous account concerning outdoor toilets, which sold over 200,000 copies in three months. Raised Aug. 29, 1918 in Urbana (Ill.) Lodge No. 157. d. Nov. 7, 1936.


            Francesco Salfi (1759-1832) Italian philosopher and author. b. Jan. 1,


91 Manuel Ferraz de Campos Salles


1759 at Cozenza in Calabria. He was a professor of history and philosophy at Milan. A prolific writer, he wrote many works on history and political economy. He also published several poems and dramas. In 1811 he received the prize given by the lodge at Leghorn for a Masonic essay on the utility of the Craft and its relation to philanthropy and morals. d. Sept., 1832.


            Manuel Ferraz de Campos Salles (1846-1913) Fourth President of Brazil. A lawyer and politician, he was born in Campinas, Sao Paulo. Was a deputy, 1884-89; minister of justice 1889; governor of Sao Paulo, 1896-98. He had a part in bringing about the dethroning of Dom Pedro II, the last emperor of Brazil. He served as president of Brazil from 1898-1902, and during his administration made many reforms in finance, peaceful settlement of boundary questions, and friendly relations with Argentina and European nations. Mason.


            William C. Salmon (1868-1825) U.S. Congressman to 68th Congress, 192325, from 7th Tenn. dist. b. April 8, 1868 in Henry Co., Tenn. Graduate of Valparaiso U. in 1893 and Cumberland U. in 1897. Began law practice at Columbia, Tenn. in 1897. Mason. d. May 13, 1925.


            William C. Salmon (1868-1925) U.S. Governor of Washington Territory, 1870-74. b. Dec. 25, 1836 in Germany, he was a brigadier general in the Civil War. Was raised in Eureka Lodge No. 80, Seattle, Wash. in 1870; was junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Washington, 1873-74. d. in San Francisco, Calif., in July, 1913.


            Haym Salomon (1740-1785) American merchant and financier of the Revolution. b. in Lissa, Poland about 1740. He came to America in 1772 and founded a mercantile and brokeragebusiness in N.Y.C. In 1776 and again in 1778 he was imprisoned in N.Y. as a spy, by the British; the second time, he was condemned to death, but escaped to the American lines. He opened a brokerage business in Philadelphia and accumulated a large fortune, subsequently devoting it to the use of the American government during the war. He negotiated all the war subsidies obtained from France and Holland, and acted as paymaster general of the French forces in America. He also gave financial aid to many patriot leaders, including Jefferson, Madison, and Randolph. He was proposed in Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia, June 21, 1764; received the first two degrees, June 23, and raised Aug. 9, 1784. d. 1785.


            Felix Salten (1869-1945) Hungarian-Austrian writer of children's stories, including Bambi, essays, plays, and works of fiction. His works also included City Jungle; Fifteen Rabbits; Hound of Florence; Samson and Delilah; Florian, the Emperor's Stallion; Bambi's Son; Good Comrades; and A Forest World. His children's stories are widely read in all languages. In his books, he created a firm belief in humanity, a deep love for his Austrian homeland, its people, and a devotion to the divine Creator. He was elected an honorary citizen of Vienna. Member of the lodge Zur Wahrheit in Vienna. His real name was Felix Salzmann.


            Leslie E. Salter Congressman, government prosecutor and judge. b. May 10, 1895 in Alva, Okla. Graduate of U. of Oklahoma in 1920 and 1922. Practiced law in Carmen and Enid, Okla, 1922-25; assistant U.S. attorney for Western Okla., 1925-28, and special assistant to attorney general of U.S. from 1928, prosecuting important criminal cases throughout U.S., including Insull mail fraud trial. Served two terms in Okla. state legislature,


92 Flem D. Sampson


1920-24, and was U.S. congressman from 4th Okla. dist., 1949-51. Has been judge of superior court of Cook. Co. (Chicago), Ill. since 1953. Member of Neighbor Lodge No. 1169, Homewood, Ill. Received degrees in Norman, Okla. in 1917. 32° AASR (NJ) in Chicago.


            Leverett Saltonstall U.S. Senator from Massachusetts since 1944; Governor of Mass., 1939-44. b. Sept. 1, 1892 in Chestnut Hill, Mass. Graduate of Harvard in 1914 and 1917. Admitted to bar in 1919 and began practice in Boston. Served in state house of representatives, 1923-36, and was speaker of same, 1929-36. Elected to U.S. senate in 1944 to fill unexpired term of Henry Cabot Lodge; reelected in 1948 and 1954. Served in WWI as lieutenant in Field Artillery. Is president of board of overseers, Harvard U. Is a member of Fraternity Lodge, Newton, Mass.; St. Paul's Royal Arch Chapter, Boston; St. Bernard Cornmandery, Boston; Massachusetts Consistory AASR (SJ), and 33°; trustee of the Masonic Education and Charity Trust of his grand lodge, and representative of the Grand Lodge of Washington. A frequent attendant at grand lodge sessions.


            Alexander, 18th Lord of Saltoun Seventy-fifth Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1897-99.


            Alexander Arthur, 19th Lord of Saltoun Eighty-eighth Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1933-34. Initiated in Mary's Chapel Lodge No. 1 in 1911, and master of same. Affiliated with Lodge No. 1055 in 1923. Also member of lodges No. 67, 197, 1244 and 1278. Member of Old Etonian Lodge No. 4500, English constitution.


            Albert M. Sames (1873-1958) Federal Judge of Arizona, 1931-45. b. Feb. 9, 1873 in Rockford, Ill. Graduate of U. of Wisconsin in 1894, and admitted to bar that year. Moved to Arizonain 1900, holding several city, county, and state positions, including U.S. commissioner and judge of superior court of Cochise Co. Retired in 1945. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner. Member of Keystone Chapter No. 9, R.A.M. of Douglas. d. Sept. 3, 1958.


            Frank P. Samford President of Liberty National Life Insurance Co. b. Nov. 1, 1893 in Troy, Ala. Graduate of Alabama Polytech. Inst., 1914. Was deputy insurance commissioner of Ala., 1915-19; Ala. manager of Lumbermens Mutual Casualty Co., 1919-21; and with Liberty National Life since 1921, as secretary, 1921-32, vice president, 1932-34, and president since 1934. Member of Birmingham Lodge No. 757 since 1924; 32° AASR (SJ), Zamora Shrine Temple and Birmingham Court No. 127, Royal Order of Jesters, all of Birmingham.


            William J. Samford (1844-1901) Governor of Alabama, 1900-01; U.S. Congressman from Alabama, 1879-81. b. Sept. 16, 1844, in Greenville, Ga., moving to Ala. in early childhood. Enlisted as a private in Confederate Army in 1862, and advanced to captain in command of a company at close of war. Admitted to the bar in 1867 and began practice in Opelika. Served in both houses of the Ala. state legislature and was president of state senate in 1886. A member of Auburn Lodge No. 76, Auburn, Ala. on March 15, 1866, he affiliated with Opelika Lodge No. 195, and was master of this lodge in 1877-78. When this lodge forfeited its charter in 1879, and Lee Lodge No. 454 succeeded it, he became a member of that lodge. d. June 11, 1901.


            Flem D. Sampson Governor of Kentucky, 1928-31; former chief justice of supreme court of Kentucky. b. Jan. 23, 1875 in London, Ky. Graduate of Valparaiso (Ind.) U. in 1894. Practiced law at Barbourville, Ky.,


93 Edmund W. Samuel


1894-1906; served as county judge then district judge for six years. Practiced law at Barbourville and Louisville, 1932-38, and then returned to circuit bench. Initiated in Mountain Lodge No. 187, Barbourville, on Dec. 8, 1900.


            Edmund W. Samuel (1857-1930) U.S. Congressman, 1905-07 from 16th Pa. dist. b. Nov. 27, 1857 at Blamavon, Wales. Received M.D. degree from Jefferson Medical Coll. in 1880, and practiced medicine at Mt. Carmel, Pa. from that date. Also in the drug business from 1889. He served two terms as supreme commander, Supreme Commandery of the Continent of America, Knights of Malta. Received degrees in Mount Carmel Lodge No. 378, Mount Carmel, Pa. on May 14, June 11, July 16, 1903 and on Jan. 18, 1912 affiliated with Cedar Lodge No. 670, Mount Carmel. d. March 7, 1930.


            John C. Sanborn U.S. Congressman to 80th Congress, 1947-49, from 2nd dist. of Idaho. b. Sept. 28, 1885 in Chenoa, Ill. Graduate of Oberlin (Ohio) Coll. in 1908; Columbia U. in 1912. Served five terms in state house of representatives, and two terms as state senator. A farmer at Hagerman, Idaho since 1913. Mason.


            Jefferson D. Sandefer (1868-1940) President of Simmons College (now Hardin-Simmons University) at Abilene, Texas, from 1909. b. March 13, 1868 in Sharp Co., Ark. Graduate of U. of Chicago, 1907, and Baylor U., 1917. Taught, and was superintendent of schools in several Texas cities. Was president of John Tarleton Coll., Stephenville, Texas, 1908-09. Raised Oct. 5, 1889 in Whitt Lodge No. 624, Whitt, Texas; affiliated with Gordon Lodge No. 634, Gordon, Texas on May 11, 1895 and was junior warden in 1895 and senior warden in 1896; affiliated with Granbury Lodge No. 392, Granbury, Texas on Jan. 20, 1900; affiliated with Stephenville Lodge No. 267, Stephenville, Texas on Dec. 16, 1904; affiliated with Abilene Lodge No. 559, Abilene, Texas, on June 5, 1920 and suspended NPD June 15, 1933. d. March 22, 1940.


            Jared Y. Sanders (1869-1944) Governor of Louisiana, 1908-12; U.S. Congressman, 1916-20. b. Jan. 29, 1869 near Morgan City, La. Graduate of Tulane U. in 1893. Served in state house, 1892-1904 and was speaker in 1900. Was lieutenant governor in 190408. Elected to U.S. senate in 1910 but chose to continue as governor. Father of Jared Y. Sanders, Jr., q.v. Member of Franklin Lodge No. 57, Franklin, La. being raised Oct. 6, 1895; also member of York Rite, Scottish Rite and Shrine. His lodge conducted funeral services. d. March 23, 1944.


            Jared Y. Sanders, Jr. U.S. Congressman from Louisiana, 1933-36 and 1940-42. b. April 20, 1892 in Franklin, La., the son of Jared Y. Sanders, q.v. former governor and congressman. Graduate of Louisiana State U. in 1912 and Tulane U. in 1914. Admitted to the bar in 1914 and began practice in Baton Rouge. Member of state house of representatives, 1928-32 and state senate, 1932-33. Received his degrees in St. James Lodge No. 47, Baton Rouge on Oct. 19, 26 and Nov. 23, 1922. Master of the lodge in 1955 and presently (1960) deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. Belongs to both York and Scottish Rites, 33° AASR (SJ) and deputy of the Southern Supreme Council, 1953-57. Member of Red Cross of Constantine.


            Wilbur F. Sanders (1834-1905) First U.S. Senator from Montana, 1890-93. b. May 2, 1834 in Leon, N.Y. Moved to Ohio where he taught school and was admitted to the bar in 1856. Served with 64th Ohio in Civil War on staff of General J. W. Forsyth. He resigned his commission because of ill health, and went to


94 Jose de San Martin Montana (then Idaho), where he practiced law and was interested in mines. He came to public attention in the prosecution of a noted desperado, George Ives, in Adler Gulch, Dec., 1863. His closing speech at the trial laid the cornerstone for the establishment of the famous "Vigilantes." He participated in its formation and was official prosecutor of that organization. He was president of the Montana Historical Society from 186590; president of board of Montana Wesleyan from 1889 until death; founder of Montana Bar Assn., and its first president. At the time of his death, July 7, 1905, he was a commander of the G.A.R. in Montana. Made a Freemason in Ohio. He was a charter member of Virginia City Lodge No. 1 and chaplain of same. In 1879 he is recorded as a member of Morning Star Lodge No. 5, Helena. He was grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of Mont. from 1866-68 and grand master of same, 1868-69.


            Robert E. L. Saner (1871-1938) Former President of American Bar Association. b. Aug. 9, 1871 near Washington, Ark. Graduate of U. of Texas in 1896 and admitted to Texas bar that year, practicing at Dallas. As president of American Bar Assn., upon invitation of English and French bars, arranged trip to England and France for 2,00() members of American bar. In 1924 he presided, at the invitation of President Coolidge, at the first national contest of high school orations on "The Constitution," in which judges were from members of the supreme court. This was the culmination of a movement he inaugurated by his report to the American Bar Assn. in 1922, "to reestablish the Constitution in the minds and hearts of the people." In 1925 he presided at the first national intercollegiate oratorical contests. Mason and past sovereign of St. Mark's Conclave, Red Cross of Con-stantine; member of Royal Order of Scotland. Received degrees in Dallas Lodge No. 760, Dallas, Texas, on March 27, April 24, May 13, 1912. Affiliated with Pentagon Lodge No. 1080, Dallas in Dec. 1913, as a charter member. d. Oct. 31, 1938.


            Jose de San Martin (1778-1850) South American soldier and liberator. b. Feb. 25, 1778 in Yapeyu, now in Argentine, on the Uruguay River. Educated in Spain from the age of eight, he entered the Spanish Army in 1791 and rose to lieutenant colonel. Left army to offer his services in the cause of South American independence, arriving in March, 1812, in Buenos Aires. He defeated the Spaniards in 1813, and succeeded Belgrano as commander-in-chief the next year. Organized an army in Cuyo province of Argentina, 1814-16, crossed the Andes, and with General O'Higgins, q.v., defeated the Spanish at Chacabuco in 1817, and at Maipo in 1818. He established the independence of Chile, and with the aid of Lord Cochrane, developed a Chilean fleet and left with it for Peru in 1820. In July, 1821, as the Spanish withdrew, he entered Lima, Peru and proclaimed the independence of that country, assuming the title of "Protector." In this capacity he freed all slaves and revoked the taxes levied on the Indians. After a short reign, he resigned on Sept. 20, 1822. His work made possible the victories of the liberator, Bolivar, to whose assistance he sent his famed mounted grenadiers. He then went to Brussels, where he established himself, returning in 1828 to Buenos Aires. Finding the country plagued with internal troubles, he returned to Brussels, vowing never again to draw his sword in civil war. He died Aug. 17, 1850 at Boulogne, France in comparative poverty. He received his degrees in the Logia Legalidad of Cadiz, Spain, in 1808. Later he joined the Lautaro lodge in Spain, Joseph Bona-


95 James M. J. Sanno parte, q.v., being grand master of that group. He went to England and there joined Miranda's, q.v., Lautaro Lodge before leaving for Buenos Aires. Shortly after his arrival in that city he formed Lautaro Lodge No. 3, followed by No. 4 in Mendoza, and No. 5 in Santiago. These lodges had five degrees. San Martin was "Gran Presidente" of the grand lodge at Buenos Aires. In 1825, after his return to Europe, he was presented a medal by Parfaite Amitie Lodge of Brussels. This medal is on exhibit in the Mitre Museum, Buenos Aires.


            James M. J. Sanno (1840-1907) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. Dec. 10, 1840 in New Hampton, N.J. Graduated from U.S. Military Academy in 1863; assigned to 7th Infantry as a 2nd lieutenant, he advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1903, and retired that year. Was provost marshal, adjutant, and inspector general of Dept. of Florida, 1865-69; on frontier duty, 1869-78; inspector of Indian supplies in Mont., 1877-78; in charge of law department at Inf. and Cay. School, Fort Leavenworth, 1889-94; engaged in collecting and deporting 537 refugee Canadian Creek Indians in 1896; inspector general of depts. of Mo., Dak., and the Lakes in 1898; president of board of claims against the U.S. at Manila in 1900; organized 27th U.S. Infantry in 1901. 33° AASR (SJ). Raised March 3, 1864 in Mansfield Lodge No. 36, Washington, N.J. Member of Temple Chapter No. 12, R.A.M. arid DeMolay Commandery No. 6, both of Washington, N.J. Received 32° AASR (SJ) on March 12, 1890 and 33° Oct. 3, 1895. d. May 4, 1907.


            Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (1795-1867) Mexican general, revolutionist, president and dictator. b. Feb. 21, 1795 in Jalapa. He led revolts against Iturbide in 1822; Guerreo in 1828; and Bustamante in 1832. Waspresident of Mexico, 1841-45. He attempted to crush the Texas revolution; seized the Alamo in 1836, but was defeated and captured by Sam Houston at San Jacinto, April 21, 1836. Forced to sign articles of independence for Texas, he was released in eight months. Was in control of Mexico from 1839-42, and made dictator in 1844 by the constitution. In 1845 he was deposed and exiled, but recalled and made provisional president in 1847. He commanded the Mexican Army against the U.S. in 1846-47, but was defeated at Buena Vista, Cerro Gordo, Puebla, and Mexico City by General Scott. Exiled again in 1848, but recalled and made president in 1853-55. Again exiled in 1855. He returned to Mexico City in 1874, where he died June 20, 1876, in poverty and neglect. In a political fight, he favored the Scottish Rite faction (the Escoseses), which demanded the recall of U.S. Ambassador Poinsett, q.v. Later he appeared to become a Yorkist. Andrew Jackson once wrote Sam Houston that "He is the pride of the Mexican soldiers and the favorite of the priesthood." At age 80, writing his memoirs, he stated, "I wish to record also that I defended the Apostolic Roman Catholic religion (the only one in which I believe and in which I must die)." It is said that Santa Anna owed his life at San Jacinto to the giving of a Masonic distress sign, first to James A. Sylvester, one of his captors; secondly, to Sam Houston, when he was brought before the general; and thirdly, to a group of Texas soldiers, among whom were John A. Wharton, George W. Hockley, Richard Bache, Dr. J. E. Phelps and others. These Masons are said to have worked together to save the Mexican general's life. Certainly after his slaughter at the Alamo, something unusual must have saved him. John Stiles of Red River, a soldier, was


96 Frank P. Sargent one of those guarding Santa Anna following his capture and while he was held prisoner at "Orizimbo", the plantation home of Dr. Phelps. Wishing to show his appreciation of the treatment received, Santa Anna presented his Masonic apron to Stiles. This apron was displayed at a meeting of Friendship Lodge No. 16, Clarksville, Texas, and reported in the Texas Grand Lodge Magazine in Oct., 1938. At that time it was the property of Robert Stiles of Broken Bow, Okla.


            Pedro Santana (1801-1864) First President of Santo Domingo. He was the leader of the revolution by which Santo Domingo separated from Haiti in 1844. He served as president in 1844-48; 1853-56 and 1858-61. Mason and 33° AASR.


            Francisco de Paula Santander (1792-1840) Regarded as the founder of Colombia (New Granada). A general and statesman of New Granada, he served in the revolutionary war and was promoted to general of division at the Battle of Boyaca, Aug. 7, 1819. He cooperated with Paez and Bolivar, qq.v., both Masons, and later opposed them. He was vice president from 1821-28, and acting president in Bolivar's absence, 1821-27. In the latter year he led an unsuccessful revolt againt Bolivar and was sentenced to death. Bolivar commuted the sentence to exile. While living in the United States, he was elected president of Nueva Granada (now Colombia) in 1832. Returning, he served in that capacity until 1837, his term being noted for the advancement of education. He was a past master and sovereign grand inspector general, 33° ASK Prince Kasimir-Nestor Sapieha Polish general and marshal of the Polish Diet, widely known for his patriotism. Was elected grand master of Poland in 1789. The anti-Russianmovement, then spreading in Poland, penetrated also into Polish Freemasonry, and the Lodge of "Catherine under the Northern Star" (named for Catherine the Great of Russia) changed its name to Lodge of "Stanislaus Augustus under the Northern Star.”


            William H. Sergeant (1868-1935) President of Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co. from 1928. b. Oct. 5, 1868 in Springfield, Mass. With the above company from 1884; vice president from 1909-28. Member of Springfield Lodge, Springfield, Mass., from 1896 until 1935. d. Dec. 28, 1935.


            Aaron A. Sargent (1827-1887) U.S. Congressman, from Calif., 1861-63 and 1869-73; U.S. Senator from Calif., 1873-79. b. Sept. 28, 1827 in Newburyport, Mass. Apprenticed to a cabinetmaker, he then learned the printer's trade. Moved to Philadelphia, and then to Washington, D.C., and finally in 1839, to Calif. where he settled in Nevada City. Here he was on the staff of the Nevada City Journal, later becoming owner of the paper. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1854. Served in state senate in 1856 and was district attorney for Nevada Co. in 1855-56. Was minister to Germany in 1882-84 but declined ministership to Russia, returning to Calif. in 1884, to resume practice of law. Member of Nevada Lodge No. 13 and Nevada Chapter No. 6, R.A.M., both of Nevada City, Calif. d. Aug. 14, 1887.


            Frank P. Sargent (1854-1908) Labor leader and government official. b. Nov. 18, 1854 in East Orange, Vt. A locomotive fireman, he was chief of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen from 1885-1902. Declined position of chief of Bureau of Engraving and Printing offered by McKinley in 1900, but accepted position of U.S. commissioner general of immigration in 1902. Mason. d. 1908.


            97 Fred W. Sargent Fred W. Sargent (1876-1940) President of two railroads from 1925—the Chicago and Northwestern and the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha. b. May 26, 1876 in Akron, Iowa. Graduate of State U. of Iowa in 1901, he began law practice at Sioux City, Iowa in that year. Moved to Chicago in 1920. Director of several banks, railroads, Bell Telephone Co. Awarded Rosenthal Foundation medal for outstanding civic service in 1933. Mason. d. Feb. 4, 1940.


            Winthrop Sargent (1753-1820) Secretary of the Northwest Territory (Ohio) from 1787-88, and first Governor of Mississippi Territory, 17981801. b. May 1, 1753 in Gloucester, Mass. Graduate of Harvard. Became captain of a ship belonging to his father in 1771. In 1775 he entered the Revolutionary Army and was naval agent at Gloucester; later, captain in General Henry Knox's regiment of artillery. Served throughout the war, taking part in the battles of Long Island, White Plains, Trenton, Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth, attaining the rank of major. He became connected with the Ohio Co. in 1786 under General Rufus Putnam, q.v., and was appointed surveyor of the Northwest Territory by congress. During the Indian wars of 1791 and 1794-95, he became adjutant general, and was wounded in the expedition under General St. Clair. Was an original member of the Society of the Cincinnati. He was raised in the famous American Union Lodge (military) in 1776, being one of its charter members. When the lodge moved to Marietta, Ohio, he was secretary, and for a time it met at his home. This lodge is now No. 1 under the Grand Lodge of Ohio. When he became first governor of the Mississippi Territory in 1798, he moved to Natchez. This territory composed the present states of Miss. and Ala. Seemingly he did not join the numerous pioneer Ma-sons at Natchez in chartering Harmony Lodge No. 7 in that city. d. June 3, 1820.


            Ellanore Y. Sarles (1859-1929) Ninth Governor of North Dakota, 1905-07. b. Jan. 15, 1859 in Wonewoc, Wis., attending high school at Sparta, Wis. Came to N. Dak. in 1881, locating at Hillsboro. Here he organized the Train Co. Bank in 1885, which later became the 1st National Bank of Hillsboro. He established or acquired banks at Caledonia, Grand-in, Northwood and Blanchard. He developed Trail County by financing new settlers. Was raised in Kane Lodge No. 61 of Wis. and on June 15, 1882 affiliated with Hillsboro Lodge No. 10 as a charter member. He served two terms as potentate of El Zagal Shrine Temple, Fargo and was a 33° AASR (SJ). d. Feb. 14, 1929.


            Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (18111888) President of the Argentina, 1868-74. A journalist, he founded papers in Chile and Argentina, writing 52 books, many in the field of education. An outspoken liberal, he was exiled three times. In 1845 he was commissioned by the president of Argentina to study scholastic methods in the U.S. and Europe. He was an advocate of free public instruction and was instrumental in bringing teachers from the U.S. to further his aims in this direction. He joined with General Urquiza in the fight against Rosas. Also allied with General Mitre, who, when he became president, appointed Sarmiento as minister to the U.S. While in America, he represented the Grand Lodge of Argentina in negotiations for recognition by numerous American grand lodges. He was a member of Union Del Plata Lodge. He was a grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Argentina, and was most active in reviving Freemasonry after the overthrow of the tyrant,


98 Lansdale G. Saucer Rosas. Opposing Mitre's foreign policy, he returned to his homeland from the U.S. in 1868, and was elected president of Argentina. His term was a stormy one, but he is remembered for his advancement of free and universal education.


            David Samoff Chairman of Board of Radio Corporation of America; called "father of American television." b. Feb. 27, 1891 in Uzlian, Minsk, Russia, he was brought to the U.S. when nine years old, and almost immediately took over the support of his family. His life is one of the miracle stories of American history. He rose from a messenger to president of Radio Corp. of America at the age of 39. Was with Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. in 1906 as office boy, and promoted to wireless operator, radio inspector, assistant chief engineer, and commercial manager. After this company was taken over in 1919 by Radio Corp. he rose to general manager in 1921, vice president and general manager in 1922, executive vice president in 1929, and president from 1930-47. Has received many honors from presidents, universities, and foreign countries. Served in WWII as brigadier general. Became a Mason in Lodge of Strict Observance No. 94, New York City, June 14, 1921. In June, 1955 he received the coveted award for distinguished achievement from the Grand Lodge of New York.


            Selim Sarper Permanent representative of Turkey to the United Nations with rank of ambassador since 1947. b. 1899, he was educated in the U. of Ankara. Has been an officer of the foreign service of Turkey since 1927. Served in Odessa, Moscow, Berlin, Bucharest. Was press officer to the prime minister, 1940-44. Ambassador to Moscow, 1941-46, and Rome, 1946-47. A 33° AASR Mason, he has appeared at numerous Masonic functions in New York City.


            John Sartain (1808-1897) American artist and engraver who introduced pictorial illustrations as a characteristic feature in American periodicals. b. Oct. 24, 1808 in London, England, coming to the U.S. in 1830. Although chiefly an engraver, he designed bank notes, painted in oils, and did miniatures on ivory. He purchased the Union Magazine (N.Y.) in 1848 and changed the name to Sartain's Union Magazine. It became widely known during its four years of publication. Framing prints from his studio include The County Election in Missouri after Bingham, q.v., and one used frequently in masonic publications, entitled The Iron-Worker and King Solomon. He became a member of Franklin Lodge No. 134, Philadelphia, Oct. 31, 1848, and elected master of same in Dec., 1867. He was a member of Kadosh Commandery No. 29, K.T. at Philadelphia (Nov. 24, 1868); and was a 33° AASR (NJ).


            Guiseppe Sarti (1729-1802) Italian composer. Lived in Venice, Milan and St. Petersburg. His specialty was sacred music. He was an honorary member of the Academy of Science at St. Petersburg. He invented an instrument to count the vibrations and rhythms of sound. Member of the St. Martin lodge in Copenhagen.


            Lansdale G. Sasscer U.S. Congressman to 77th-81st Congresses, 1941-51, from 5th Md. dist. b. Sept. 30, 1893 in Upper Marlboro, Md. Graduate of Dickinson School of Law (Pa.) in 1914 and practiced at Upper Marlboro since 1915. Publisher of The Enquirer Gazette. Served overseas in artillery in WWI. Member of the Maryland senate, 1922-38, and president of same five years. Member of Centennial Lodge No. 174, Upper Marlboro, Md.; Tall Cedars of Lebanon.


            99 John E. Sater John E. Sater (1854-1937) Federal Judge, Southern Ohio, 1907-24. b. Jan 16, 1854 in New Haven, Ohio. Graduate of Marietta Coll. in 1875 and 1878. Lived and practiced law in Columbus, Ohio. Member of Goodale Lodge No. 372, Columbus, Ohio, receiving degrees on March 7, 12, 24, 1879. d. July 18, 1937.


            Willard Saulsbury (1820-1892) U.S. Senator from Delaware, 1859-71. A son of the same name was also senator from Del. b. June 2, 1820 in Kent Co., Del. Studied law and began practice at Georgetown. Was attorney general of Del., 1850-55. Member of Franklin Lodge No. 12, Georgetown, Del. d. April 6, 1892.


            George M. Saunders Recorder of the Imperial Shrine since 1948. b. Nov. 17, 1898 in Kansas City, Mo. Served as recorder of Ararat Shrine Temple, Kansas City, from 1923-48. Life member of Sheffield Lodge No. 625; member of Kansas City Chapter No. 28, R.A.M., Westport Council No. 38, R. & S.M., and East Gate Commandery No. 70, K.T., all of Kansas City. 33° AASR (SJ). Life member of Ararat Shrine Temple; past sovereign of Mary Conclave No. 5, Red Cross of Constantine, Kansas City, and present member of St. John's Conclave No. 1, Chicago; Past grand master of the International Supreme Council. Order of DeMolay. Member of Royal Order of Scotland and Royal Order of Jesters.


            Richard Savage (1697?-1743) English poet. He claimed to be the son of Richard Savage, 4th Earl Rivers, by Countess of Macclesfield. A Bohemian, he sank lower and lower, and eventually died in prison at Bristol in 1743, where he had been incarnated for debt. An intimate friend of Samuel Johnson, q.v., they shared poverty together when Johnson first came to London. In 1744 Johnson wrote Savage's biography, and laterincluded him in his The Lives of the Poets. Savage had several plays produced at Drury Lane, including Love In a Veil (1718) and Sir Thomas Overbury (1723), playing the title role in the latter. His poems included The Bastard (1728) and his masterpiece, The Wanderer (1729). In 1727 he barely escaped the death penalty for killing a gentleman in a tavern brawl. He was pensioned for a time on condition he write a yearly ode on Queen Caroline's birthday. He alienated his friends who aided him, of whom Pope, q.v., was the most persevering. He was master of the Richmond Lodge No. 55, in 1737, which met at "Old Man's Coffee House," Charing Cross, London.


            Savalette de Langes Founder of the Rite of Philalethes at Paris in 1773. Was the president and moving spirit of the Masonic Congress at Paris in 1785 and 1787, for the purpose of discussing important points in Freemasonry.


            Charles Sawyer U.S. Secretary of Commerce, 1948-52; U.S. Ambassador to Belgium and Minister to Luxembourg, 1944-45. b. Feb. 10, 1887 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Graduate of Oberlin Coll., 1908, and U. of Cincinnati, 1911. Admitted to bar in 1911; practiced in Cincinnati. Lieutenant governor of Ohio in 1933-34. Enlisted in Army in 1917 and discharged as a major • in 1919. Member of Madisonville Lodge No. 419, Cincinnati, Ohio, receiving degrees on Aug. 29, Sept. 30, Nov. 5, 1908. Received 50-year medal from grand lodge.


            Charles H. Sawyer (1840-1908) Governor of New Hampshire, 1887- 89 (44th). b. March 30, 1840 in Watertown, N.Y., moving to N.H. with parents in 1850, and settling at Dover. Entered textile industry; was superintendent of Sawyer Woolen Mills from 1865-81 and president of same, until sold to American Woolen Co.


            100 Rufus Saxton in 1898. Served in state legislature; was N.H. commissioner for Paris Exposition. Served as master of Strafford Lodge No. 29 and commander of St. Pauls Commandery, K.T., both of Dover. d. 1908.


            Grant Sawyer Governor of Nevada from 1959. b. Dec. 14, 1918 in Twin Falls, Idaho. Graduate of U. of Nevada in 1941 and Georgetown U. in 1948. Practiced law in Elko, 194850; was district attorney of Elko Co., 1950-58. Served in Army from private to 1st lieutenant, 1942-46. In 1952 was named as Elko's "man of the year." Mason and 32° AASR (SJ). Raised in Elko Lodge No. 15 Dec. 20, 1957. 32° AASR (SJ) and Kerak Shrine Temple.


            Philetus Sawyer (1816-1900) U.S. Senator and Representative from Wis. b. Sept. 22, 1816 in Whiting, Vt., moving to Crown Point, N.Y. in 1817 and to Fond du Lac Co., Wis. in 1847 where he engaged in the lumber business. Served in state assembly and was mayor of Oshkosh. U.S. congressman five terms, 1865-75 and U.S. senator, 1881-93. Member of Oshkosh Lodge No. 27, being initiated Dec. 6, 1864 and raised Jan. 1, 1873. d. March 29, 1900.


            Samuel N. Sawyer (1858-1939) Justice, Supreme Court of New York, 1907-29; Justice, Appellate Division, 1926-29. b. Oct. 6, 1858 in Palmyra, N.Y. Attended Phillips Academy at Andover, Mass. and graduated from Albany Law School in 1883, practicing law at Palmyra from that date. Served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of New York, 1908-10. Member of Palmyra Lodge No. 248, Palmyra, N.Y. Raised Dec. 10, 1879; master in 1887. d. May 1, 1939.


            John G. Saxe (1816-1887) American poet. b. June 2, 1816 in Highgate, Vt. Graduate of Middlebury in 1839; studied law in Lockport, N.Y. andthen in St. Albans, Vt., where, in 1843, he was admitted to the bar. Was state's attorney for Chittenden Co., and superintendent of schools. Gradually he fell into journalism, purchasing the Burlington Sentinel in 1850, which he edited until 1856. Was attorney general of Vt. in 1856, and ran for governor in 1859 and 1860. He settled in N.Y., lecturing until 1872, and then became editor of the Evening Journal at Albany, N.Y. For the centennial of Master's Lodge No. 5, Albany, he wrote the Masonic poem Song of the Century.


            Prince August of Saxe-Altenburg A brother of Ernest Ludwig II, he was initiated with him in the Cosmopolite Lodge in Gotha in 1774.


            John Adolf, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1721-?) Belonged to the Lodge of Naudenberg in 1750.


            Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (see under "Karl").


            Duke of Saxony (see Ernest II).


            Duke of Saxony-Hildburghausen (see under Frederick).


            Duke of Saxony-Meiningen (see under George Frederic Karl).


            Rufus Saxton (1824-1908) Union Civil War General. b. Oct. 19, 1824 in Greenfield, Mass. A graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1849, he advanced to brigadier general of volunteers in 1862 and same rank in regulars in 1904; breveted major general of volunteers in 1865. Awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for distinguished gallantry in defense of Harper's Ferry, Va., May, 1862. Served on coast survey, 1853-61, and developed instruments for deep sea sounding, one of which (a self registering thermometer), bears his name. Was chief quartermaster on staff of General Lyon in Mo. campaign, serving as same under General McClellan


101 Anthony Sayer in Western Va., and under General Sherman's Port Royal expedition. He commanded the forces at Harper's Ferry in 1862, and was military governor of the Dept. of the South in 1862-65. Member of Washington Chapter No. 2, R.A.M., of Washington, D.C. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 11, Washington, D.C. d. 1908.


            Anthony Sayer (1672-1742) First Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England in 1717, holding the office one year. Very little is known of his Masonic history or private life. He was a member of the Old Lodge No. 3, which met at the "Apple Tree" Tavern in Charles Street, Covent Garden, now the Fortitude and Old Cumberland Lodge No. 12. He served as its warden in 1723, in which year he was one of the brethren who signed their approbation of Anderson's Constitutions. In 1718 he proclaimed George Payne his successor as grand master, and in 1719 was appointed senior grand warden by Dr. Desaguliers, q.v. All else that is known of Sayer from official records is unfortunate. He was thrice an applicant for grand lodge relief—in 1724, 1730, and 1741. In 1730 he had to appear to answer charges to a complaint of irregularity, the nature of which is unknown. He was acquitted, but told to do "nothing so irregular in the future." From 1733 until his death, he was tyler of what is now the Old King's Arms Lodge No. 28. At his funeral, says the London Evening Express of Jan. 16, 1742, "his corpse was followed by a great number of Gentlemen of that Honourable Society of the best quality" to Covent Garden, where he was buried. d. Jan. 5, 1742. , Karl Sayer Secretary to the Grand Duke Nicholas Pavlovich, who later became Nicholas I, Emperor of Russia. Member of the lodge Palestine about 1820 in Russia.


            Joseph D. Sayers (1841-1929) Governor of Texas, 1899-1903. b. Sept. 23, 1841 in Grenada, Miss. Moved with father to Bastrop, Texas in 1851 and was educated in the Bastrop Military Inst. Served in the Confederate Army from 1861-65. Admitted to the bar in 1866. Was member of Texas state senate in 1873, and lieutenant governor of the state from 1879-80. He served as U.S. congressman from the 49th to 55th congresses, 1885-99, resigning to become governor. He was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Texas, 1875-76. Member of Gamble Lodge No. 244, Bastrop, Texas. d. May 15, 1929.


            John P. Saylor U.S. Congressman to 81st-86th Congresses from Pa. b. July 23, 1908 in Somerset Co., Pa. Graduate of Franklin and Marshall Coll. in 1929 and Dickinson Law School in 1933. Served in U.S. Navy in WWII. Received degrees in Sunnehanna Lodge No. 742, Johnstown, Pa. on Oct. 4, Dec. 6, 1939, and Jan. 3, 1940. Member of Portage Chapter No. 195, R.A.M., Cambria Council No. 32, R. & S.M., Oriental Commandery No. 61, K.T., all of Johnstown, Pa. 32° AASR (NJ) at Pittsburgh, Jaffa Shrine Temple at Altoona, Pa., and Tall Cedars of Lebanon, Johnstown, Pa.


            Anthony D. Sayre (1858-1931) Justice, Supreme Court of Alabama from 1909. b. April 29, 1858 in Tuskegee, Ala. Graduate of Roanoke Coll. (Va.) in 1878. Admitted to bar in 1881 and began practice at Montgomery, Ala. Served in state lower house 1890-93, and state senate 1894-97. Member of Andrew Jackson Lodge No. 173, Montgomery, Ala., receiving degrees on Jan. 7, Sept. 4, Oct. 19, 1888. At the time of his death, Nov. 18, 1931, he had been in good standing for 43 years.


            David A. Sayre (1793-1870) Philanthropist. b. March 12, 1793 in


102 Earl of Scarborough Bottle Hill, N.J. Early in life he moved to Lexington, Ky., where he became a successful merchant and banker. Though repeatedly meeting with heavy losses, he gave about $500,000 to benevolent causes during his lifetime, including $100,000 to found the Sayre Female Institute. Member of Trotter Lodge No. 75. d. Sept. 11, 1870.


            Morris Sayre (1885-1953) President of Corn Products Refining Co. from 1945 and director from 1929. b. Nov.


            27, 1885 in Montrose, Pa. Graduate of U. of Richmond. Was with the refining company from 1908, serving as manager of the Granite City and Argo, Ill. plants; general manager in N.Y.C.; vice president, 1933-45; executive vice president, 1942-45. Mason. d. March 7, 1953.


            Chevalier Andrea Sbarboro (18391923) Founder and teacher of first Italian school and publisher of first Italian school book in Calif. b. Nov. 26, 1839 in Acero Liguria, Italy, he was brought to America at the age of four. Attended schools in New York, and under private tutors. Began as a clerk in a San Francisco grocery store, becoming proprietor of same. He was organizer and president of the Italian-American Bank; founder, secretary and manager of Italian Swiss Agricultural Colony; founder and secretary of San Francisco Sanitary Reduction Works. He was the organizer and manager of five mutual loan associations, beginning in 1875. Their total receipts in monthly installments amounted to $6,500,000, which built homes for 2,500 families, all fully paid. An anti-prohibitionist, he delivered addresses against prohibition before the Calif. legislature and U.S. congress. He was both a Catholic and Freemason. He was the first senior warden of Speranza Italiana Lodge No. 219, San Francisco, Calif. d. Feb.


            28, 1923.


            Alexander Scammell (1747-1781) General of the American Revolution, mortally wounded at Yorktown. b. March 24, 1747 in Mendon (now Milford), Mass. Graduate of Harvard in 1769 and taught in Kingston and Plymouth, Mass. Later (1771), went to Portsmouth, N.H. where the government employed him to explore and survey land. Studied law with John Sullivan in Durham, N.Y. until 1775. With Sullivan and others he captured William and Mary Fort at Newcastle, one of the first overt acts of the Revolution. Entered army as a brigade major; promoted to colonel of the 3rd New Hampshire regiment, Dec. 10, 1776; later transferred to 1st regiment. In 1777 he served under General Gates, q.v., in the Northern Army and was wounded at Saratoga on Jan. 5, 1778. Then became adjutant general of the army and a member of Washington's military family. As such, he had custody of the spy, Andre, during his trial and execution. Desiring to return to the field, he was given command of a regiment of light infantry, and on Sept. 30, 1781 was captured at the siege of Yorktown, while reconnoitering the enemy's position. He was shot after his capture, but Washington obtained the permission of Cornwallis for his evacuation, and he was taken to Williamsburg, where he died Oct. 6, 1781. He became a Mason March 6, 1777, in St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, N.H., and was a frequent visitor to American Union Lodge.


            Earl of Scarborough (Lawrence Roger Lumley). Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England, since 1951. He became the 11th Earl of Scarborough in 1945, on the death of his uncle. Is the son of Brigadier General Osbert Lumley. He went to Eton, and afterward to the Military Academy at Sandhurst. In 1921 he graduated from Magdalen College, Oxford U. Entering parliament, he repre-


103 Frank M. Scarlett s en t e d Kingston-upon-Hull, East, 1922-29, and York from 1931-37. In the latter year he was appointed governor of Bombay, a post he retained until 1943, through a difficult period in the early war years. Upon his return to England, he was appointed parliamentary undersecretary for India and Burma. He was given the active rank of major general, and at the time was a member of the house of lords. This office ended in 1947 with the passing of the Act of Indian Independence. In 1948 he was created a knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter by King George VI, q.v. In 1937 he was created a knight grand commander of the Eminent Order of the British Empire, followed in 1943 by that of knight grand cross of the Most Exalted Order of the British Empire. Queen Elizabeth made him a knight of the Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, and also Lord Chamberlain of the Household—one of the most important positions in England. In WWI he served in France with the 11th Hussars, and from 192137 with the Yorkshire Dragoons. He is the author of the history of the 11th Hussars. Was initiated in 1920 in Apollo University Lodge No. 357.


            Frank M. Scarlett Federal Judge, Georgia, since 1946. b. June 9, 1891 in Brunswick, Ga. Graduate of U. of Georgia in 1913, and entered private law practice in Brunswick that year. Member of Ocean Lodge No. 214, Brunswick, Ga., receiving degrees on April 17, May 4, May 18, 1914; was master of the lodge in 1920. Shriner.


            William Scarlett Protestant Episcopal Bishop, 1933-53. b. Oct. 3, 1883 in Columbus, Ohio. Graduate of Harvard, 1905, Episcopal Theol. School, 1909, U. of Arizona, 1922. Became deacon in 1909, and priest in 1910, and served churches in New York City, Phoenix, Ariz. and St. Louis, Mo. Became bishop co-adjutor in 1930and was bishop of Missouri, 1933-53. Now retired. Became a Freemason in Phoenix, Ariz., but on removing to St. Louis dropped membership "because of the tough job I had on my hands. So while I believe in Masonry, I can hardly qualify as a 'good Freemason.' “


            Nathan Scarritt (1821-1890) Missouri mission teacher and educator who made a fortune in Kansas City, Mo. real estate. b. in 1821 near Alton, Ill., where his family had migrated from N.H. in a covered wagon. Worked on father's farm until 16, when he entered McKendree Coll. at Lebanon, Ill. and paid his expenses by clearing timber, from the campus. Taught for awhile at Waterloo, Ill.; then moved to Fayette, Howard Co., Mo. in 1845, with $10 in his pocket. At Fayette, he cooperated with his brother-in-law, Dr. W. T. Lucky, in establishing Howard high school, subsequently Central Coll. He was the first president of the college, being one of the original incorporators, and a curator from the beginning until his death. In August, 1847, he became one of the the first recipients of a degree from the U. of Missouri, and was ordained a Methodist Episcopal (South) minister, in Oct. of that year. In 1848 he became head of the classical department of Shawnee Indian Mission and Manual Training School, in Kansas, just southwest of Westport, Mo. He was one of the organizers and first principals of Westport High School in Westport, before it became a part of Kansas City. He was a teacher and preacher all his life. He became a millionaire through judicious real estate investment. Scarritt School of Kansas City is named in his honor. He established a Bible training school for missionaries which later was moved to Nashville, Tenn. and is now called the Scarritt College for Christian Workers. Member of the old


104 Gerhard J. D. von Scharnhorst Golden Square Lodge of Kansas City, Mo. d. 1890.


            Hjlmar Schacht German financier, who was probably one of the greatest financial wizards of his time. From 1908-15 he was director of the Duetsche Bank and later a partner of the Darmstaedter and National Bank. During the Weimar Republic in 1923, he was appointed commissioner of currency. As president of the Reichsbank, he stopped the German inflation. He was president of the Reichsbank until 1930 and again appointed to the same position by Hitler from 1933-40. It is certainly true that at this time he helped Germany to arm, but in 1940 he was put under house arrest by the Nazis. At the end of the war he was brought into court at the Nurnberg trials as a war criminal, but acquitted in 1946. His own defense in this trial is remarkable. He belonged to the Lodge Zur Freundschaft under the Grand Lodge of Prussia. This is the grand lodge which hoped to continue under Hitler by virtue of its strong national feeling. As late as January of this year (1960) he wrote an article concerning some Masonic subjects which came up during the time of Hitler.


            Johann Gottfried Schadow (17641850) Prussian court sculptor. In 1788 he was director of the Academy of Art in Berlin. He is regarded as the founder of the modern school of sculpture. Among his works are a statue of Frederick the Great, the Quadriga of Victory group atop the Brandenberger Tor at Berlin and a statue of Marshal Bluecher. Many European museums display his works. He belonged to the lodge, Friedrich Wilhelm zur Gekroenten Gerechtigkeit at Berlin.


            John A. Schaeffer (1886-1941) President of Franklin and Marshall College from 1935; vice president of Eagle-Pitcher Lead Co. and director of research, 1911-35. b. May 31, 1886 in Kutztown, Pa. Graduate of Franklin and Marshall Coll. (Lancaster, Pa.) in 1904, 1905, 1929 and U. of Pennsylvania in 1908. Before being employed by the Eagle-Pitcher Lead Co. in 1911, he was instructor of chemistry at Carnegie Inst. of Tech. Member of Lodge No. 43, Lancaster, Pa., receiving degrees on Nov. 13, 1907 and Jan. 8, Feb. 12, 1908. d. April 6, 1941.


            Raymond Wm. Schalk Elected to Baseball Hall of Fame in 1955. Known as "Cracker." b. Aug. 12, 1892 in Harvey, Ill. Was a catcher for the Chicago American League from 191228. Raised Jan. 6, 1916, in Litchfield Lodge No. 236, Litchfield, Ill.


            Thomas D. Schall (1878-1935) U.S. Senator from Minnesota, 1925-35; U.S. Congressman, 64th-68th Congresses, 1915-25. b. June 4, 1878 in Reed City, Mich. Graduate of U. of Minnesota in 1902 and St. Paul Coll. of Law in 1904. Began law practice in Minneapolis in 1904. Lost his sight by an electric shock in 1907. Member of Hennepin Lodge No. 4, Minneapolis, receiving degrees April 4, 11, 18, 1906 and stricken from rolls on Nov. 8, 1933. d. Dec. 22, 1935 after being struck by an automobile.


            Gerhard J. D. von Scharnhorst (1755-1813) Prussian General and Chief of Staff in war against Napoleon, 1806-07. He reorganized the Prussian army in 1807, but was forced by Napoleon to leave Prussian service in 1810. With the French defeat in Russia in 1812, he became chief of staff to Blucher. Fought in War of Liberation and was badly wounded at Lutzen, dying at Prague a month later. Was the author of several works on military science. Member of the "Great Countries Lodge" at Berlin, being initiated in 1779.


            105 William Schaw William Schaw (1550-1602) Early Scottish Freemason. Appears to have been connected with the royal household from an early period. His signature appears on the original parchment deed of the National Covenant signed by King James VI and his household at Holyrood Palace, Jan. 28, 1580. He became Master of Works, supervising all royal buildings and palaces in Scotland. He accompanied King James VI to Denmark in 1589 for his wedding to Princess Anna, and remained with them during that winter, returning to Scotland in March, 1589 to make arrangements for the reception of the wedding party and to refurbish Holyrood Palace for the royal couple. He died April 18, 1602 and his queen erected a monument to his memory in the Abbey Church of Dunfermline. It is said to depict his Freemason's mark, among other things.


            Count Carl Fredrik Scheffer (17151786) Member of the Swedish Royal Council. He was tutor to Prince Gustaf, later King Gustaf III. In 1753 he became national grand master of Sweden. When the Grand Lodge of Sweden was constituted in 1760, Scheffer was elected the first grand master.


            Josef Scheiner (1861-1932) Organizer of the Czechoslovakian national organization, "The Sokols." For his patriotic activities on behalf of his country before WWI, he was imprisoned by the Austrians, but freed in 1917 by the amnesty of Emporor Carl. He had advocated the liberation of his country without bloodshed. His dream came true towards the end of WWI when the new nation "Czechoslovakia" was formed. He was a lawyer in Prague and member of the lodge Narod.


            Joseph M. Schenck Motion picture executive. He started in moving picture industry as manager for Norma Talmage and Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle. Married Miss Talmage in 1917 (now divorced). He was president of Motion Picture Producers, Inc. in 1924 and since 1938. Became chairman of board of United Artists in 1925. Founded Twentieth Century Pictures Corp. in 1933. Merged with Fox Film and became vice president and chairman of board. Now executive head of production of Twentieth Century-Fox. Member of Pacific Lodge No. 233, N.Y.C. and of the old "233 Club" in Hollywood, Calif.


            Max von Schenkendorf (1783-1817) German lawyer and poet. His poetry belongs to the romantic school and is filled with love of country, life and belief in the Creator. In the last years of his life he was city counselor in Coblenz, and his grave is still tended today by the Freemasons of that city. Although he lost his right hand in a duel, he participated in the wars of 1806 and 1816 against Napoleon, in the Prussian Army. He was initiated early in his life and was active in the formation of the Lodge Friedrich zur Vaterlandsliebe at Coblenz. He was also a member of the Lodge Carl at Carsruhe, Baden, Germany.


            Gordon H. Scherer U.S. Congressman to 83rd-86th Congresses from 1st Ohio dist., 1953-60. b. Dec. 26, 1906 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Graduate of Salmon P. Chase Coll. of Law in 1929 and practiced law in Cincinnati since that time. Member of Lafayette Lodge No. 81, Cincinnati, Ohio since 1929 and master in 1935. Exalted in Kilwinning Chapter No. 97, R.A.M., and knighted in Cincinnati Commandery, K.T., both of Cincinnati. 32° AASR (NJ) in Cincinnati and sovereign prince of AASR in 1944. Member of Syrian Shrine Temple, Oola Khan Grotto, Winton Chapter, O.E.S., Red Cross of Constantine, Royal Order fo Jesters, and state master councilor, Order of DeMolay in 1926-27.


            106 Winfield S. Schley Emanuel Schickaneder (1751-1812) German theater manager and libretist. Among his most famous librettos was that of The Magic Flute, with music written by Mozart, q.v. In the year 1791 he was initiated in a lodge in Regensburg and his hand-written petition is still displayed in the Masonic museum at Bayreuth.


            Johann C. F. von Schiller (17591805) German poet and playwright. Regarded as second only to Goethe, q.v., in the field of German literature, and as first among German dramatists. Goethe, incidentally, was his closest friend, and inspired him to produce more poetry. He settled in Weimar in 1799 to be near Goethe. His Masonic membership has not been definitely established, but German brethren believe he was a member of Rudolstadt Lodge of Berlin.


            J. Myer Schine Hotel and theater owner. b. 1892 in Russia, he was educated in the Jamestown, N.Y. high school and by private tutoring. President of Schine Theatrical Enterprises, Gloversville, N.Y., since 1920. Owner and president of Roney Plaza Hotel, Miami Beach, Fla.; Boca Raton (Fla.); Ten Eyck Hotel, Albany, N.Y.; Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles; Ritz-Carlton, Atlantic City; Wiggins Tavern, Northampton, Mass.; Gulf Stream Hotel, Miami Beach, Fla. Member of Mt. Sinai Lodge No. 864, Syracuse, N.Y., receiving degrees on Feb. 10, 24, March 10, 1915. Member of Ismailia Shrine Temple, Buffalo, N.Y.


            Friedrich von Schlegel (1778-1829) German poet and man of letters, who with his brother, August Wilhelm, founded the literary journal Athenaeum, which became the organ of the romantic school of German writers. He studied Oriental languages in Paris, 1802-04, and curiously, in 1803, adopted the Roman Catholic faith. He was secretary to the state chancery in Vienna in 1808 and Austriancounselor of legation at Frankfurt am Main in 1815-18. His works include lyric poems; the novel Lucinde; the drama Alarcos; and the essays Von der Sprache and Weisheit der Indier; Geschichte der Alten and Neuen Literatur; Philosophie des Lebens and Philosophie der Geschichie. A Mason, his background gave him an understanding for his volume, Lessing's Anthologie (his Masonic credo). In explaining Lessing's conversation between the Masons in Ernest and Falk, he conceived the idea that instead of Freemasonry, a new order should be created, to build a Christian religion for Germany based on liberty, truth, and high moral standards. He was married to Dorthea, the daughter of the famous Jew, Moses Mendelsshon, q.v.


            William Schley (1786-1858) Governor of Georgia, 1835-37. b. Dec. 15, 1786 in Frederick, Md. Was educated at academies in Louisville and Augusta, Ga.; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1812, practicing at Augusta. Was judge of the superior court, 1825-28, and in state legislature, 1830-32; served in U.S. congress, 23rd and 24th congresses, 183335. He resigned from congress to become governor. He served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of Georgia, and was grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Georgia from 1822-46, inclusive, during the bitter Anti-Masonic strife. d. Nov. 20, 1858.


            Winfield S. Schley (1839-1911) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. Oct. 9, 1839 in Frederick Co., Md. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1860. In Civil War he served on the frigate Niagara, the frigate Potomac, the gun boat Winona, and the sloops Monongahela and Richmond. Later served in Asiatic and Brazil stations. In Spanish-American War he was second to Admiral Sampson in commanding


107 Joseph Schlitz naval force blockading Santiago de Cuba (1898), and because of Sampson's absence from the spot at time of emergence of Spanish fleet, Schley directed action resulting in the destruction of that fleet on July 3. In 1884 he commanded the relief expedition that rescued Lieut. Greely and six of his companions in Grinnell Land. Promoted to rear admiral in 1899 and retired in 1901. Was made a Mason at sight by the grand master of the District of Columbia, Oct. 21, 1899; received 32° AASR (SJ), Feb. 10, 1903; invested KCCH, Oct. 19, 1905 and crowned 33°, honorary, Oct. 10, 1907. d. Oct. 11, 1911.


            Joseph Schlitz Founder of the Schlitz Brewing Co., Milwaukee, Wis. Member of Aurora Lodge No. 30, Milwaukee.


            Albert G. Schmedeman (1864-1946) Governor of Wisconsin, 1933-35. b. Nov. 25, 1864 in Madison, Wis. Was U.S. minister to Norway, 1913-21 and a delegate to the International Conference of Spitzbergen in 1914. Served as mayor of Madison, Wis. 1925-32. From 1935-42 was state director of Federal Housing Adm. Member of Madison Lodge No. 5, Madison, Wis., being raised on Feb. 3, 1893. Dimitted Dec. 21, 1944. d. Nov. 26, 1946.


            Elmer N. Schmuck (1882-1936) Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Wyoming, 1929-36. b. July 27, 1882 in Peoria, Ill. Graduate Seabury Divinity School (Minn.) in 1905, 1927. Ordained deacon in 1905 and priest in 1906. Served churches in New Ulm, Sleepy Eye, Owatonna, and Minneapolis, Minn. At the St. Mark's Church, Denver, Colo., 1923-25; general secretary of field department of the national council, 1925-29. Received degrees in Star in East Lodge No. 33 of Owatonna, Minn. on Sept. 8, Oct. 27, Nov. 10, 1909; affiliated with Lake Harriet Lodge No. 277, Minneapolis on Jan. 23, 1913. d. April 28, 1936.


            Lester L. Schnare U.S. Consul. b. May 15, 1884 in Mondovi, Wis. Graduate of George Washington U. in 1914 and 1919. After teaching school, edited a newspaper, and worked for U.S. bureau of immigration until 1915. Was then vice consul at stations in China and Japan until 1919. Was consul at Yokohama and Kobe, Japan; Swatow, China; Cartagena, Colombia; Breslau and Hamburg, Germany; and Milan, Italy, until 1941. Was consul general at Rangoon and Maymyo, Burma, and Calcutta, India until 1942. Was first secretary of Legation at Tehran, Iran, 1942-43; consul general, Rome, Italy, 1944-45; consul general, Genoa, Switzerland, 1946-47, retiring in latter year. Mason. Home in Macon, Ga.


            Johann August Schneider (17551816) German Masonic writer. Member of the Lodge Archimedes of the Tree Tracingboards, Altenburg, Germany. Contributed many valuable articles to Masonic journals and wrote a now scarce history of Freemasonry.


            Frederick Schoeller Prussian ambassador to Russian Court of Alexander I. At the same time he was junior grand warden of the Russian Grand Lodge Astrea.


            Andrew F. Schoeppel Governor of Kansas, 1943-47; U.S. Senator from Kansas since 1948. b. Nov. 23, 1894 in Claflin, Kans. Studied at U. of Kansas and U. of Nebraska. Admitted to bar in 1923 and practiced at Ness City, Kans. Served as county attorney, city attorney, and mayor of Ness City. Mason, 33° AASR (SJ) and Shriner. Raised Feb. 24, 1918 in Lawrence Lodge No. 6, and dimitted to home lodge, Walnut Valley No. 191, Ness City on Feb. 24, 1925.


            William E. Schooley Grand Treasurer General AASR (SJ) and Sov-


108 Friedrich L. Schroeder ereign Grand Inspector General in District of Columbia. He is vice president of the American Security and Trust Co. in Washington. During WWII he served with the finance department, receiving the Legion of Merit. Presently holds rank of colonel and commands the Reserve Finance Training Group at Ft. Myer, Va. Received 32° in 1937; KCCH in 1941. Was coroneted 33° in 1947 and appointed deputy for D.C. in 1948. Crowned active member in 1952, and elected grand treasurer general at that time.


            Frederic P. Schoonmaker (18701945) Federal Judge, Western Pennsylvania from 1923. b. March 11, 1870 in Limestone, N.Y. Graduate of Cornell in 1891. Practiced law at Bradford, Pa. Served on Mexican border and with A.E.F. in WWI, with 28th and 92nd divisions. Discharged as lieutenant colonel of Infantry in 1919. Member of Union Lodge No. 334, Bradford, Pa., receiving degrees on July 12, 13, 1917. d. Sept. 5, 1945.


            Emil Schram President of New York Stock Exchange, 1941-51; President of U.S.O., Inc., 1953-57. b. Nov. 23, 1893 in Peru, Ind. Began as bookkeeper in 1910 at Peru, Ind.; managed grain elevators at Hillview, Ill., 191533; became associated with drainage, levee, and irrigation division of R.F.C. in 1933 as chief, and was chairman of same, 1939-41. Is vice president and director of Federal Prisons Industries, Inc.; chairman of board and director of Butler Brothers; director of Cities Service Co., Peru Trust Co., Empire Gas & Fuel Co., and Corn Products Refining Co. Charter member of Hillview Lodge No. 1094, Hillview, Ill., and Roodhouse Chapter No. 241, R.A.M., of Roodhouse, Ill.


            Johann Georg Schrepfer (?-1774) Masonic charlatan and keeper of a coffee house in Leipsic, Germany.


            Here he opened what he called a "Scottish Lodge" in 1768. He claimed to have been commissioned by "superiors" to destroy the Strict Observance system then established in Germany. He boasted that he held supernatural powers; alone, possessed the great secret of Freemasonry and could evoke spirits. He later claimed to be the natural son of a French prince, and gave himself the title of "Baron Von Steinbach." Falling into disrepute, he invited some of his disciples to accompany him to a nearby woods on Oct. 8, 1784, where he blew out his brains with a pistol while they watched.


            Lester 0. Schriver Managing director of National Association Life Underwriters, from 1953. b. March 7, 1891 in Bristol, Conn. Graduate of Syracuse U. in 1915. Ordained to ministry of Congregationalist Church in 1916. Was director of education, Aetna Life Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn., 1924-29, and a general agent at Peoria, III., 1929-53. Won Freedom Foundation award for best public address in 1951 and for best editorial, 1952. Has co-authored several books on Abraham Lincoln. Mason.


            Friedrich L. Schroeder (1744-1816) German actor; dramatic and Masonic writer. b. Nov. 3, 1744 at Schwerin. He began as an actor in Vienna, and is said to have been "incontestably the greatest actor that Germany ever had, and equally eminent in tragedy and comedy." Bode, q.v., was his intimate friend, and it was through his influence that Schroeder was initiated into Freemasonry in 1774 in the Lodge Emanuel zur Maienblume. He later established a new lodge working under Zinnendorf's system. He then went to Vienna where he remained until 1785, returning to Hamburg that year. Here he was elected by his old friends as master of the Lodge Emanuel, retaining that office until 1799. In 1794


109 Arthur A. Schuck he was elected deputy grand master of the English provincial grand lodge of Lower Saxony, becoming grand master in 1814. He devoted himself to a thorough reformation of the Masonic system which was known as "Schroeder's Rite." He based his system on the premise that all Freemasonry had proceeded from England through the English constitutions. d. Sept. 3, 1816.


            Arthur A. Schuck Chief Scout Executive, Boy Scouts of America, since 1948. b. June 20, 1895 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Began in 1917 as a scout executive in Lancaster, Pa.; became supervisor of region 3, which included four states and Washington, D.C., 1919-22. From 1931-44 he was with the National Council of Boy Scouts, and from 1944-48 was scout executive of Los Angeles. Contributor and member of editorial board of several youth magazines. Raised in West Chester Lodge No. 332, West Chester, Pa. in Dec., 1920. Affiliated with Century Lodge No. 100, South Orange, N.J. Dimitted from latter on Feb. 6, 1945, on removal to Calif.


            Hans Schuler (1874-1951) Sculptor. b. May 25, 1874 in Morange, Lorraine, Germany and was brought to U.S. in 1880. Graduate of Maryland School of Art and Design in 1894, Rinehart School of Sculpture in 1898, and Julian Academy, Paris, in 1900. Winner of several medals, including St. Louis Exposition of 1904. Among his works are Arladne and Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse at Walters Gallery, Baltimore; Memory; Life Is but the Turning of a Leaf and other tomb figures; busts of Walter Reed, Dr. Osler, Buchanan Memorial (Washington); Freedom of Conscience, St. Mary's City, Md.; Maryland Tercentenary medal and half dollar; monument to Johns Hopkins; heroic statue of Martin Luther in Baltimore; heroic statue to Ignatius Loyola, Blakefield, Md., bust of Sidney Lanier in N.Y.U. Hall of Fame. Initiated in Fidelity Lodge No. 136, Maryland (now defunct) on Jan. 28, 1899. d. March 30, 1951.


            Edward T. Schultz (1827-1913) Masonic author. b. Aug. 23, 1827 in Frederick, Md. Educated in public schools of Frederick; later moved to Mobile, Ala., where he was employed by a wholesale commission concern. Returned to Baltimore in 1853 and engaged in wholesale cotton yarn business. He was the author of History of Freemasonry in Maryland (4 volumes), which is today rare and valuable. It was completed after the loss of an eye, making his work very difficult. Became a member of Concordia Lodge No. 13 of Baltimore in 1954, and rose to grand senior warden of the Grand Lodge of Maryland. Was elected grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of Maryland, but declined to serve because of duties in completing his history. Was made a Knight Templar in 1862, assisted in the formation of the Grand Cornmandery, K.T. of Md., and was grand commander in 1874. He later became an officer of the Grand Encampment, U.S.A. d. March 11, 1913.


            John R. Schultz (1884-1947) President of Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa. from 1942. b. Dec. 12, 1884 in Canton, Mo. Graduate of Culver-Stockton Coll. (Mo.) in 1905; Yale, 1909 and 1917. Was school principal at Canton, Mo., taught in St. Louis, and later at Yale U. Associated with Allegheny as professor of English literature from 1917-42, and was dean of men, 1930-42. Mason and 32° AASR (NJ). d. Aug. 11, 1947.


            John W. N. Schulz Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. May 14, 1885 in Wheeling, W. Va. A graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1908, he advanced through grades to brigadier general in 1941, retiring in 1946. In


110 J. Otto Schweizer charge of improvement of Yellowstone National Park, 1915-17. With Chemical Warfare Service in WWI in France. Division and district engineer in San Francisco and New York City. Member of Hancock Lodge No. 311, Ft. Leavenworth, Kan., receiving 32° AASR (SJ) there on March 27, 1923; dimitted from later on May 8, 1952. National Sojourner and Hero of '76.


            Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch (18081883) German lawyer, economist and sociologist. Elected member of the Prussian legislature from 1849-61. He devoted himself to furthering cooperative societies and the people's bank. He is regarded as the founder of the workman's cooperative association. A member of the lodge Zur Bestaendigkeit, at Berlin.


            Carl Schurz (1829-1906) Secretary of the Interior, 1877-81; U.S. Senator from Missouri, 1869-75; Brigadier General (Union) of Volunteers in Civil War; Editor of New York Evening Post, 1881-84. b. March 2, 1829 near Cologne, Germany. He took part in the revolution of 1848 and was compelled to flee the country. Became a newspaper correspondent in Paris and later taught school in London. In 1850 he returned secretly to Germany to help liberate his friend and teacher, Paul Kinkel, from prison at Spandau. Immigrated to the U.S. in 1852 and settled in Philadelphia, Pa. In 1855 he moved to Watertown, Wis. where he studied law and was admitted to the bar, practicing iri Milwaukee. Was appointed U.S. minister to Spain in 1861 but resigned soon afterward to become a brigadier general of volunteers in the Union Army. After the war he engaged in newspaper work at St. Louis and served as a Republican U.S. senator from Missouri from 1869-74, but was not a candidate for reelection. He was a contributor to Harper's Weekly, 1892-98 and president of the National Civil Service Reform League, 18921901. He was a member of Herman Lodge No. 125 at Philadelphia. Received all three degrees by special dispensation on Feb. 23, 1855 and elected a member of the lodge on March 23, 1855. He was suspended Nov. 23, 1860. d. May 14, 1906.


            Frederik Schwatka (1849-1892) Arctic explorer. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1874. With William H. Gilder, he commanded the Arctic expedition in search of Sir John Franklin in 1878-80, discovering wreckage of one of Franklin's ships and graves of members of his party. He resigned from the army in 1885, explored course of Yukon River, headed the New York Times' Alaskan expedition, and visited Northern Mexico. Wrote several books on the Arctic. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 37, Yreka, Calif. (now extinct).


            Albert Schweitzer Scholar, clergyman, physician and musician. One of the outstanding personalities of the 20th century. b. near Strasburg, Germany in 1875. Has labored for many years as a missionary in French Equatorial Africa. His outstanding medical work in the back country brought him fame and the love of the natives, who he considers as his children. Peter Leppich, a Catholic priest, by way of defamation, called him "a Protestant Freemason and Socialist." Dr. Schweitzer has never been a member of the Craft, but in 1960 on his 85th birthday, he was honored by the United Grand Lodge of Germany by being presented with the Mathias Claudius Medal—the first time this was given to a non-Mason.


            J. Otto Schweizer (1863-1955) Sculptor. b. March 27, 1863 in Zurich, Switzerland. Came to U.S. in 1894 and was naturalized in 1904. Among his principal works are statue of General Peter Muhlenberg, Philadelphia; Angel of Peace, Pittsburgh; Abraham


111 Edgar W. Schwellenbach Lincoln, generals Gregg, Pleasanton, Humphrey, Geary, Hays at Gettysburg; Molly Pitcher, Carlisle; portrait medallions of eight Civil War generals in Union League, Philadelphia, of Frederick W. von Steuben, Milwaukee, and many others. Member of Mount Moriah Lodge No. 155, Philadelphia, Pa. Received degrees on March 3, April 7, May 13, 1914. 32° AASR (NJ). d. Dec. 1, 1955.


            Edgar W. Schwellenbach (1887-?) Judge, Supreme Court of Washington since 1946. b. March 16, 1888 in Frederick, S. Dak. Admitted to Wisconsin bar in 1924, and Washington bar in 1925, practicing first in Seattle. Mason. Deceased.


            Pius Louis Schwert (1892-1941) U.S. Congressman to 76th Congress, 1939-41, from 42nd N.Y. dist. b. Nov. 22, 1892 in Angolak, N.Y. Graduate of U. of Pennsylvania in 1914. Was a baseball player with the New York Yankees, 1914-16. Owned a general store in Angola, N.Y., 1916-20, then became successively clerk, vice president, and president of Bank of Angola. Received degrees in Evans Lodge No. 261, Angola, N.Y. on Jan. 22, Feb. 12, May 23, 1916; district deputy grand master in 1930-31; on grand lodge committee on ceremonial forms. d. March 11, 1941.


            Isabella Scoon Englishwoman of the 18th century, who by popular tale, was said to have been initiated into Melrose Lodge of Newstead, England after eavesdropping on meetings. There is no substantiation of the story.


            Henri Scott (1876-1942) Operatic singer. b. April 8, 1876 in Coatesville, Pa. A basso, he was on tour with Caruso in 1908; engaged by Oscar Hammerstein for five years; leading basso with Manhattan Opera Co. Adrian() Theatre, Rome, Chicago Grand Opera, and Metropolitan Opera Co., N.Y. His debut was as Ramfis in Aida. Member of Keystone Lodge No. 271, Philadelphia, receiving degrees on Sept. 7, Oct. 5, Nov. 2, 1903. Suspended NPD on Dec. 3, 1906 but restored June 1, 1936. d. April 2, 1942.


            Hugh D. Scott, Jr. U.S. Senator to 86th Congress and U.S. Congressman to 77th-78th Congresses, 1941-45, and 80th-85th Congresses, 1947-58, from Pa. b. Nov. 11, 1900 in Fredericksburg, Va. Graduate of Randolph-Macon Coll. and U. of Virginia. Admitted to bar in 1921, practicing at Philadelphia from 1922. Served in Army in WWI and Navy in WWII. Member of Hiram Lodge No. 81 and Germantown Chapter No. 208, R.A.M., both of Philadelphia, Pa.


            Hugh L. Scott (1853-1934) Major General, U.S. Army. b. Sept. 22, 1853 in Danville, Ky. His mother was a great, great-grandaughter of Benjamin Franklin. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1876. He served with the famous 7th Cavalry on the Western plains from 1876-97. Was with Sioux expedition, Nez Perce expedition, Cheyenne expedition, and in 1890-91 was in charge of the "ghost dance" investigations. From 1894-97 he was in charge of Geronimo's band of Chiricavua Apaches. Assigned to Smithsonian Inst. to do work on language of plains Indians. Was adjutant general of Cuba, 1898-1903, and governor of Sulu Archipelago, 1903-06. From 1906-10 was superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy with rank of colonel. Then returned to the plains, settling troubles of Navajos, Kickapoos, and others until 1914, when he became chief of staff, U.S. Army, and laid ground work for U.S. participation in WWI before his retirement in 1917. Member of Republic Lodge No. 690, N.Y. and 33° AASR (NJ). d. April 30, 1934.


            John Scott (1785-1861) Missouri's last territorial delegate and first U.S.


            112 Lon A. Scott Congressman. b. May 18, 1785 in Hanover Co., Va. he moved with parents to Indiana Territory in 1802, graduated from Princeton in 1805, studied law, and began practice in Ste. Genevieve, Mo. in 1806. He presented credentials as a delegate-elect to the 14th congress from the Territory of Missouri and served from Aug. 6, 1816 to Jan. 13, 1817, when the election was declared illegal and the seat vacant. Again elected as a delegate to 15th and 16th congresses, serving from 1817-21, and upon the admission of Missouri as a state, was elected to 17th-19th congresses, 1921-27. He voted for John Quincy Adams against Andrew Jackson, q.v., and this cost him his political future. He sponsored Missouri's petitions for statehood, and was one of the framers of the state's first constitution. He was the author of the provisions on education, thus becoming known as the father of the public school system of Missouri. Was first lieutenant in the Ste. Genevieve troop of cavalry (1809), and in 1815 was judge avocate of the 2nd regiment of militia. In 1814 he was appointed U.S. attorney for the Missouri Territory. He was a member and past master of the pioneer lodge, Louisiana No. 109, at Ste: Genevieve. He had a large private law practice in Ste. Genevieve, and usually appeared in court wearing pantaloons several sizes too large for him, his hair braided in a queue, and armed with pistols and knives. He was habitually profane, and when a short time before his death he was urged by friends to seek religion he replied, "I have served the devil all my life and it wouldn't be right to desert him now." d. Oct. 1, 1861.


            John Scott (1824-1896) U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania, 1869-75. b. July 24, 1824 in Alexandria, Pa. Admitted to the bar in 1846 and practiced in Huntington, Pa., 1846-69. Moved to Pittsburgh in 1875; wasgeneral counsel for the Pennsylvania Railroad until 1877 and general solicitor until 1895. Member of Lewistown Lodge No. 203, Lewistown, Pa. d. Nov. 29, 1896.


            Leader Scott Pen name of Mrs. Lucy E. Baxter, daughter of William Barnes, English poet, philologist and clergyman. In 1899 she wrote The Cathedral Builders in which she attempted to supply the missing historical link between the operative and modern Masons. Her theory was widely discussed, and is accepted by many today. She lived for many years in Florence, Italy. Among her writings are The Renaissance of Art in Italy ; Handbook of Sculpture; and Echoes of Old Florence. d. about 1904.


            Leslie M. Scott Publisher, writer, and Grand Chancellor, Supreme Council, AASR (SJ). b. Feb. 18, 1878 in Portland, Ore. Graduate of U. of Oregon in 1899. Was reporter on Oregonian (Portland), 1896-1904; associate editor, 1904-10; and vice president of Oregonian Publishing Co. from 1911 until retirement in 1946. Was U.S. marshal for Oregon, 191113; chairman of state highway commission, 1932-35; state treasurer, 1941-49; president of Portland Chamber of Commerce, 1938. In 1933-34 he was grand master of t he Grand Lodge of Oregon. Received 32° in 1907, KCCH in 1923, and coroneted 33° in 1932. Appointed deputy in Oregon in 1941, crowned active member in 1943, and elected grand chancellor in 1957. Author and compiler of several volumes.


            Lon A. Scott (1888-1931) U.S. Congressman to 67th Congress, 1921-23, from 8th Tenn. dist. b. Sept. 25, 1888 in Cypress Inn, Tenn. Graduate of Cumberland U. in 1915. President of Scott Land & Lumber Co. from 1919. Raised in Savannah Lodge No. 102, Oct. 10, 1913. d. Feb. 11, 1931.


            113 Nathan B. Scott Nathan B. Scott (1842-1924) U.S. Senator from West Virginia, 18991911; Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 1898-99. b. Dec. 18, 1842 in Quaker City, Ohio. Engaged in mining in Colo., 1859-62. Served as enlisted man in Union Army in Civil War. Was engaged in glass manufacture and banking at Wheeling, W. Va. after the war. Later was a banker in Washington, D.C. Was admitted to membership in 1883 in Wheeling Lodge No. 5, Wheeling, W. Va. and dimitted on Sept. 26, 1911. d. Jan. 2, 1924.


            Owen Scott (1848-1928) U.S. Congressman to 52nd Congress from Illinois. b. July 6, 1848 on farm in Effingham Co., Ill. He taught school and was superintendent of schools in his home county, 1783-81. Admitted to the bar in 1873, he practiced in Effingham and also published the Effingham Democrat. Member of Macon Lodge No. 8, Decatur, Ill. Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Illinois, 1895-96 and grand secretary of same from 1912 until his death, Dec. 21, 1928.


            Robert F. Scott (1868-1912) English Antarctic explorer. He entered the Royal Navy in 1882. In 1901-04 he commanded an Antarctic expedition in the Discovery, surveying South Victoria Land and interior of Antarctic continent; discovered King Edward VII Land and sounded Ross Sea. He left the navy in 1909, and the following year commanded an Antarctic expedition in the Terra Nova. In Nov., 1911, with four companions, he began a sledge journey and reached the South Pole on Jan. 18, 1912—just five weeks after it was discovered by Amundson. He perished, with his companions, on the return trip, as a result of bad weather and insufficient food. His records and diaries were found by a search party in Nov., 1912. He was a member of Drury Lane Lodge No. 2127, London,in 1901. Also member of St. Alban's Lodge No. 2597, Christ Church, New Zealand, and Navy Lodge No. 2613, of England.


            Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) Scottish poet, novelist, historian and biographer. Known as "The Border Minstrel," "The Wizard of the North," and "the Great Magician." His father, of the same name, was a medical professor at Edinburgh U. In his early years he published under various pseudonyms. His literary output was vast, including The Lay of the Last Minstrel; Marmion; Lady of the Lake; Life and Works of Swift; Waverly; Lord of the Isles; Guy Mannering; The Black Dwarf; Rob Roy; The Bride of Lammermoor; Ivanhoe; Tales of the Crusaders; The Talisman and many others. He was called to the bar in 1792, and was sheriff of Selkirk in 1799. Became a principal clerk to court of session, but withdrew from bar to devote himself to writing and publishing. An unfortunate publishing partnership left him with debts amounting to £130,000, which he paid in full before his death. He was initiated, passed, and raised at an emergency meeting of Lodge Saint David No. 36 of Edinburgh on Monday, March 2, 1801. His father had been initiated in the same lodge in Jan., 1754, and his elder brother was also a member of this lodge. Later his son was initiated in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning No. 2, on Nov. 29, 1826. On June 4, 1816, he laid the foundation stone of a new lodgeroom at Selkirk in the presence of the provincial grand master, the Marquis of Lothian, and was elected an honorary member of that lodge on the occasion (now Saint John No. 32). He was created a baronet in 1820. In 1823 he was offered the grandmastership of the Royal Grand Conclave of Knights Templar of Scotland, but declined because of "age and health not permitting me to un-


114 James G. Scrugham dertake the duties which whether convivial or charitable, a person undertaking such an office ought to be in readiness to perform when called upon." He attended lodge frequently, as was attested by the secretary in 1841, when proposing that the name of Saint David Lodge be altered to "Sir Walter Scott's Lodge." The proposal, however, was defeated. St. David Lodge subscribed to the monument to Sir Walter in Princess St., Edinburgh, and attended the laying of the cornerstone with Masonic honors by the grand master in 1840.


            Winfield Scott (1786-1866) Lieutenant General, U.S. Army, and commander-in-chief of American forces in Mexican War. b. June 13, 1786 near Petersburg, Va. Admitted to the bar in 1806, he entered the army in 1808 as a captain of light artillery, and the following year at Baton Rouge, La. was courtmartialed for remarks concerning the conduct of his superior, General Wilkinson, q.v. Back in the army, he fought gallantly in the War of 1812 at Queenstown Heights, Chippewa, and Lun dy's Lane. Received promotion to brigadier general in March, 1814 and breveted major general same year. After war, was on duty in S. Car. and on Canadian border. Was made generalin-chief of U.S. Army in 1841, and commanded in the Mexican War. Captured Vera Cruz; defeated Mexicans at Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Cherubusco, Molino del Rey, and Chapaultepec, occupying Mexico City on Sept. 14, 1847. Was promoted to lieutenant general in 1852. In that year he was defeated by Franklin Pierce as the Whig candidate for presidency. Retired in 1861. Was made a Mason in 1805 in Dinwiddie Union Lodge No. 23, Dinwiddie Court House, Va. (now extinct). In 1825 he is recorded as a visitor to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. d. May 29, 1866 at West Point, N.Y. and buried there.


            William W. Screws (1839-1913) Newspaper editor. b. Feb. 25, 1839 in Barbour Co. Ala. Admitted to bar in 1859 and practiced until 1861. Was opposed to secession, but went with his state. Fought at Pensacola, and Ft. Barnacas; saw hard service with Bragg's army in Ky., Chickamauga, Knoxville, and with Lee in Va. the last 12 months of war. During this time he wrote letters to the Montgomery Advertiser; became identified with the paper after the war. He became president of the publishing company and editor in chief of paper. Prominent Episcopalian. Was grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Alabama from 1885-87. Raised Nov. 3, 1870 in Andrew Jackson Lodge No. 173, Montgomery, Ala., and master in 1886-87; exalted in Montgomery Chapter No. 22, R.A.M., on Nov. 2, 1871 and high priest in 1881-83; greeted in Montgomery Council No. 3, R.. & S.M., and master in 1883-84; knighted in Montgomery Commandery No. 4, K.T., on March 21, 1872 and commander in 1887-88 and 1892. d. Aug. 7, 1913.


            Errett P. Scrivner U.S. Congressman to 78th-84th Congresses from 2nd Kans. dist. b. March 20, 1898 in Newton, Kans. Graduate of U. of Kansas in 1925, and engaged in general practice of law, 1925-43. Served with 35th Division, A.E.F. in WWI. Member of Wyandotte Lodge No. 3, Kansas City, Kans., receiving degrees Feb. 12, March 12, April 16, 1927. Shriner.


            James G. Scrugham (1880-1945) U.S. Senator, 1942-45 from Nevada; Governor of Nevada, 1923-27; U.S. Congressman to 74th-77th Congresses, 1935-43, from Nevada, resigning to become senator. b. Jan. 19, 1880 in Lexington, Ky. Graduate of U. of Kentucky in 1906, and served in engineering capacity in Cincinnati, Chicago, and San Francisco. Was profes-



115 John Scudder sor of mechanical engineering at U. of Nevada, 1902-14, and dean, 1914-17. Served in WWI as major and lieutenant colonel. Was state engineer of Nevada, 1917-23; state public service commissioner, 1919-23; editor and publisher of the Nevada State Journal, 1927-32. Affiliated from A.O. Fay Lodge No. 676, Illinois, to Reno Lodge No. 13, Reno, Nevada. Member of Reno Chapter No. 7, R.A.M., DeWitt Clinton Commandery, K.T., and Kerak Shrine Temple, all of Reno. d. June 2, 1945.


            John Scudder (1793-1855) Missionary and physician. b. Sept. 3, 1793 in Freehold, N.J. Graduate of Princeton in 1811 and New York Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons in 1813. He first practiced successfully in N.Y.C., but in 1819 went to India as a missionary, under the direction of the American board. Was ordained in ministry of Dutch Reformed church in 1820, and settled in Ceylon, laboring there for 19 years in the double capacity of clergyman and physician. He established a large hospital and was successful in treatment of cholera and yellow fever. Founded several native schools and churches. His seven sons and two daughters were all missionaries in southern India. Member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2, N.Y.C. d. Jan. 13, 1855.


            Townsend Scudder Justice, Supreme Court of N.Y.; U.S. Congressman to 56th and 58th Congresses, 1899-1901 and 1903-05. b. July 26, 1865 in Northport, N.Y. Attended preparatory schools in Europe, and graduated from Columbia Law School in 1888. Began practice in N.Y.C. in 1888. Was elected justice of supreme court of New York in 1906, and served 14 years on that bench. In 1927 he was again elected to that bench and became member of the appellate division for the 2nd judicial district, serving until his retirementbecame mandatory at age of 70. Governor Alfred E. Smith appointed him as state park commissioner for Long Island. Scudder gained national prominence in 1927 when he sentenced Mrs. Ruth Snyder and her lover, Judd Gray, to the electric chair. He served two terms as master of Glen Cove Lodge No. 580, Glen Cove, N.Y., 1891-92; was district deputy grand master, 1893-94; senior grand deacon of the Grand Lodge of New York in 1895; deputy grand master, 1904; and grand master, 1906-07. He was commissioner of appeals (grand lodge), 1898-1900, and chief commissioner, 1901-02. After his grandmastership, he served on many important grand lodge committees, including jurisprudence and correspondence and relations.


            W. B. Seabrook Governor of South Carolina, 1848-50. Master of Harmony Lodge No. 20, Edisto Island, S. Car. in 1826.


            Samuel Seabury (1729-1796) First Protestant Episcopal Bishop in America. b. Nov. 30, 1729 in Groton, Conn. Graduate of Yale in 1748, and until 1752, was a theology student under his father of the same name. He studied medicine for a year at the U. of Edinburgh. Was ordained deacon and priest in 1753. Returning to America, he served churches in New Brunswick, N.J. and in Jamaica, Flushing, and Newtown, L.I., N.Y. Was elected first bishop of Connecticut at Woodbury, March 25, 1783, but the English episcopate in London would not confirm his ordination. He was finally consecrated, Nov. 14, 1784, by Scottish bishops at Aberdeen. His lodge is unknown, but on Dec. 27, 1782 he gave an address before the Grand Lodge of New York, for which he was thanked and called "Rev. Bro. Seabury." On June 24, 1795, at the installation of Somerset Lodge No. 34, Norwich, Conn., he read a sermon,


116 Isaac Sears which he later published and dedicated to "The Most Worshipful President of the United States," signing himself "affectionate brother." He was buried Masonically by Union Lodge (now 31) of New London, Conn. d. Feb. 25, 1796.


            Joseph W. Seacrest Co-editor and publisher of Lincoln (Nebr.) State Journal; vice president of the Journal Star Co., and chairman of the board of Station KFAB of Lincoln and Omaha, Nebr.; director of Fairmont Foods Co.; director of Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City; director of Bankers Life of Lincoln. b. Oct. 23, 1895 in Lincoln, Nebr. Is grand equerry, Supreme Council 33° AASR (SJ), and sovereign grand inspector general of Nebraska. Received 32° in 1917; KCCH in 1935 and 33° in 1941. Deputy for Nebraska in 1950 and active member in 1951.


            Robert T. Seacrest U.S. Congressman and member of Federal Trade Commission. b. Jan. 22, 1904 near Senecaville, Ohio. Graduate of Muskingum Coll. in 1926, and Washington Coll. of Law in 1939. Was high school principal at Senecaville, 192630, and superintendent of schools at Murray City, Ohio, 1931-32. Served in Ohio state legislature, 1931-32. Elected U.S. congressman from 15th Ohio dist. in 1933, and served until 1942, when he resigned to enter the Navy as a commander from 194248. Was reelected to congress on return from active duty in 1948. Eisenhower appointed him to the Federal Trade Commission in 1954. Member of Point Pleasant Lodge No. 360, Senecaville, and 32° AASR (NJ) in Scioto Consistory, Columbus, Ohio.


            Charles A. Seager (1872-1948) Archbishop and Metropolitan of Ontario (Anglican) from 1943-48. b. July 9, 1872 in Goderich, Ont. Graduate of U. of Trinity Coll. in 1895. Ordained to Anglican ministry in 1896.


            Served in Toronto, 1891-1911; Vernon, B.C., 1911-12; Vancouver, B.C., 191217; Toronto, 1917-21; bishop of Ontario, 1926-32; bishop of Huron, 193243. Mason, past master, 1927, grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Canada, 1928; president of executive committee of Red Cross of Constantine; member of Royal Order of Scotland. d. Sept. 9, 1948.


            Eugene C. Seaman (1881-1950) Second Protestant Episcopal Bishop of North Texas from 1925. b. Dec. 9, 1881 in Galveston, Texas. Graduate of U. of the South (Tenn.) in 1903, 1906, 1925. Ordained deacon in 1906, priest in 1907, and served churches in Houston and Temple, Texas until 1911, when he became archdeacon and general missionary in North Texas. Then served churches in Amarillo, Texas and Gadsden, Ala. Was executive secretary for diocese of Ala. 1923-24. Received degrees in Knob-creek Lodge No. 401, Temple, Texas on Feb. 23, March 26 and April 27, 1910; affiliated with Stamford Lodge No. 853, Stamford, Texas on Nov. 7, 1912, and finally with Amarillo Lodge No. 731, Amarillo, Texas on Jan. 8, 1926. Knight Templar and Shriner. d. Nov. 22, 1950.


            Jacob J. Seaman General in War of 1812. Charter member of Morton Lodge No. 63, Hempstead, N.Y.


            Isaac Sears (1729-1786) Revolutionary patriot. b. in Norwalk, Conn. He commanded a privateer against the French in 1758-61, but lost his vessel in the latter year, and then engaged in the West Indian and European trade, making N.Y.C. his home. On the passage of the stamp act, he became an active member of the Sons of Liberty, harassing the English in N.Y.C. In Nov. 1775, he led a troop on horses, raided the shop of James Rivington, the Royal printer, destroyed his presses, and carried away his type to be made into bullets. He


117 Frederick A. Seaton also abducted the Royalist preacher and sympathizer, Samuel Seabury, q.v. (later first P.E. Bishop in America), and took him to New Haven, where he was imprisoned for a time, but released because he was a man of the cloth. After 1777 Sears seems to have made Boston his base of operation for privateering and trading in captured merchandise. He was back in N.Y.C. in 1784, where he was a member of the provincial congress of N.Y., a vestryman of Trinity church, and a vice president of the chamber of commerce. He lost his fortune in the war, and died on a ship in the harbor of Canton, China, Oct. 28, 1786. He had become a member of Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven, Conn. in Dec., 1775, while making that city his headquarters.


            Frederick A. Seaton Secretary of Interior under Eisenhower from May 28, 1956. b. Dec. 11, 1909 in Washington, D.C. Attended Kansas State Coll. Was a journalist most of life. Starting in Kansas, he was a sports announcer on stations KSAC and WIBW, 192937; wire news editor of Manhattan Morning Chronicle; city editor of Manhattan Evening Mercury; associate editor of Seaton Publications, Manhattan, 1933-37 (a family owned company). In 1937 the family purchased the Hastings (Nebr.) Daily Tribune, around which they have built a group of newspapers. He is president of the Sheridan (Wyo.) Newspapers, Inc.; Seaton Publishing Co., Lead, S. Dak.; Winfield, (Kans.) Publishing Co.; Seaton Publishing Co., Hastings, Nebr.; Manhattan (Kans.) Broadcasting Co. Also vice-president of Seaton Publishing Co., Manhattan, Kans.; Midwest Broadcasting Co., Coffeyville, Kansas; Coffeyville Pub. Co.; and director of Nebraska Broadcasting Co., Hastings, Nebr. In 1951 he was appointed as U.S. senator from Nebraska to fill an unexpired term. In Sept., 1953 he be-came Assistant Secretary of Defense for legislative and public affairs. In 1955 he became Eisenhower's deputy assistant. Member of Hastings Lodge No. 50, Hastings, Nebr., receiving the third degree on Sept. 3, 1958 in Washington, D.C., as a courtesy to Hastings Lodge.


            Comte Horace Francois Sebastiani (1772-1851) French general and diplomat. He distinguished himself at Marengo, Austerlitz, and in the Spanish and Russian campaigns. Was ambassador at Constantinople, 1802, and 1806-07; ambassador to Naples, 1834, and ambassador to London, 1835-40. Became marshal of France in 1840. In 1805 he was grand keeper of the seals of the Grand Lodge Symbolique of France.


            Charles Louis de Secondat (see de Secondat).


            Arthur R. Seder Vice President of Chicago & Northwestern Railway since 1945. b. Sept. 25, 1889 in Minneapolis, Minn. Graduate of U. of New Mexico in 1911. Was principal of high schools at Carlsbad and Clovis, N. Mex., 1911-18. Became associated with Chicago & Northwestern in 1918, advancing as assistant comptroller, general auditor, and vice president. Raised Aug. 21, 1917 in Wilmette Lodge No. 931, Wilmette, Ill.


            Comte Louis Philippe Segur (17531830) French soldier and diplomat. He served with Rochambeau in America. Became ambassador to. St. Petersburg. He was appointed by Napoleon as councilor of state, and at the restoration, made peer of France. Was deputy grand commander of Supreme Council AASR of France.


            Francis Seiberling (1870-1945) U.S. Congressman to 71st-72nd Congresses, 1929-33, from 14th Ohio dist. b. Sept. 20, 1870 in Des Moines, Iowa.


            118 James M. Sellers Began practice of law at Akron, Ohio in 1894. Was director of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. Member of Adoniram Lodge No. 517, Akron, Ohio, receiving degrees on Nov. 19, 1900, May 23, 1901 and Feb. 24, 1902. 32° AASR (NJ) and Shriner. d. Feb. 1, 1945.


            Charles C. Selecman (1874-1958) Methodist Bishop from 1938. b. Oct. 13, 1874 in Savannah, Mo. Entered Methodist (South) ministry on rural charge; later, with Kingdom House, St. Louis, and then New Orleans. Served churches in Los Angeles and Dallas between 1913-23; from 1923-38 was president of Southern Methodist U. at Dallas. Served with Y.M.C.A. in U.S., England, and France in WWI. Was delegate to World Conference on Faith and Order in 1927 and 1937, and was chairman of commission on evangelism of Methodist Church from 1940. A member of Pentagon Lodge No. 1080, Dallas, Texas, by affiliation from Wilshire Lodge No. 445 of California, on Feb. 8, 1921. Received 50-year service award from Grand Lodge of Texas in 1952. Past sovereign of St. Mark Conclave, Red Cross of Constantine; 33° AASR (SJ) and Shriner. d. March 27, 1958.


            William N. Selig (1864-1948) Pioneer motion picture producer. b. March 14, 1864 in Chicago, Ill. Was an actor and theatrical manager from 1888-99. He invented many appliances used in motion picture photography, and was in the production of pictures from 1896. Was the first to produce long, historical phot odr a m a s, the Coming of Columbus being the first, for which Pope Pius X awarded him a medal in 1912. He was the first to introduce wild animals in dramatic action. He financed expeditions of Prof. Frederick Starr to interior of Africa, Korea, Japan and Philippines; of Dr. E. B. McDowell to China, Africa, and India; and expedition of Em-mett O'Neill to the Amazon River in 1912. Mason. d. July 15, 1948.


            Arthur Seligman (1873-1933) Governor of New Mexico, 1931-33. b. June 14, 1873 in Santa Fe, N. Mex. Entered mercantile business at Santa Fe in 1888. Was president of Seligman Bros., 1903-26; president of La Fonda Building Corp., 1920-26; president of First National Bank, 1924-33. Held many public offices, including that of mayor of Santa Fe. Initiated June 6, 1895 in Montezuma Lodge No. 1, Santa Fe., N. Mex. d. Sept. 25, 1933.


            James M. Sellers President of Wentworth Military Academy, Lexington, Mo., 1935-60. b. June 20, 1895 in Lexington. Graduate of Wentworth in 1912, U. of Chicago in 1917, and U. of Missouri in 1925. Commissioned second lieutenant in Marine Corps at outbreak of WWI, participating in the battles of Chateau-Thierry, Mont Blanc, and three Meuse-Argonne offensives, for which he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, Navy Cross, Silver Star, and Croix de Guerre. Wounded in action, he received the Purple Heart. He retired in 1944 with the rank of lieutenant colonel. He came to Wentworth in 1921 as assistant commandant and instructor in Latin and mathematics. His father, Col. Sandford Sellers, was president of Wentworth for 52 years. Raised in Lexington Lodge No. 149 in 1921 and served as master in 1938. Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri in 1953. Exalted in Lexington Chapter No. 10 in 1925, he was high priest in 1940. Greeted in Shekinah Council No. 24 in 1940. Knighted in DeMolay Commandery No. 3, K.T. in 1937, he was commander in 1941, and grand commander of Grand Commandery, K.T. of Missouri in 1951. Also member of Red Cross of Constantine, serving as intendent general for Mo., Ararat Shrine Temple, Allied Masonic Degrees, and the Missouri Lodge of Research.


            119 Marcel Sembat Marcel Sembat (1862-1922) Leader of the French Socialist Party (with Jean Jaurres). Elected deputy in 191416. He was initiated in the lodge La Fidelite at Lille, France and later affiliated in Paris with the lodge La Raison. As an officer of the Grand Orient of France in 1918, he glorified the deaths of the French soldiers of WWI and reminded the French people of the sacrifices they had made for humanity and their country. One of the Parisian lodges is called Marcel Sembat Lodge in his honor.


            White Seneca A Seneca Indian chief who was raised June 5, 1840 in Manhattan Lodge No. 62, N.Y.C.


            DeWitt C. Senter Former Governor of Tennessee. Member of Morristown Lodge No. 231.


            Orestes A. B. Senter (1843-1915) General Grand Master, General Grand Council, R. & S.M., 1891-94. b. Dec. 17, 1843 in Boston, Mass., moving to Columbus, Ohio in youth. Served as enlisted man in Civil War with 133rd regiment. He was associated with a regalia house in charge of its Masonic department. Member of Columbus Lodge No. 30, Columbus, Ohio (1865); exalted in Ohio Chapter No. 12, RAM.; greeted in Columbus Council No, 8, R. & S.M.; and knighted in Mt. Vernon Commandery No. 1, K.T. Received 33° AASR (NJ) in 1887. Served as grand high priest in 1894; grand master of Grand Council of Ohio in 1879. d. Feb. 21, 1915.


            Alexander Sergeevich S ergeev Russian Counselor of State who is said to have influenced Alexander I, q.v., in his Masonic views. Was master of the Elizabeth of Virtue Lodge in the Swedish Rite.


            Sir Phiroze Sethna Indian political leader. Served as president of the Central Bank of India and the Chamber of Commerce of Bombay. Elected a counselor of state. Was master of Rising Star Lodge of Western India No. 342, and was deputy grand master of the Scottish Rite in that country.


            Luigi Settembrini (1813-1877) Italian patriot and writer. Was imprisoned for political activities, 1839-42 and 1849-58. On his way to deportation in Argentina, he escaped and came to England. After 1864 he returned to Naples, where he was a teacher at the University. At this time he wrote Lezioni di Letteratura Italiana (3 vols.), for which he is best known. He was master of a lodge. The German writer, Thomas Mann, used his name in the Magic Mountain, for the Masonic character in the work.


            Henry H. (Hal) Sevier (1878-1940) U.S. Ambassador to Chile, 1933. b. March 16, 1878 in Columbia, Tenn. Began as editor of country newspaper in 1895, and was founder, owner, and editor of the Austin (Texas) American until 1917. Served two terms in the Texas house of representatives. He was appointed to visit South America to conduct an educational and informative campaign to combat propaganda against the U.S., in WWI. Member of Uvalde Lodge No. 472, Uvalde, Texas, receiving degrees on April 2, April 30, June 3, 1904; suspended NPD in 1934. d. March 10, 1940.


            John Sevier (1745-1815) Pioneer, frontiersman, Revolutionary soldier, Indian fighter, first governor of Tennessee, and first and only governor of the briefly historic "State of Franklin." b. Sept. 23, 1745 in Rockingham Co., Va. Educated until the age of 16 at the academy in Fredericksburg, Va. He married the next year, and founded the village of Newmarket in the Shenandoah Valley. Here he became celebrated as an Indian fighter, and was victor in many battles with neighboring tribes. Was


120 Fabien Sevitzky appointed captain in the Virginia line in 1772, moving then to Watauga on the Western slope of the Alleghenies. Took part in the Indian battle of Point Pleasant in 1774. He petitioned the N. Car. legislature, asking them to annex his colony so they might help in the Revolution under official state authority. The petition was granted, and the whole of what is now Tennessee was organized into a county of N. Car., then known as "Washington district." Sevier was then chosen as a delegate to the state convention. He organized every able-bodied man between 16 and 50 years in the militia and became their colonel. This group fought many successful conflicts with the border Indians, burning their towns and raiding their camps. They won the Battle of Boyd's Creek, and with Col. Isaac Shelby, won the Battle of King's Mountain. At the end of the war, N. Car. felt that they could not afford the large territory which Sevier had organized, as it increased their portion of the Federal debt. Therefore they ceded it to the Federal government. When the news of this reached the settlers, they formed their own government, called a convention on Aug. 23, 1784, organized a constitution and state government, elected Sevier governor, and named their state "Franklin." N. Car. then reversed its decision to cede the "state" and set up a militia with Sevier as its general, and a Superior court. The natives did not like this, and were determined to have their own state. Sevier advised them against this independent action, but went along with them. Gov. Richard Caswell, q.v., declared a revolt existed in the territory and sent troops into "Franklin," capturing and imprisoning Sevier, who was later rescued. Finally the territory was ceded by N. Car., and Sevier then took an oath of allegiance to the U.S., was commissioned brigadier general in 1789, and the following year chosen to Congress as the first representative from the valley of the Mississippi. He continued his campaigns against the Creeks and Cherokees, and broke their will to fight in the Etowah campaign of 1793. When Tennessee was admitted to the Union in 1796, he became the first governor, serving until 1801, and again from 1803 to 1809. Was elected to congress in 1811 and again in 1815, but died in the latter year before he could take his seat. His original lodge is not known, but he was first master of Tennessee Lodge No. 41 (under N. Car, jurisdiction) in 1800, while governor. This lodge later became Tennessee Lodge No. 2, under the Grand Lodge of Tennessee. The charter was arrested in Oct., 1827. His name also appears as a member of Greenville Lodge No. 3 (No. 43 under N. Car.) in 1805. d. Sept. 24, 1815.


            Randolph Sevier President of Matson Navigation Co. from 1950. b. June 6, 1897 in Eureka, Calif. Began with agricultural activities in the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys, 192023, and with Matson Lines since 1923 in many capacities. Stationed both in San Francisco and Hawaiian Islands. Became executive vice president in 1948. Member of Crockett Lodge No. 139, San Francisco, Calif., being raised in 1923. 32° AASR in Honolulu; member of Aloha Shrine Temple and Aloha Court No. 1, Royal Order of Jesters, both of Honolulu, Hawaii.


            Fabien Sevitzky Musical director and conductor of Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra since 1937. b. Sept. 30, 1893 in Wichny, Volotchok, Russia. His original family name was Koussevitzky. Graduated with honors from St. Petersburg Imperial Conservatory of Music in 1911. Came to U.S. in 1923 and naturalized in 1928. Began as a double bass virtuoso in 1911, making concert tours in Russia, Poland, Finland, and the Americas. Was


121 Samuel Sewall soloist with St. Petersburg Conservator, Philharmonic Orchestra, Moscow Imperial Opera, Warsaw State Opera. Became a member of the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1923, and founded the Philadelphia Chamber String Simfonietta in 1925. Conducted Philadelphia Grand Opera, 1927-28; Pennsylvania Opera Co., 1928-30; Peoples Symphony Orchestra, Boston, 193235; and Indianapolis Symphony since 1937. Has made many recordings and extensive tours. Served as guest conductor of Los Angeles Philharmonic, Philadelphia Symphony, New York Philharmonic, Detroit Symphony, Vancouver and Montreal Symphony orchestras. Served in Russian Army, 1915-17. Raised June 6, 1944 in Oriental Lodge No. 500, Indianapolis, Ind.; exalted in Oriental Chapter No. 147, R.A.M. on March 8, 1945; knighted in Oriental Commandery No. 62, K.T.; received 32° AASR in Indianapolis on Nov. 22, 1944 and created 33° on Sept. 29, 1948.


            Samuel Sewall (1757-1814) U.S. Congressman and Justice of Supreme Court of Massachusetts from 1800, and Chief Justice, 1813-14. b. Dec. 11, 1757 in Boston, he was the great grandson of Samuel Sewall, one of the judges of the "witches" during the period of Salem witchcraft. His ancestor was the only one of the judges who later acknowledged his error; he spent one day each year in prayer and meditation to keep in his mind a sense of the enormity of his offense. Sewall graduated from Harvard in 1776 and practiced law at Marblehead, Mass. He was frequently a member of the legislature, and was U.S. congressman two successive terms, 1797-1800. Member of Philanthropic Lodge, Marblehead, Mass.


            Sumner Sewall Governor of Maine, 1941-45. b. June 17, 1897 in Bath, Maine. Was a student at Harvard and Yale, receiving LL.D. from Colby Coll. in 1941. In WWI was in American Ambulance Field Service, overseas in 1916 and later with American Air Service, commanding squadron 95 of the 1st Pursuit Group, and designated as an ace, with many decorations. After war he worked in Mexico, Cuba, and Wyoming. Helped organize the Colonial Air Transport in 1920. Was director of United Air Lines Transport Corp., 1930-45, and president of American Overseas Airlines, Inc., 1945-46. In office of Military Government, Germany, since 1946. Received degrees in Solar Lodge No. 14, Bath, Maine on Nov. 9, 23, 1940 and Feb. 3, 1941, while governor-elect. 32° AASR (NJ) in Maine Consistory and member of Kora Shrine Temple.


            Coy A. Seward (1884-1939) Artist. b. March 4, 1884 in Chase, Kansas. Employed by Western Lithograph Co., Wichita, Kan. His works are on permanent exhibition at many places, including California State Library; Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Kansas at Topeka; Bethany College, Lindsborg, Kans.; Library of Congress, Chicago Art Institute; Rhode Island School of Design; Honolulu Academy of Fine Arts; Bibliotheque National, Paris. Received degrees in Chase Lodge No. 247, Chase, Kans., on June 20, Aug. 12, Sept. 9, 1905. Affiliated with Albert Pike Lodge No. 303, Wichita, Kans., on May 22, 1935. d. Jan. 31, 1939.


            Herbert L. Seward Naval architect and marine engineer. b. April 17, 1885 in Guilford, Conn. Graduate of Yale in 1908. Advisor to U.S. Maritime Commission, U.S. Lines, Inc., and professor of mechanical engineering at Yale from 1928. Organized and operated the Navy Steam Engineering School at Hoboken, N.J. in WWI. Consultant to secretary of Navy in salvaging the S.S. Normandie. A licensed master of steam vessels and licensed


122 Sir Ernest H. Shackleton chief engineer. Served as assistant navigator S.S. Leviathan. Raised in 1931 in Wooster Lodge No. 79, New Haven, Conn. Affiliated with Siloam Lodge No. 32, Saybrook, Conn. in 1954.


            William IL Seward (1801-1872) Anti-Mason. U.S. Secretary of State, 1861-69; U.S. Senator from New York, 1849-61; Governor of New York, 1839-43. b. May 16, 1801 in Florida, N.Y. Admitted to bar at Utica, N.Y. in 1822, settling in Auburn in 1823. In 1830 he was named as the anti-Masonic candidate for the state senate. d. Oct. 10, 1872.


            William Mark Sexson (1877-1953) Founder of Order of Rainbow for Girls. An ordained Christian minister, he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Oklahoma in 1928. b. July 8, 1877 in Arnica Springs, Mo. He received his degrees on March 22, 31 and April 26, 1902 in Bloomfield Lodge No. 84, Bloomfield, Ind. and on Feb. 6, 1914 affiliated with South McAlester Lodge No. 96, McAlester, Okla. d. Dec. 20, 1953.


            Thomas H. Seymour (1808-1868) Governor of Connecticut, 1851-53; U.S. Minister to Russia, 1853-57; U.S. Congressman from Conn., 1843-45. b. Sept. 3, 1808 in Hartford, Conn. Practiced law and published The Jeffersemi= at Hartford. Fought in Mexican War as major and colonel, his regiment being the first to enter the fortress at Chapultepec. Was initiated in St. John's Lodge No. 4, Hartford about 1850; exalted in Pythagoras Chapter No. 17, R.A.M.; and knighted in Washington Commandery No. 1, K.T., Nov. 1, 1850. He served as commander of the commandery and as senior grand deacon of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut in 1853. d. Sept. 3, 1868.


            Artur von Seyss-Inquart (18921946) Nazi Anti-Mason. Was Austrianminister of interior and security in Schuschnigg cabinet of 1938; chancellor and minister of defense in Austria after German occupation of 1938. Hitler appointed him governor of Austrian territory that year. Admitted to German cabinet in 1939 as minister without portfolio. Was gov ernor of occupied territory in Poland, 1939-40 and high commissioner of the Netherlands in 1940-43. Hanged as a war criminal. In 1918 he worked out the plan of an organization, which resembled Freemasonry in some respects. It was an anti-Jewish, anti-Masonic group to be formed of several degrees with secret vows.


            Shabonee (1775-1859) Potawatomi Indian Chief who was great friend of white settlers and in 1832 saved the settlers of Chicago from massacre by Black Hawk, by warning them of his attack. Earlier, was one of Tecumseh's lieutenants, and with him when he was killed at Battle of the Thames. Later, incensed by treatment of Indians by British, he transferred his allegiance to the Americans. Chosen peace chief of his tribe. Saved many white villages from Winnebago attack. The Sauk and Fox attempted to murder him and did kill his son and nephew. Although he migrated West of the Mississippi with his tribe in 1836, he returned to De Kalb Co., Ill., where he retired on two sections of land given him by the government as a reward for his services. He was a grand nephew of Chief Pontiac. Said to have been a Freemason, but no proof. d. July 17, 1859.


            Sir Ernest H. Shackleton (18741922) British Antarctic explorer. b. in Kilkee, Ireland. He was junior officer on the national Antarctic expedition under Robert F. Scott, q.v., on the Discovery in 1901. He accompanied Scott on the sledge journey over the Ross Ice Shelf. In 1907 he sailed in the Nimrod in command of


123 George F. Shafer an expedition, which reached a point about 97 miles from the South Pole in 1909. Commanded a trans-Antarctic expedition in the Endurance, which set out in 1914. When ship was crushed in ice, he made a trip of 800 miles with five companions to north coast of South Georgia for help (1916). Died at South Georgia Island in 1922, while on a third expedition to the Antarctic. Author of Heart of the Antarctic and South. A Freemason.


            George F. Shafer (1888-1948) Governor of North Dakota, 1929-33. b. Nov. 23, 1888 in Mandan, N. Dak. Attended U. of North Dakota, 1908- 12 and admitted to bar in latter year, practicing at Schafer. Served as assistant attorney general and attorney general of N. Dak. Was first native born governor of N. Dak. Initiated May 12, 1919 in Yellowstone Lodge No. 110 of Alexander, N. Dak. Scottish Rite member at Bismarck. d. Aug. 13, 1948.


            Paul W. Shafer (1893-1954) U.S. Congressman to 75th-81st Congresses, 1937-51 from Michigan. b. April 27, 1893 in Elkhart, Ind. Was reporter, editor and publisher from 1912-29, and municipal judge at Battle Creek, Mich., 1929-36. Publisher of Bronson Journal. Received degrees in Ira A. Beck Lodge No. 503, Battle Creek, Mich. on Nov. 21, 29 and Dec. 14, 1929. 32° AASR (NJ), Shriner and member of Royal Order of Jesters. d. Aug. 17, 1954.


            Walter S. Shafer Vice President and General Sales Manager of Armour & Co. since 1947. b. Aug. 5, 1900 at Kangley, Ill. Graduate of Knox Coll. in 1922. Began as shipper with Armour in 1922, later salesman, branch house manager, district sales manager, product sales manager. Received degrees in Taylor Lodge No. 98, Washington, Ill. in 1924.


            Taliaferro P. Shaffner (1818-1881) American inventor. b. in Smithfield, Va. in 1818. Self educated, he studied law and was admitted to the bar, but gave much of his time to invention. Was an associate of Samuel F. B. Morse in the introduction of the telegraph. He built the line from Louisville, Ky. to New Orleans and that from St. Louis to Jefferson City, Mo. in 1851. Was a projector of the North Atlantic cable via Labrador and Iceland, and was the inventor of several methods of blasting with nitroglycerine and other high explosives. In addition to several scientific volumes, he published Odd-Fellowship in 1875. Member of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 196, Louisville, Ky. about 1843. Coroneted 33° on November 17, 1865 and designated by Supreme Council AASR (SJ) as a special deputy. d. Dec. 12, 1881.


            William R. Shafter (1835-1906) Major General, U.S. Army. Won Congressional Medal of Honor in Civil War for action at Battle of Fair Oaks. b. Oct. 16, 1835 in Galesburg, Mich. Taught school three years prior to 1861, when he enlisted in Union Army as 1st lieutenant of 7th Mich. Infantry. Mustered out as brevet brigadier general in 1865, and reentered regular army as a lieutenant colonel in 1867. Made brigadier general in 1897 and assigned to head department of California. Made major general of volunteers in May, 1898. In Cuba, he commanded the military operations ending in the capitulation of General Linares' army and surrender of Santiago de Cuba. Known as "Pecos Bill." Retired in 1901 as major general. Was made a Mason in Prairie Lodge No. 92, Galesburg, Mich., while home on leave of absence in 1864. He was a member of the Masonic Veterans Assoc. of Illinois, and a few months before his death (Nov. 12, 1906), wrote General John C. Smith, q.v., the venerable chief, that he could


124 William L. Sharp not be present at the annual reception, but "hope to have the pleasure of seeing you and your good wife some time next year.”


            Earl of Shaftesbury (Anthony Ashley-Cooper), 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. Title dates to 1672. He inherited it at the age of 17, on the death of his father in 1886. Has title of KP, PS, GCVO and CBE. Member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council since 1922. Served as Lord Chamberlain to the Queen from 191022 and Lord Steward H.M. Household from 1922-36. Was provincial grand master of Dorset for over 50 years.


            William Shakespeare (1554-1616) English playwright and poet. With the passing of time, the person, character and writings of Shakespeare become more and more controversial, including the question "Was he a Freemason." There is certainly no evidence that he was a Mason, but the supporters of that contention point out many unusual statements and thoughts in his writings such as "Come swear to that; kiss the book"; "And from the cross-bow plucks the Letter G"; "Doth any name particular belong unto the lodging? . . . 'Tis called Jerusalem." Also references to the grip and whisper in King John iv, 2; the North for darkness and for evil in Henry VI, v, 3; the plant that discovered the grave and thus revealed the murder of Polydorus in Virgil, book iii, 22.


            Ashton C. Shallenberger (1862-1938) Governor of Nebraska, 1909-11. U.S. Congressman to 64th-65th and 68th-72nd Congresses, 1915-19, 1923-33, from 5th Nebr. dist. b. 1862 in Toulon, Ill. Moved to Nebraska in 1881, where he engaged in cattle raising and farming. In 1887 he organized the Bank of Alma and was president of same. Member of Harlan Lodge No. 116, Alma, Nebr., and master of same in 1900. d. Feb. 22, 1938.


            Wilson Shannon (1802-1877) Governor of Ohio, 1838-40 and 1842-44; Governor of Kansas Territory, 185556; U.S. Congressman to 23rd Congress, 1853-55, from Ohio; U.S. Minister to Mexico, 1844-45. b. Feb. 24, 1802 in Mount Olivet, Ohio, he attended Ohio U. and Transylvania Coll. (Ky.), studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1830, practicing at St. Clairsville, Ohio. After his term as governor of Kansas Territory, he engaged in law practice in Lawrence, Kans. Received degrees in Belmont Lodge No. 16, St. Clairsville, Ohio in 1846, dimitting the same year and later affiliating with Lecompton Lodge No. 13, Lecompton, Kansas (now defunct). d. Aug. 31, 1877.


            William L. Sharkey (1797-1873) Provisional Governor of Mississippi in 1865. b. in 1797 in Mussel Shoals, Tenn., he moved with his parents to the Territory of Mississippi in 1804. Was present at the Battle of New Orleans, as a substitute for his uncle. After graduating at Greenville Coll. (Tenn.), he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1822, practicing first at Warrenton, and from 1825 at Vicksburg. Member of the state legislature in 1827, and chief justice of the court of errors and appeals in 1832-50. A member of Vicksburg Lodge No. 26, his name first appears in the grand lodge proceedings of 1826 as a member of Franklin Lodge U. D. of Vicksburg, and after 1841, as member of Lodge No. 26. In 1865 he is listed as senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Mississippi. Also member of Vicksburg Chapter No. 3, R.A.M. d. April 29, 1873.


            William L. Sharp (1862-1950) Twenty-eighth Grand Master, Grand Encampment, Knights Templar, U.S.A. b. Jan. 19, 1862 at Princeton, Ill. Entered banking business in Iowa as a young man, and later engaged in manufacture of sash and door, and


125 Nelson Sharpe plate and window glass. Was president of Sharp, Partridge & Co., Chicago; Treasurer of C. E. Sharp Lumber Co., Oklahoma City; and head of Wm. L. Sharp & Co., mortgages and investments. Raised Sept. 21, 1891 in Normal Park Lodge 797, Chicago, Ill.; exalted in Englewood Chapter No. 176, Oct. 29, 1891, and later a charter member of Normal Park Chapter No. 210; greeted in Imperial Council No. 85, R. & S.M.; and knighted in Englewood Commandery No. 59, K.T., Feb. 6, 1892. He served as head of lodge, chapter, council, and commandery. Was grand commander of Grand Cornmandery, K.T. of Illinois in 1912, and served as grand master of the Grand Encampment, K.T. from 1928-31. 33° AASR (NJ) at Chicago, Royal Order of Scotland, Medinah Shrine Temple, and St. John's Conclave No. 1, R.C. of C. d. Dec. 22, 1950.


            Nelson Sharpe (1859-1935) Justice, Supreme Court of Michigan from 1919. b. Aug. 25, 1858 in Northumberland Co., Ont., Canada. Graduate of U. of Michigan. Became naturalized citizen in 1885. Member of West Branch Lodge No. 376, West Branch, Mich., receiving degrees on May 12, 22, and June 25, 1888 and becoming a life member on Dec. 3, 1929. d. Oct. 20, 1935.


            Christian Sharps (1811-1876) Inventor of the famous Sharps breech loading rifle. b. in 1811 in N.J. He developed an early talent for mechanics and became a machinist. In 1854 he removed to Hartford, Conn. to superintend the manufacture of his rifle; he subsequently invented other firearms, and received many patents in other fields. Member of Meridian Sun Lodge No. 158, Philadelphia, Pa., receiving degrees on April 14, June 2, July 14, 1857. Received Mark Degree in Jan., 1858 and exalted on Oct. 2, 1863 in Harmony Chapter No. 52, Philadelphia. d. June 1, 1876.


            Lemuel Shattuck (1793-1859) Writer. b. Oct. 15, 1793 in Ashby, Mass. Taught school and was a merchant in Concord, Mass. from 1823-33. Later a bookseller and publisher in Boston and member of the city council. Served in state legislature several years. Member of many historical societies. Author of History of Concord, Mass.; Vital Statistics of Boston; The Census of Boston; and others. Became member of Corinthian Lodge, Concord, Mass. on Nov. 18, 1824 and master from 1827-29. Also member of Concord Royal Arch Chapter. d. Jan. 17, 1859.


            Edwin C. Shaw (1863-1941) Former Vice President, Director, and General Manager of B. F. Goodrich Co., Akron, Ohio. b. Feb. 1, 1863 in Buffalo, N.Y. Served as chairman of Ohio State Board of Administration; Ohio State Prison Commission; and Ohio State Board of Pardons and Parole. Held many responsible civic positions. Member of Adoniram Lodge No. 517, Akron, Ohio, receiving degrees on Nov. 19, Dec. 20, 1894 and Jan. 31, 1895. 32° AASR (NJ). d. Nov. 25, 1941.


            Elwyn R. Shaw (1888-1950) Federal Judge, Northern Illinois from 1944. b. Oct. 19, 1888 in Lyndon, Ill. Graduate of U. of Michigan in 1910 and began law practice in Freeport, Ill. Judge of supreme court of Illinois, 1933-42, and chief justice, 1938-39. Member of Excelsior Lodge No. 97, Freeport, Ill. d. July 22, 1950.


            George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) British playwright and novelist. Although not a Freemason, he at one time referred to the organization in his usual Shavian wit. Whenever asked about marriage, his stock reply would be: "I might say that it is like Freemasonry; those who are not received into the order cannot talk about it, and those who are members are pledged to eternal silence."


126 Walter A. Sheaffer John Shaw (1773-1823) American Naval officer who commanded the Enterprise in hostilities with France, and fought in War of 1812. b. in Mount Mellick, Ireland, he was the son of an English officer. Came to America in 1790, settling in Philadelphia, and became a sailor in the merchant marine. Entered U.S. Navy as a lieutenant in 1798 when hostilities with France began, and in Dec. of 1799 was given command of the Enterprise, a ship of 165 tons with 12 light guns, especially built for chases with small, fast privateers. In a cruise of eight months he captured eight French privateers and recovered eleven American prizes. His most serious action was with the Flambeau, forcing her to strike the colors in a little more than an hour, after killing half her crew of 100. He cruised the Mediterranean in the George Washington in 1801 and the John Adams in 1805. Became captain in 1807, and commanded the squadron in 1814 that was blockaded by the enemy in the Thames River, Conn. Member of Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2, N.Y.C. d. Sept. 17, 1823.


            Leslie M. Shaw (1848-1932) U.S. Secretary of Treasury under Theodore Roosevelt, 1902-1907. Governor of Iowa, 1898-1902. b. Nov. 2, 1848 in Morristown, Vt. Graduate of Cornell Coll. (Ia.) in 1874 and Iowa Coll. of Law in 1876. Practiced law in Denison, Iowa, 1876-97, and engaged in banking at Denison, Manilla, and Charter Oak, Iowa. He was permanent chairman of the International Monetary Convention at Indianapolis in 1898. Mason. d. March 28, 1932.


            Sir Michael Robert Shaw-Stewart Seventieth Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1873-81.


            Daniel Shays (1747-1825) Officer of the American Revolution and insurgent leader of "Shays' Rebellion" of 1786-87. b. in Hopkinton, Mass. Heserved as an ensign at the Battle of Bunker Hill, and attained the rank of captain in the Continental Army, fighting at Ticonderoga, Saratoga, and Stony Point. He resigned his commission "for reasons quite problematical." He then settled in Pelham (now Prescott), Mass. Following the war there were many grievances against the government by the citizens of Western Mass., including high taxation, aristocracy of the senate, excess salary for the governor, site of the general court, and many others. Shays first became known as leader of the rebellion, when at the head of about 1,000 men, he appeared in Springfield to prevent the session of the supreme court at that place. The rebellion climaxed with an attack on the U.S. government arsenal at Springfield. Shays' forces were repulsed, and the following month (Feb.) routed at Petersham. He fled to Vermont. He was condemned to death by the Mass. supreme court, but pardoned on June 13, 1788. He then resided at Sparta, N.Y. until his death, Sept. 29, 1825. Shays signed the by-laws of Masters' Lodge in Albany, N.Y. as a member, in 1778, although he may have been made a Mason elsewhere. He was present at the St. John's Day observance of American Union Lodge at West Point on June 24, 1779. He was one of the original petitioners for Hampshire Lodge, Northampton, Mass. in 1786. The reprint of Grand Lodge of Mass. Proceedings, 1733-92, states, "A return from Hampshire Lodge, of their choice of officers for ensuing year was read—also a vote of said lodge, that the names of Daniel Shays, Luke Day and Elijah Day, who are members of that Lodge, be transmitted to the Grand Lodge, to be recorded with Infamy in consequence of their conduct in the late Rebellion.”


            Walter A. Sheaffer (1867-1946) Organizer and President of W. A. Sheaf-


127 Frank T. Sheets fer Pen Co., Fort Madison, Iowa. b. July 27, 1867 in Bloomfield, Iowa. Began as a jeweler in Bloomfield in 1882, and was owner of the Sheaffer Jewelry and Music Co., Bloomfield, 18881906. From 1906-18 he owned the Sheaffer Jewelry Co. at Fort Madison, Iowa. He organized the Sheaffer Pen Co. at Fort Madison in 1912, was president until 1938, and chairman of the board after 1938. Member of Franklin Lodge No. 14, Bloomfield, Ia.; 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner. d. June 19, 1946.


            Frank T. Sheets (1890-1951) President of Portland Cement Association from 1937. b. Oct. 5, 1890 in Lafayette, Ohio. Graduate of U. of Illinois in 1914. With Illinois state highway dept., 1907-33, from clerk to chief highway engineer. In 1941 received Bartlett Award for "outstanding contribution to highway progress." Was consulting engineer for Portland Cement Assn., Chicago, from 1933-37, and president from 1937. Member of St. Paul's Lodge No. 500, Springfield, Ill., Knight Templar and past potentate of Ansar Shrine Temple, Springfield. d. Nov. 3, 1951.


            Charles H. Sheldon (1840-1898) Second Governor of South Dakota. b. Sept. 12, 1830 in New York. Was a farmer. Raised April 18, 1894 in Coteau Lodge No. 54, Webster, S. Dak. d. Oct. 20, 1898.


            John W. Shenk (1875-1959) Justice, Supreme Court of California from 1924. b. Feb. 7, 1875 in Shelburne, Vt. Graduate of Ohio Wesleyan in 1900 and U. of Michigan in 1903. Began practice at Los Angeles in latter year. Served as city attorney and judge of superior court, Los Angeles. Served in Spanish-American War and in Puerto Rico. Past master of South Pasadena Lodge No. 367 (Calif.); member of the jurisprudence committee of Grand Lodge of California, Oct.1943-Aug. 1959; 32° AASR (SJ), Knight Templar, Shriner. d. Aug. 3, 1959.


            William Shepard (1737-1817) U.S. Congressman, 1797-1803, from Massachusetts. Served in French and Indian Wars. Major General of Mass. militia; helped subdue Shays' Rebellion. b. Dec. 1, 1737 in Westfield, Mass. In Revolutionary War he was member of committee of correspondence for Westfield in 1774, and lieutenant colonel of minutemen in April, 1775. Entered Continental Army in May, 1775, becoming colonel of 4th Mass. Regiment in 1776 and serving throughout Revolutionary War. Served two terms in state house of representatives and was selectman for Westfield. Complimented by general court of Mass. for his gallantry while holding position in defense of Springfield Arsenal in Shays', q.v., rebellion. Was member of governor's council, 1792-96; appointed in 1796 to treat with Penobscot Indians and in 1797 with the Six Nations. Elected to 5th-7th Congresses; resumed agricultural pursuits after 1803. Member of Washington Military Lodge No. 10 at West Point, N.Y., in 1780. His Masonic apron was presented to Mount Moriah Lodge, Westfield, Mass. on May 21, 1907. d. Nov. 16, 1817.


            Francis W. Shepardson (1862-1937) Teacher, newspaperman, editor and authority on college fraternities. b. Oct. 15, 1862 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Graduate of Denison U. in 1882, 1886; Brown U. in 1883; Yale in 1892. Taught at U. of Chicago; lectured to American teachers in the Philippines; edited the Granville (Ohio) Times; director of The Julius Rosenwald Fund; editorial writer for the Chicago Tribune. He was national president of Beta Theta Pi from 1918 and vice president of national Phi Beta Kappa, 1919-28. He edited 11th-13th editions of Baird's Manual of Ameri-


128 Lucius E. Sheppard can College Fraternities and was author of The Beta Book, Beta Lore, and Beta Life. Member of Center Star Lodge No. 11, Granville, Ohio, receiving degrees on March 27, April 23, May 28, 1885. d. Aug. 9, 1937.


            Joshua K. Shepherd Venerable Grand Prior, AASR (SJ) and Sovereign Grand Inspector General for Arkansas. Received 32° in 1916; KCCH in 1919, and coroneted 33° in 1933. Appointed deputy for Arkansas in 1943, and crowned active member same year. He is founder and senior partner of Shepherd & Co., general insurance agents, Little Rock, Ark.


            Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr. Full General and Commandant of U.S. Marine Corps. b. Feb. 10, 1896 in Norfolk, Va. Graduate of Virginia Institute in 1917 and commissioned 2nd lieutenant in Marine Corps that year. Advanced through grades to full general in 1952 and retired in 1955. In WWI he participated in battles of Aisne, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne, and in defensive sectors of Toulon-Troyons and Chateau Thierry. With army of occupation in Germany until 1919. Then saw service at White House as Marine aide, and in China and Haiti on ships Idaho and Nevada. In WWII he was regimental commander of 9th Marines, 3rd Marine Division; assistant division commander of 1st Division; participated in landings at Cape Gloucester, New Britain; commanding general 1st Prov. Marine Brigade; participated in landing and seizure of Guam; commanding general of 6th Marine Division; participated in Okinawa campaign; received surrender of Japanese forces in China; commandant of Marine Corps Schools; commanding general of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific; participated in Inchon landing; and was commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps from 1952 until retirement in 1955. Member of American Overseas Lodge No. 40, Providence, R.I.


            Oliver L. Shepherd (1815-1894) Union Brigadier General of Civil War. b. Aug. 15, 1815 in Clifton Park, N.Y. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1840, he served in the Seminole War. In Mexican War, he served under Zachary Taylor at Contreras and Churubusco, being promoted to major for action at Chapultepec. He was in command of Fort Defiance, New Mexico, when it was attacked by 2,500 Indians. Was later stationed at Fort Hamilton, N.Y. Commanded a battalion of the 3rd Infantry in the defense of Washington, D.C. at start of Civil War, and then served in Tenn. and Miss. campaigns and in the Army of the Ohio. Breveted colonel for siege of Corinth in 1862. With Rosecrans in Tenn. campaign and then with Army of Cumberland. Was breveted brigadier general on March 13, 1865 for service at Stone River. Retired in 1870. Received degrees in Clinton Lodge No. 140, Waterford, N.Y. on July 22, 26, Aug. 19, 1850. Note on lodge return says: "Major Shepherd did not join the lodge. Grand Lodge gave him Grand Lodge Certificate before his going to the South." d. April 16, 1894.


            John II. Sheppard (1789-1873) Author. b. March 17, 1789 in Cirencester, England, settling with parents in Hallowell, Maine in 1793. Attended Harvard, studied law, and practiced in Wicasset, Maine. Pioneer member of New England historic-genealogical societies. Wrote several Masonic articles. Became member of Lincoln Lodge No. 3, Wicasset, Maine, Nov. 16, 1812, and member of St. Andrew's Royal Arch Chapter, Boston, Oct. 9, 1818. d. June 25, 1873.


            Lucius E. Sheppard (1863-1934) President of Order of Railway Conductors, 1919-28, and Assistant Presi-


129 Morris Sheppard dent after 1928. b. Feb. 10, 1863 in Bridgeton, N.J. Entered service of Pennsylvania Railroad in 1881 and became conductor in 1833. Member of Ionic Lodge No. 94, Camden, N.J., receiving degrees on Feb. 17, April 6, June 1, 1896. d. Sept. 26, 1934.


            Morris Sheppard (1875-1941) U.S. Congressman to 57th-62nd Congresses from Texas; U.S. Senator 1913-41 from Texas. b. May 28, 1875 in Wheatville, Texas. Graduate of U. of Texas at Austin in 1897, and from Yale in 1898. Was national treasurer of the Woodmen of the World for many years. Elected first president of Texas Fraternal Congress in Dallas in 1901. Practiced law first in Pittsburg, Texas, moving to Texarkana in 1899. He went to congress, filling the vacancy caused by the death of his father, John L. Sheppard. Served in congress from 1902-13, when he was elected to U.S. Senate, serving there until his death. Received degrees in Frank Sexton Lodge No. 206, Pittsburg, Texas, Sept. 22, 1899 and Jan. 26 and Feb. 23, 1900. Dimitted, and affiliated with Border Lodge No. 672, Texarkana, Texas in May, 1900. 32° AASR (SJ) at Dallas and member of Hella Shrine Temple. d. April 9, 1941.


            John C. Sherburne (1883-1959) Justice, Supreme Court of Vermont since 1934. b. Aug. 31, 1883 in Pomfret, Vt. Graduated from U. of Vermont in 1904, and was the first Rhodes scholar selected in Vermont, studying at Oxford U. in England from 1904-07. Admitted to bar in 1898. Was states attorney, referee in bankruptcy, member of state senate, and secretary of civil and military affairs. Was superior judge, 1926-34. Mason. d. June 30, 1959.


            Richard Brinsley Sheridan (17511816) Irish dramatist, member of Parliament. b. Oct. 30, 1751 in Dublin. Settled in London in 1773 and turned to dramatic composition; roseto first place among writers with his three great comedies, The Rivals; The School for Scandal; and The Critic. He bought Garrick's share in Drury Lane Theatre, London in 1776, and became manager. Was a member of Parliament in 1780; secretary of treasury in 1873, and confidential adviser to George, Prince of Wales. He declined a gift from the American Continental Congress for opposing British war in America. He opposed the Irish union in 1799; was treasurer of the navy in 1806-07. Admitted as a corresponding member of Lodge of Antiquity No. 2, London, in 1811. d. July 7, 1816; given a magnificent funeral and burial in Westminster Abbey.


            Buren R. Sherman (1836-1904) Governor of Iowa, 1882-86. b. May 28, 1836 in Phelps, N.Y. Moved to Iowa in 1855 and admitted to bar in 1859. He practiced at Vinton, Iowa. Entered Union Army in 1861 as 2nd lieutenant in Co. E, 14th Iowa Vol. Inf. Was severely wounded at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; promoted to captain that month and resigned on same date because of wounds. He was state auditor of Iowa from 1875-81. Member of Vinton Lodge No. 62, Vinton, Ia. Coroneted 33° AASR (SJ) in 1883. d. Nov. 11, 1904.


            Charles R. Sherman (?-1829) Justice of Supreme Court of Ohio, 182529; father of General William Tecumseh Sherman. Although the son never became a Freemason, Charles R. was the seventh grand master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio, serving in 1824. He was a member of Lancaster Lodge No. 57 and high priest of Lancaster Chapter No. 11, R.A.M., both of Lancaster, Ohio. He was knighted in Mt. Vernon Commandery No. 1, K.T., of Columbus, Ohio in 1826.


            Frederick C. Sherman Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. May 27, 1888 in Port Huron, Mich. Graduate of U.S. Naval


130 William Shield Academy in 1910 and advanced through grades to vice admiral in 1945, retiring as admiral in 1947. In WWI he was commander of the submarine 0-7. In WWII he commanded the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lexington, 1940-42. Was commanding officer at Battle of Bougainville and Battle of Salamaua, as well as the Battle of the Coral Sea, when the Lexington was disabled and sunk on May 8, 1942. The last to leave his ship, he became the hero of the Battle of the Coral Sea. As a rear admiral he commanded the carrier task forces in the Pacific from 1942-45, participating in all major actions during this time. He was commander of the 5th Fleet, 1945-46, and retired with rank of admiral in Feb., 1947. Member of Naval Lodge No. 87, Vallejo, Calif. and received 32° AASR (SJ) in San Francisco, July 14, 1915.


            Lawrence Y. Sherman (1858-1939) U.S. Senator from Illinois, 1913-21. b. Nov. 8, 1858 near Piqua, Ohio, moving with parents to Ill. in 1859. Studied law, and admitted to bar in 1882, practicing in Macomb, Ill. Member of state legislature, 1897-1905, and speaker of the house, 1899-1903. Was lieutenant governor and ex officio president of state senate, 1905-09. Continued practice of law in Springfield, Ill. Moved to Daytona Beach, Fla. in 1924, and practiced law there as well as engaging in the investment business. Member of St. Paul's Lodge No. 500, Springfield, Ill. Was raised June 19, 1884. d. Sept. 15, 1939.


            Moses H. Sherman (1853-1932) President of Los Angeles Steamship Co. b. Dec. 3, 1853 in West Rupert, Vt. Taught schools in Prescott, Ariz., 1874-76. Was territorial superintendent of public instruction for Arizona, 1878-81, and author of the school laws of Arizona. Served as adjutant general of Arizona Territory in 1881. Moved to Los Angeles, Calif. in 1889, and with Eli P. Clark built the Los Angeles Electric Railway, 1889-95. Was with Los Angeles Steamship Co. from 1920; president from 1926. President and director of various other companies. Member of Southern California Lodge No. 278, Los Angeles. d. Sept. 9, 1932.


            Roger Sherman (1721-1793) The only person to sign the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Association, Articles of Confederation and the Federal Constitution. b. April 19, 1721 in Newton, Mass. Admitted to bar in 1754. Member of the Connecticut assembly a number of terms between 1755 and 1766. Moved to New Haven, Conn. in 1761. Served in state senate, 1766-85. Was elected as congressman to 1st congress, 1789191, and was U.S. senator from Conn. from 1791 until death in 1793. Although his Masonic apron is in the historical collection of Yale University, having been presented by his descendants, his membership in the fraternity is based on tradition and not supported by any evidence. d. July


23, 1793.


            Elmer W. Sherwood President of American Travelers Life Insurance Co.; Sherwood Associates (public relations); The F. F. J. Company; The Independent Mutual Fire Insurance Company; Brigadier General and Adjutant General of Indiana, 1944-45; editor of National Legionnaire, official publication of American Legion, 1937-42. b. Feb. 22, 1896 in Linton, Ind. Graduate of Indiana U. in 1921. Was high school teacher, automobile salesman, and owner of coal companies until 1937. Served in WWI and WWII plus 20 years in U.S. Army reserve. Received degrees in Linton (Ind.) Lodge No. 560 on July 12, 19,


24, 1919, transferring to Bloomfield Lodge No. 84, Bloomfield, Ind. in 1931. 32° AASR (NJ).


            William Shield (1748-1829) English viola player at Italian opera, London,


131 James Shields and composer of songs and operatic music at Covent Garden, London. Was the King's Musician Extraordinary. Member of Phoenix Lodge No. 94.


            James Shields (1806?-1879) U.S. Senator from three states; Governor of Oregon Territory; general in two wars. b. in Ireland, his birth date is given variously as 1806 and 1810. Emigrated to the U.S. in 1826, studied law and began practice at Kaskaskia, Ill. in 1832. He was breveted major general for gallantry at Cerro Gordo in the Mexican War. Elected to Illinois state legislature in 1836, was state auditor and then judge of supreme court of He was land commissioner in Washington, D.C. in 1845 under President Polk. He fought in the Seminole Indian War, 1835-42. Following the Mexican War, he was appointed governor of the Oregon Territory (1849), but resigned to accept election as U.S. senator from Illinois (1849-55). At the expiration of his senatorial term he settled in Minnesota Territory and served in its legislature. When Minn. became a state, Shields was again elected to the U.S. senate (1858-59). Made brigadier general at outbreak of Civil War and fought in the Shenandoah Valley campaign. Resigned his commission in 1863 and moved to Carrollton, Mo. Here he served in the state legislature in 1874 and was elected U.S. senator in 1879. He was raised Jan. 4, 1841 in Springfield Lodge No. 4, serving as junior warden the same year. He was exalted in Springfield Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. about 1841. When he moved to Washington, D.C. as land commissioner, he became charter master of National Lodge No. 12, the first roster of that lodge being dated Oct. 27, 1846, listing him as master. In 1847 he is recorded in attendance at the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, being made an honorary member at that time. On his return to Illinois after the Mexican War he was received ata special communication of the Grand Lodge of Illinois on Jan. 3, 1848. He had previously served as the grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1841. Upon moving to Minnesota, he became a charter member of Faribault Lodge No. 9, Faribault, Minn., Jan. 6, 1857. Here his Masonic membership seems to cease. Shields was a Roman Catholic, and it was about this time that Rome put pressure on American Catholics to divest themselves of all Masonic affiliations. After he moved to Missouri there is no more record of his Masonic activities. He died June 1, 1879 and is buried in a Catholic cemetery just north of Carrollton, Mo., where the U.S. government erected a monument in his honor.


            John K. Shields (1858-1934) U.S. Senator from Tennessee. b. at "Clinch-dale" near Bean Station, Tenn., Aug. 15, 1858. Studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1879, practicing in Grainger and adjoining counties until 1893. He then moved to Morristown. Served as associate justice of the supreme court of Tenn. from 1902-10 and was chief justice, 1910-13, resigning to become U.S. senator. Served in senate from 1913-25, and being defeated for another term, resumed law practice in Knoxville. Raised in Rising Star Lodge No. 44, Rutledge, Tenn. on Sept. 23, 1884; withdrew April 27, 1903 and reaffiliated, Nov. 25, 1909. May have held membership at Morristown, Bean Station or Knoxville between 1903-09. Member of the York Rite bodies at Morristown at time of his death on Sept. 30, 1934. Member of Kerbela Shrine Temple at Knoxville.


            Albert Shiels (1865-1940) Educator; first chairman of National Board of Censorship of Moving Pictures; actively identified with movements affecting the immigrant and assimilation of foreign population. b.


            132 Allan Shivers July 9, 1865 in New York City. Graduate of Coll. City of New York in 1886, 1896, 1899. Was Mexican consul at Panama and Colon and acting consul for Great Britain. Taught in various grades and evening schools in N.Y.C. Was in charge of all evening schools, 1911-13. Was superintendent of schools of Los Angeles, Calif., 191619. Director of Community Councils of N.Y. from 1919. Member of Kane Lodge No. 454, N.Y.C., receiving degrees on Oct. 5, 1897, March 29, April 19, 1898. d. March 14, 1940.


            Archibald W. Shiels (1878- ) President of Pacific American Fisheries, Inc., 1930-46 and chairman since 1946. President of Pacific American Steamship Line and Deming & Gould Co. b. May 26, 1878 in Edinburgh, Scotland, coming to U.S. in 1893; was naturalized in 1907. Was a steamship purser, 1893-97, and engaged in railway construction in Alaska, 1898-1916. Mason, 33° AASR (SJ). Member of St. Alban's Conclave No. 18, Red Cross of Constantine, Bellingham, Wash.


            George Shillibeer English inventor, and first user of what is now known as the funeral hearse. He was also the pioneer in London's omnibus system, and gave that vehicle its name. Was also one of the five men (one after another) who created Britain's post office system. Member of Globe Lodge No. 23 of London.


            Ernest G. Shinner Owner of E. G. Shinner & Co., with 35 meat stores in Mich., Wis., and Iowa. b. May 22, 1883 in St. Johns, Mich. In 1921 he organized the Nippersink Lodge Assn., a resort at Genoa City, Wis. In 1947 he organized the Shinner Political Economic Research Foundation. Member of Mystic Star Lodge No. 758, Jackson Park Chapter No. 222, R.A.M., Woodlawn Commandery No. 76, K.T., and Medinah Shrine Temple, all of Chicago.


            Herbert Shipman (1869-1930) Protestant Episcopal Suffragan Bishop of New York, 1921-30. b. Aug. 3, 1869 in Lexington, Ky. Graduate of Columbia U. in 1890. Made deacon in 1894 and priest in 1895. Was rector of the Church of Heavenly Rest, N.Y.C., 1907-21. He was a chaplain of the U.S. Army in 1896; in WWI was chaplain of the 104th Field Artillery, 1917-18, and senior chaplain of the 1st Army Corps, 1918-19. A member of Holland Lodge No. 8, N.Y.C., he once served as grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of New York. d. March 23, 1930.


            Joseph Shippen (1679-1741) Scientist. b. Feb. 28, 1679 in Boston, Mass., he moved to Philadelphia in 1704. He was among the men of science in his day, and in 1727 joined Benjamin Franklin in founding the Junto, "for mutual information and the public good." Member and officer of the Grand Lodge of "Moderns" in 1831.


            Henrik Shipstead U.S. Senator from Minnesota, 1923-47. b. Jan. 8, 1881 in Burbank, Minn. Graduate of dental dept. of Northwestern U. in 1903, and practiced that profession in Glenwood, Minn, 1904-20. Was mayor of Glenwood, 1911-13. Moved to Minneapolis in 1920, where he resumed practice of dentistry. After term as senator, he retired to private life, living at Carlos, Minn. Received degrees in Crow River Lodge No. 192, Belgrade, Minn. on Dec. 19, 1903, Jan. 2, Feb. 16, 1904. Affiliated with Valley Lodge No. 174, Glenwood, Minn. on March 16, 1905.


            Robert Shirley (see under Earl of Ferrero).


            Allan Shivers Governor of Texas, 1949-56. b. Oct. 5, 1907 in Lufkin, Texas. Graduate of U. of Texas in 1931 and 1933. He practiced law in Port Arthur, Texas, 1931-49. Was state senator 11 years and lieutenant gov-


133 Floyd C. Shoemaker ernor, 1947-49. Has farming and other business interests. Received degrees in Magnolia Lodge No. 495, Woodville, Texas on Oct. 21, 1950, Aug. 2 and Oct. 19, 1951. Was knighted in Colorado Commandery No. 4, K.T. of Austin on Dec. 20, 1956, being the fifth governor of Texas to become a member of that commandery. Shriner.


            Floyd C. Shoemaker Secretary of State Historical Society of Missouri, 1915-60. b. May 7, 1886 in Kissimmee, Fla. Graduate of U. of Missouri in 1909 and 1911. Taught history and Latin at Gallatin, Mo. and political science and public law at U. of Missouri. Was assistant librarian of State Historical Society of Missouri, 191015. In his 45 years with the society, its membership rose from 315 to over 8,000, making it the largest of any such society in the U.S. He is known as the dean of historical society directors, and his vast knowledge of Missouri history earned him the title of "Mr. Missouri." He has edited the Missouri Historical Review since 1915 and written many volumes on Missouri history. Was raised in Bucklin Lodge No. 233, Bucklin, Mo. in 1907, and is presently a member of Acacia Lodge No. 602 of Columbia, Mo.


            George E. Shofner Portrait painter. b. Aug. 16, 1899 in Haley, Tenn. Has been official portrait painter, Grand Lodge of Tenn., since 1950. Raised in Libanus Lodge No. 308, Wartrace, Tenn. on March 29, 1928, and presently a member of Leila Scott Lodge No. 289, Memphis.


            Lord Sholto (see Charles Aber-dour).


            David Sholtz Governor of Florida, 1933-37. b. Oct. 6, 1891 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Graduate of Yale in 1914 and Stetson U. (Fla.) in 1915, being admitted to bar in the latter year. Member of Florida legislature in 1917. Served as states attorney and municipal judge of Daytona. Officer and director of many companies. Served as ensign in Navy in WWI. Was commander-in-chief of Military Order of World Wars in 1944-45. Affiliated with Halifax Lodge No. 81, Daytona Beach, Fla. on April 1, 1915 from Wooster Lodge No. 79, New Haven, Conn. A member of Acacia fraternity, National Sojourner, Shriner, and received the 33° AASR (SJ) in Oct., 1935.


            John Shore English inventor of the tuning fork. Was sergeant trumpeter to King George II. Member of a lodge which met at the Griffin in Newgate St., circa 1725.


            Dewey Short U.S. Congressman from Missouri for 28 years, 1928-30, 1934-56. b. April 7, 1898 in Galena, Mo. Graduate of Baker U. (Kans.). Taught for three years in Southwestern College. Served in Infantry in WWI. Defeated for congress in 1956, he was ranking Republican member of the armed services committee at that time. On Feb. 20, 1957 he was appointed assistant secretary of the Army in charge of civil functions. Member of Galena Lodge No. 515, Galena, Mo., receiving the degrees on Aug. 9, 23, Oct. 27, 1919.


            William Short (1759-1849) American diplomat. b. Sept. 30, 1759 in Spring Garden, Va. Educated at William and Mary Coll. Chosen member of executive council of Va. at an early age. When Jefferson was appointed minister to France in 1785, Short accompanied him as secretary of legation, and after Jefferson's departure, remained as charge d'affaires. His commission was the first signed by Washington as president. Was transferred to The Hague as minister resident in 1792, and on Dec. 19 of same year was assigned to Spain to treat with that government concerning the Florida and Mississippi boundaries and the navigation of the Mississippi River. Signed treaty of friendship


134 Anthony J. Showalter with Spain on Oct. 27, 1795. Attended the Grand Lodge of Virginia in Oct., 1778 as a member of Cabin Point Lodge. On Nov. 17 same year he was recorded as a visiting brother of Williamsburg Lodge No. 6, Williamsburg, Va., and was admitted a member on that night. d. Dec. 5, 1849.


            John G. Shortall (1838-1908) Lawyer and humanitarian; organized the American Humane Association in 1877 and was its president for many years. b. Sept. 20, 1838 in Dublin, Ireland, and came to U.S. when three years old. Settled in Chicago, where he studied law and was admitted to the bar. Became owner of real estate abstracts, which acquired exceptional value after the destruction of public records of deeds, etc., by the famous Chicago fire of 1871. President of Chicago Public Library three terms, and ten years a director. Member of Ashlar Lodge No. 308, Chicago. d. 1908.


            John G. Shorter (1818-1872) Governor of Alabama, 1861-63. b. in Jasper Co., Ga. Graduate of U. of Georgia in 1837, and soon afterward began law practice in Eufaula. In 1842 he was appointed state's attorney, and later served in both branches of the legislature. Appointed circuit judge in 1852, serving for nine years. Member of Harmony Lodge No. 46, Eufaula, Ala., and listed as senior warden of same in proceedings of 1854. d. May 29, 1872.


            Samuel M. Shortridge (1861-1952) U.S. Senator from California, 1921-33. b. Aug. 3, 1861 in Mount Pleasant, Iowa, moving to Calif. with his parents, who settled in San Jose in 1875. Admitted to the bar in 1884, he began practice at San Francisco. His campaign slogan was "America First and Protection for California Products." Member of Excelsior Lodge No. 166; California Chapter No. 5, R.A.M.; California Commandery No. 1, K.T.; Scottish Rite; and Islam Shrine Tern-ple, all of San Francisco. d. Jan. 14, 1952.


            George L. Shoup (1836-1904) Territorial Governor of Idaho, 1889-90; first Governor of Idaho, 1890; and first U.S. Senator from Idaho, 18901901. His statue represents Idaho in the Hall of Fame of the U.S. Capitol. b. June 15, 1836 in Kittanning, Pa., he moved with his parents to Ill, in June, 1852. Here he engaged in agricultural pursuits until 1858; moved to Colorado the following year. In Colo, he engaged in mining and mercantile pursuits until the Civil War. As a lieutenant, he did scouting duty on the Canadian, Pecos, and Red Rivers until the end of the war. In 1864 he was a member of the convention to prepare a constitution for the proposed state of Colorado. After the war he moved to Virginia City, Mont., where he was in the mercantile business, but shortly moved to Salmon City, Idaho. Here he was county treasurer, county commissioner, and superintendent of schools. He was a member of the territorial house of representatives in 1874 and territorial council in 1878. He was raised July 13, 1864 in Denver Lodge No. 5, Denver, Colorado, and became a charter member of Lemhi Lodge No. 11, Salmon City, Idaho, in 1874. Served as master of his lodge and was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Idaho in 1889. Became member of Almas Shrine Temple, Washington, D.C. in 1899. d. Dec. 21, 1904.


            Anthony J. Showalter (1858-1924) Composer and publisher. b. May 1, 1858 in Rockingham Co., Va. Studied music in New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, England, France, and Germany. Began as a teacher, compiler of school song books, and composer, in 1880. Began publishing in Dalton, Ga. in 1884. Was president of the A. J. Showalter Co., with branches in Georgia, Arkansas, Texas, and Tenn. Wrote many books on music, such as


135 Otho Shrader Work and Worship; Rudiments of Music; Showalter's Practical Harmony. His most popular composition was Leaning on the Everlasting Arms, a gospel song which was printed in more than a thousand music books. Received degrees in Dalton Lodge No. 105, Dalton, Ga. on March 25, April 22, June 20, 1889. Dimitted Dec. 11, 1911. d. Sept. 15, 1924.


            Otho Shrader (?-1811) Pioneer judge in Missouri and member of the first lodge West of the Mississippi River. He came from Sunbury, Pa. Previously a member of the old lodge at Kaskaskia, Ill., he was elected master of Louisiana Lodge No. 109 at Ste. Genevieve, Mo. in 1808.


            Milton W. Shreve (1858-1939) U.S. Congressman from Pennsylvania to 63rd Congress, 1913-15, and 66th to 72nd Congresses, 1919-33. b. May 3, 1858 in. Venango Co., Pa. Was admitted to bar in 1893, practicing in Erie, Pa. Served in state house of representatives, 1907-12, and speaker in last year. d. Dec. 23, 1939. Mason.


            Earl of Shrewsbury Name and titles in full are John George Charles Henry Alton Alexander Chetwynd, Chetwynd-Talbot the 21st Earl of Shrewsbury, Waterford and Talbot. b. in 1914, he succeeded to the title in 1921. The earldom of Shrewsbury, created in 1442, is the oldest on the English rolls, and makes its holder the premier earl of England and Ireland. The earldom of Waterford in Ireland was created in 1446. The barony of Talbot was created in 1733, and raised to an earldom in 1784. Educated at Eton, Shrewsbury served in WWII from 1939-45 as an officer of the Royal Artillery. He was the godson of the late King George V and Queen Mary. He is a member in the Province of Staffordshire, and in 1953 was appointed senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of England.


            Thomas J. Shryock (1851-1918) Served as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Maryland for 32 years, the longest ever served by any grand master in the United States. Had been elected to his 33rd term when he died. b. Feb. 27, 1851 in Baltimore. Appointment to the staff of Governor Henry Lloyd earned him the honorary title of "General." He was in the lumber business, and held many public offices, including police commissioner of Baltimore and state treasurer of Maryland. Was president of the Iron Mountain and Greenbrier Railroad. Was a director of bank, power, and telephone companies. He was first president of the George Washington National Masonic Memorial; treasurer of Supreme Council, 33° AASR (SJ) and sovereign grand inspector general in Md.; grand treasurer of the General Grand Chapter, R.A.M.; was past grand high priest of Grand Chapter, past grand master of the grand council, and past grand commander of the grand commandery in Maryland. d. Feb. 3, 1918.


            William A. Shullenberger President International Convention, Disciples of Christ, 1941-42. b. June 10, 1881 in Shippensburg, Pa. Graduate of Drake U. (Ia.) in 1904. Ordained to ministry in Christian Church (Disciples) in 1906. Served pastorates in Grant City, Mo., 1906-08, Trenton, Mo., 1908-10, Mexico, Mo., 1910-16, Des Moines, Iowa, 1916-26, and Central Christian Church, Indianapolis, Ind., since 1926. Special lecturer on theology at Drake U. and Butler U. Trustee of Drake and Butler universities. Received 1st degree in Grant City Lodge No. 66, Grant City, Mo. in 1908 and 2nd and 3rd degrees in Capitol Lodge No. 110, Des Moines, Iowa in 1918. Presently a member of Mystic Tie Lodge No. 398, Indianapolis, hid. (since 1926). 32° AASR (SJ) at Des Moines, Iowa.


            136 Jan (Jean) Sibelius Francis R. Shunk (1788-1848) Governor of Pennsylvania, 1844-48. b. Aug. 7, 1788 in Trappe, Pa. Was teaching school at age of 15. Became a clerk in the office of the state surveyor-general, and while employed there, studied law. Was clerk of the state house of representatives for many years. In 1838 he was appointed secretary of state; in 1842, established himself as a lawyer at Pittsburgh. Was elected governor in 1844 and again in 1847, but was forced to resign on July 9, 1848 because of illness. He died on July 30. Became a member of Perseverance Lodge No. 21, Harrisburg, Pa., on Sept. 9, 1818. Was secretary in 1819 and master in 1820.


            Herbert L. Shuttleworth, II President of Mohawk Carpet Mills, Inc. from 1952. b. Nov. 2, 1913 in Amsterdam, N.Y. Graduate of Dartmouth in 1935 and M.I.T. in 1937. With Mohawk Mills since 1937. Has been a director since 1940; vice president, 1940-42; executive vice president, 1945-52. Served as major in Quartermaster, U.S. Army, 1942-45. Now president of Mohasco Industries, Inc. Received degrees in Welcome Lodge No. 289, Amsterdam, N.Y. on Feb. 8, 22, and March 8, 1938.


            Count Pavel Andreevich Shuvalov (1773-1823) Aide-de-camp to Emperor Alexander I, q.v.; brave soldier; philanthropist. He was elected ruler of the Russian Directorial Grand Lodge in 1814 to replace Boeber, q.v. The grand lodge was so split with dissension that Shuvalov declined the post, and Count V. V. Mussin-Pushkin-Bruce was elected in his place.


            Jan (Jean) Sibelius (1865-1957) Finland's greatest composer. b. Dec. 8, 1865 in Hameinlinna (Tavestahus). His full name was Johan Julius Christian Sibelius, but he later took the christian name of his uncle. At the age of ten he composed two pieces ofmusic, Drops of Water and Aunt Evelina's Life. He thought of studying law, but gave it up in favor of music. He first studied violin under Gustav Levander. In 1888 Gunnar Wenner-berg's tale, The Watersprite, was performed in Helsingfors, the 23-yearold Sibelius writing its central theme. He composed seven symphonies, a violin concerto, and much chamber music and piano music. Best known are his two great orchestral tone poems: En Sage, 1892, and Finlandia, 1900. Sibelius was the greatest Masonic composer since Mozart, q.v. On Aug. 1, 1822 the Czar of Russia issued an order closing all lodges in what is now Finland. Nearly 100 years later, Finland gained its independence, and in 1918 certain Finnish Masons who had been initiated in the U.S. returned to Finland and petitioned the Grand Lodge of New York for a lodge at Helsinki. It was granted, and in 1922 Grand Master Arthur S. Tompkins visited Finland, where on August 18th, in the old Parliament House, the three degrees were conferred on 27 leading citizens of Finland, including Sibelius. The Finnish lodges now work under the ritual of the Grand Lodge of New York, translated verbatim into Finnish. Almost immediately, Sibelius and others formed Suomi Lodge No. 1 at Helsinki. Sibelius was the grand organist of the Grand Lodge of Finland, and in 1927 he composed a series of nine vocal and instrumental numbers, titled Masonic Ritual Music. It included a brief adagio for piano, five vocal solos with piano accompaniment, as march for piano with two trios, one of which has an additional voice part, an a cappella choral for male quartet, and a funeral march for organ. This work virtually escaped notice for the next seven years. In 1935 the music, in the form of a highly prized manuscript copy, was presented to the Grand Lodge of New


137 Theodore A. Sick York by the Grand Lodge of Finland, in token of friendship and brotherly love. It was signed by Sibelius. It also bore the request that the music be used for Masonic purposes only. It was first performed in the U.S. on Sept. 30, 1935 in the American Lodge of Research. In the same year, Sibelius received the annual Distinguished Achievement award from the Grand Lodge of New York. The first edition of the Masonic Ritual Music was published (for Masons only) in 1936. The second edition, in 1950, contained extensive revisions by the composer and was enlarged by three additional pieces, including the theme of the famous Finlandia, with Masonic words. Sibelius died September 20, 1957 at the age of 92. He had been blind several years preceding his death.


            Theodore A. Sick President of Security Mutual Life Insurance Co., Lincoln, Nebr. b. Sept. 14, 1897 in Fontanelle, Nebr. Began as clerk with Security Mutual in 1917. Was vice president and treasurer, 1928-42, director from 1937. President since 1943. Member of Lancaster Lodge No. 54; 32° AASR (SJ); Sesostris Shrine Temple; and Jesters, all of Lincoln, Nebr.


            Horatio G. Sickel (1817-1890) Union Major General (brevet) in Civil War. b. April 3, 1817 in Belmont, Pa. He was in the coach-making business. In 1848 he invented a new method of producing artificial light, and became an extensive manufacturer of lamps. He entered Federal Service in June, 1861, as a colonel of the 3rd Regiment of Pa. reserves, and succeeded General George G. Meade in the command of the brigade. Commanded a brigade in the Kanawha Valley expedition of 1864, and another in the 5th Army Corps until the close of the war. He participated in the principal battles of the Army of the Potomac,losing his left elbow joint, besides receiving two other wounds. Breveted brigadier general in Oct., 1864 and major general in March, 1865. Member and past master of St. John's Lodge No. 115, Philadelphia, and during the war a member of the Lodge of the Potomac, U.D., of the 3rd Regiment, Pa. Vols. d. April 18, 1890.


            Vernon R. Sickel Judge, Supreme Court of South Dakota from 1944. b. Aug. 24, 1887 in Farmersburg, Iowa. Graduate of Drake U. (Ia.) in 1909. Admitted to bar in that year, and practiced law at Faulkton, S. Dak. until 1917. From 1922-37 he practiced at Mitchell. Served as circuit judge, 1937-44. Raised March 16, 1911 in Faulkton Lodge No. 95, Faulkton, S. Dak.


            Kim Sigler Governor of Michigan, 1947-50. b. May 2, 1894 in Schuyler, Nebr. Graduate of Detroit Law School in 1918 and admitted to bar in that year. First associated with law firm in Detroit, but was in private practice at Hastings, Mich., 1922-41. From 1942-46 practiced in Battle Creek. Was special prosecutor of the Carr-Sigler grand jury for investigation of legislative graft in state government, 1943-46. Member of Hastings Lodge No. 52, Hastings, Mich., receiving degrees, Sept. 21, Oct. 19, and Nov. 9, 1929.


            Robert L. F. Sikes U.S. Congressman to 77th-86th Congresses, 1941-60, from 3rd Florida dist. b. June 3, 1906 in Isabella, Ga. Graduate of U. of Georgia in 1927 and U. of Florida in 1929. Was in agricultural and industrial research, 1928-32. Published the Okaloosa News-Journal, Crestview, Fla., and other newspapers, 1933-40. Served in European Theater in WWII. Member and past master of Concord Lodge No. 50, Crestview, Fla. Also member of Crestview Chapter No. 40, R.A.M., and Crestview Commandery No. 25, K.T. Other memberships in-


138 George S. Silzer elude Zelica Grotto, Pensacola; Morocco Shrine Temple, Jacksonville; and National Sojourners, Eglin AFB, Fla.


            Milton Sills (1882-1930) Stage and motion picture actor. b. Jan. 12, 1882 in Chicago, Ill. Graduate of U. of Chicago in 1903, and took year and a half graduate work in philosophy at same university. Made his stage debut in Dora Thorne in New Palestine, Ohio, in 1906. Had leads in This Woman and This Man; A Happy Marriage; The Servant in the House; The Fighting Hope; Diplomacy; Mother; The Rack; The Governor's Lady, etc. His first motion picture was The Pit, in 1914. This was followed by Behold My Wife; The Great Moment; Adam's Rib; As Man Desires; Skin Deep; The Sea Hawk; The Knock Out; Men of Steel; Hard Boiled Haggerty; and others. Was a frequent speaker on screen art, literature, and religion. Was a member of Pacific Lodge No. 233, N.Y.C. (an actors' lodge) and was the first vice president and charter member of the "233 Club" in California, which was exclusively for Masons in the film industry and named for the New York actors' lodge. d. Sept. 15, 1930.


            Luiz Alves d lima e Silva (see Duque de Codas).


            H. Percy Silver (?-1934) Protestant Episcopal priest who was elected bishop three times—declining each time. b. in Philadelphia. Graduate of General Theological Sem., N.Y. in 1894, and also of Hobart College. Ordained deacon in 1894 and priest in 1895. Served churches in Omaha and Lincoln, Nebr., 1894-1901. Was an Army chaplain, 1901-10; secretary of the missionary department of the Southwest, 1910-13. Was elected bishop coadjutor of Kansas, but withdrew. Was elected bishop coadjutor of Texas, but declined. In 1927 was elected bishop of Wyoming, but de-dined. He was chaplain of U.S. Military Academy, 1913-18. From 1918 until his death, Dec. 15, 1934, he was rector of the Church of the Incarnation, New York. Mason and KCCH in Scottish Rite.


            David Silverman (1903-1959) Executive editor of Minneapolis Star. b. April 19, 1903 in Minneapolis, Minn. Was with the Duluth News Tribune, 1922-24, and with the Minneapolis Star since 1924. Was managing editor, 1934-56, and since that date, executive editor. Member of Plymouth Lodge No. 160, Minneapolis, receiving degrees on June 7, 28 and July 12, 1943. d. July 28, 1959.


            Merwin H. Silverthorn Lieutenant General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. Sept. 22, 1896 in Minneapolis, Minn. Enlisted in the Marine Corps in 1917, commissioned the following year, advanced to major general in 1949, lieutenant general in 1954, and retired in that year. Served overseas in WWI; was chief of police, Port au Prince, Haiti, 1925. Member of joint U.S. strategic comm., Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1942-43; chief of amphibious warfare division, Army and Navy Coll., 1943; chief of staff, III Amphibious Corps, Pacific, 1944-45; chief of staff, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, 1945-46; commanding general of troop training, amphibious force of Atlantic fleet, 1946-47. Assistant commandant of Marine Corps, 1950-52, and commanding general of recruiting depot, Parris Island, S. Car., 1952-54. Raised Oct. 19, 1927 in John A. Lejeune Lodge No. 350, Quantico, Va. Served twice as senior warden. Member of Quantico Chapter No. 44, National Sojourners.


            George S. Silzer (1870-1940) Governor of New Jersey, 1923-26. b. April 14, 1870 in New Brunswick, N.J. Admitted to bar in 1892. Served in state senate, 1907-12, and was county prosecutor and circuit judge. Chairman of


139 Franklin Simmons board of two banks and trustee of a third. Chairman of Port of New York Authority, 1926-28. Made a Freemason, March 26, 1894, in Union Lodge No. 19, New Brunswick, N.J. d. Oct. 16, 1940.


            Franklin Simmons (1839-1913) American artist and sculptor. b. Jan. 11, 1839 in Webster, Maine. After some preliminary work in portraiture in Maine, he spent the winters of 1865-66 in Washington, D.C., with sittings for Admirals Farragut and Porter and generals Grant, Meade, Sheridan, Sherman, Thomas, Hooker, and others. After 1868 he lived mostly in Rome, Italy. He executed about 100 portrait busts in marble; about 15 public monuments, including statues of William King, Roger Williams, Gov. Pierpont of Va., the G.A.R. monument of General Grant for national capitol, and equestrian monument of Gen. Logan in Iowa Circle, Washington, D.C. In Portland, Maine, he executed statues of Longfellow and soldiers' monument. Was decorated three times by the King of Italy. Member of St. Johns Lodge No. 1, Providence, R.I. d. Dec. 8, 1913.


            Furnifold M. Simmons (1854-1940) U.S. Senator and Representative from North Carolina. b. Jan. 20, 1854 near Pollocksville, N. Car. Graduate of Trinity Coll. (now Duke U.) in 1873, studied law and admitted to bar in 1875. Moved to New Bern, N. Car. in 1876, where he began practice. Served in 50th congress, 188789. Appointed collector of internal revenue, 1893-97. Served as U.S. senator from 1901-31. A member of St. John's Lodge No. 3, New Bern, N. Car., he received his degrees on April 3, May 28, July 15, 1878; at the time of his death, April 30, 1940, had been a Freemason for nearly 62 years.


            J. Edward Simmons (1841-1910) President of the New York Stock Ex-change, 1884-85; banker, financier and corporation president. b. Sept. 9, 1841 in Troy, N.Y. Graduate of Williams Coll. in 1862 and Albany Law School in 1863. Practiced law in Troy and N.Y.C. Was president of the Fourth National Bank of N.Y. from 1888, and also president of the Panama Railroad Co., Columbia Steamship Co., and New York Clearing House. Was president of Chamber of Commerce, State of New York, from 1907. Initiated, Dec. 5, 1864, in Mount Zion Lodge No. 311, Troy, N.Y., affiliating with Kane Lodge No. 454, N.Y.C. ten years later. Was master of the latter in 1877 and again in 1878. Exalted in Jerusalem Chapter No. 8, R.A.M., Nov. 20, 1874, and knighted in Coeur de Leon Commandery No. 23, Oct. 1, 1878. Was commander of same in 1881. Received Scottish Rite degrees in Dec. 1875, and in 1885 was created 33° AASR (NJ). Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of New York, 1883-84. d. 1910.


            Robert G. Simmons U.S. Congressman; Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Nebraska since 1938. b. Dec. 25, 1891 in Scotts Bluff Co., Nebr. Graduate of U. of Nebraska in 1915. Began law practice at Gering in 1915. Was U.S. congressman to 68th-72nd congresses, 1923-33, from 6th Nebr. dist. Was Republican nominee for U.S. senate in 1934 and 1936. In WWI he enlisted in the Air Service of U.S. Army and qualified as a spherical balloon pilot and balloon observer. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1918, he commanded the 63rd and 74th Balloon companies. Member of Robert Furnas Lodge No. 265, Scottsbluff, Nebr. since 1917. Received 33° AASR (SJ), and is member of Sesostris Shrine Temple at Lincoln, Nebr.


            William G. Simms (1806-1870) American poet and novelist. b. April 17, 1806 in Charleston, S. Car., living there his entire life. Aspired to a


140 Howard E. Simpson medical career, but studied law at 18. He never practiced law, but became interested in writing poems. He first published Lyrical and Other Poems at Charleston in 1827. The following year he became editor and part owner of the Charleston City Gazette. It proved a bad investment, and when it failed in 1833, he was left in poverty. He then devoted himself entirely to literature. In 1832 he published the best and longest of his poems, Atalantis, a Tale of the Sea. Gradually he turned to novels and this is where he gained his literary standing. They were usually historical novels with local color and wholly Southern in tone. The Yemassee is considered his best, although he wrote a score of others. A fine bronze bust of Simms by Ward was unveiled at Charleston in 1879. Edgar Allen Poe called him the "best novelist America has produced after Cooper." He served as a member of the state legislature for many years, and in 1846 was defeated for lieutenant governor by one vote. He was admitted a member of Orange Lodge No. 14, Charleston, S. Car., on Feb. 12, 1866. He once wrote a poem of seven stanzas of eight lines each, entitled Epistle to a Brother in. Affliction. d. June 11, 1870.


            Joseph Simon (1851-1935) U.S. Senator from Oregon, 1897-1903. b. Feb. 7, 1851 in Bechtheim, Germany, coming to U.S. with parents in 1857 and settling in Oregon. Admitted to the bar in 1872 and began practice in Portland. Active in Republican state politics, he was a member of the state senate from 1880-98 and chairman of the central committee. Was delegate to two national conventions, and a member of the national committee, 1892-96. Was mayor of Portland, 1909-11. Member and past master of Portland Lodge No. 55, Portland, Oreg., he was a 33° AASR (SJ). d. Feb. 14, 1935.


            Robert Simple Editor of The Californian, first newspaper published in California. He was first treasurer of Benicia Lodge No. 5, and donated the lumber used in building the first Masonic hall in that state.


            Gordon Simpson Lawyer; Associate Justice, Supreme Court of Texas, 1945-49; head of War Crimes Commission to Germany for Department of Army in 1948. b. Oct. 30, 1894 in Gilmer, Texas. Graduate of U. of Texas in 1915 and 1919. Practiced law first in Pecos, and then at Tyler. Member of lower house, 1923-27. Elected to supreme court bench while in Italy with Air Force. In WWI he was a lieutenant in the Army, and in WWII a lieutenant colonel in judge advocate general dept. In private law practice at Dallas since 1949. President and director of General American Oil Co., Texas, and director of several oil-associated companies. Received degrees in St. John's Lodge No. 53, Tyler, Texas in 1919, dimitting in 1925 to become a charter member of Tyler Lodge No. 1233, Tyler, Texas; was senior deacon in 1935. Suspended NPD in 1939 and reinstated in 1944.


            Howard E. Simpson President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad since 1953. b. March 15, 1896 in Jersey City, N.J. Began with Central Railroad Co. of N.J. as a clerk in 1912, advancing to assistant general passenger agent, N.Y., in 1926. Became associated with the B. & 0. in 1931 as general Eastern passenger agent; assistant to general passenger traffic manager at Baltimore, 1936-41; assistant passenger traffic manager, 1941-44; general passenger traffic manager, Baltimore, 1944-46; assistant vice president of traffic, 1946; vice president of traffic, 1947-52; executive vice president of the B. & 0., 1952-53; and president since 1953. He is also president of various affiliated corporations and a director of several other


141 Jeremiah (Jerry) Simpson corporations, including Libby-OwensFord Glass Co., Maryland Casualty Co., Maryland Shipbuilding & Dry-dock Co., and Fidelity-Baltimore National Bank. Member of Zeredatha Lodge No. 131, Jersey City, N.J. and 32° ASSR (NJ) in N.J.


            Jeremiah (Jerry) Simpson (18421905) U.S. Congressman to 52nd-53rd Congresses, 1891-95, and 55th Congress, 1897-99, from Kansas. b. March 31, 1842 on Prince Edward Island, Canada, moving with parents to Oneida Co., N.Y. in 1848. Went to sea at age of 14 and followed nautical pursuits from 1856-79. Served in Civil War in 12th Regiment, III. Vol. Inf. Moved to Barber Co., Kansas in 1878 and settled near Medicine Lodge, where he engaged in farming and stock raising. Admitted to Delat Lodge No. 77, Medicine Lodge, Kans. on June 18, 1887. Was treasurer in 1888; suspended on Nov. 28, 1903 and restored Oct. 7, 1905. Received Scottish Rite degrees April 16, 1901. d. Oct. 22, 1905, 15 days after he was reinstated in the lodge; buried Ma-sonically.


            John Simpson Brigadier General of Militia in American Revolution. Member of "the first lodge in Pitt County, North Carolina" (from proceedings of 1938).


            Oramel H. Simpson (1870-1932) Governor of Louisiana, 1926-28. b. March 20. Served as secretary of the La. state senate from 1908-24, being elected lieutenant governor in the latter year. Received degrees in Mount Moriah Lodge No. 59 of New Orleans on June 19, July 3, 27, 1894, dimitting in 1905 to become a charter member of Osiris Lodge No. 300. Was master of Mount Moriah in 1902 and 1904. Was charter master of Osiris Lodge. Elected grand junior warden of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana in 1905. 32° AASR and member of Jerusalem Shrine Temple, New Or-leans. d. Nov. 17, 1932 and buried by Osiris Lodge.


            Robert T. Simpson Justice of Supreme Court of Alabama since 1944. b. Sept. 2, 1893 in Florence, Ala. Graduate of U. of Alabama in 1915 and 1917. Was school teacher, laborer, and timekeeper before being admitted to bar in 1919. Practiced at Florence, Ala. until 1929, when he became solicitor of the 11th judicial circuit and, from 1940-44, judge of court of appeals of the state. Served in W WI as Infantry captain in A.E.F., participating in engagements at Lucey, Marbache, St. Mihiel, and Meuse-Argonne. Member and past master of Florence Lodge No. 14, Florence, Ala.; grand orator of Grand Lodge of Alabama in 1958. Member of Cyrus Chapter No. 6, Florence; National Sojourner and O.E.S.


            William L. Sims, rr President of Colgate-Palmolive Co., soap manufacturers, 1955-57. b. Oct. 17, 1896 in Birmingham, Ala. Farmed at Eden, Ala. in 1913-16; then in manufacturing, sales, and advertising until 1927. Opened market for Colgate-Palmolive in Italy, 1927-29, and was continental European general manager at Paris, 1930-40. Returned to U.S. as assistant to the president; was vice president and director in charge of foreign department, 1945; executive vice president, 1952-55. Member of executive committee and president of Colgate-Palmolive International in 1953. Now a citrus grower at Orlando, Fla. Served in Army in W Wi. Member of Temple Lodge No. 636, Birmingham, Ala. and received 32° AASR (SJ) in Alabama Consistory No. 1, Birmingham on Nov. 18, 1921.


            James H. Sinclair (1871-1943) U.S. Congressman to 66th-73rd Congresses, 1919-35, from North Dakota. b. Oct. 9, 1871 in St. Mary's, Canada. Brought to U.S. at age of six. Was superintendent of schools at Cooperstown,


142 Thomas U. Sisson N. Dak., 1896-98; registrar of deeds, Cooperstown, 1899-1905; engaged in farming and real estate from 1908. Member of state house of representatives, 1915-17. Received degrees in Northern Light Lodge No. 45, Cooperstown, N. Dak. on April 2, May 7, June 4, 1897 and was master in 1903. Dimitted in Nov., 1913 to affiliate with Kenmare Lodge No. 70, Kenmare, N. Dak., and served as master in 1917. Retained his membership here until his death, Sept. 5, 1943.


            Bernard S. Sines President of Southern Pacific Railroad Co. of Mexico since 1948; vice president of Texas & New Orleans R.R. Co. 194254, and executive vice president since 1955. b. Aug. 8, 1901 in Detroit, Mich. Graduate of Cornell in 1922 and A.M.P. from Harvard in 1953. Started as chainman for Union Pacific in 1921 and instrumentman for Illinois Central, 1922-24. With Southern Pacific since 1925, successively as trainmaster, assistant superintendent, superintendent, and vice president of the Mexican division. Member of El Paso Lodge No. 130, El Paso, Texas, since 1926.


            Maharaja Dhuleep Singh (see under Dhuleep).


            Sir Yadavendra Singhji The Maharajah of Patiala. In 1957 he was the district grand master of Northern India under British constitution. Visited U.S. that year and was a guest at the dinner in N.Y.C., celebrating the centennial of the Scottish Rite in that city.


            Gordon G. Singleton Educator, college president. b. June 15, 1890 in Bluffton, Ga. Graduate of U. of Georgia in 1919, Columbia U., 1924 and 1925; studied at Cambridge U., England. Was principal and superintendent of schools in Springvale, Cuthbert, Shellman, Stapleton, Pavo, and Cordele, Ga., 1909-23. With Ga. state department of education, 1925-35. Was president of Mary Hardin-Baylor Coll., Belton, Texas, 1937-52, and professor of higher education at Baylor U., Waco, Texas, since that date. Affiliated with Belton Lodge No. 166, Belton, Texas on July 11, 1940 from McDonald Lodge No. 172, Georgia. On Aug. 28, 1953 he affiliated with J. H. Gurley Lodge No. 337, Waco, Texas. Shriner.


            William I. Sirovich (1882-1939) U.S. Congressman to 70th-75th Congresses, 1927-39, from 14th N.Y. dist. b. March 18, 1882 in York, Pa. Graduate of Coll. of City of New York in 1902, with Masters and M.D. degrees from Columbia U. in 1906. Began medical practice in N.Y.C. Was superintendent of the Peoples Hospital from 1917. Official arbitrator in labor disputes. Member of Perfect Ashlar Lodge No. 604, N.Y.C., receiving degrees on May 23, June 13, 27, 1912. d. Dec. 17, 1939.


            Fred J. Sisson (1879-1949) U.S. Congressman to 73rd and 74th Congresses, 1933-37, from 33rd N.Y. dist. b. March 31, 1879 in Wellsbridge, N.Y. Graduate of Hamilton Coll. in 1904. Practiced law at Utica, N.Y. from 1911. Was active in legislation to keep U.S. out of war. Member of Sconondoa Lodge No. 814, Vernon, N.Y., receiving degrees on Feb. 20, March 6, 20, 1906. d. Oct. 16, 1949.


            Thomas U. Sisson (1869-1923) U.S. Congressman to 61st-67th Congresses, 1909-23, from 4th Miss. dist. b. Sept. 22, 1869 in Attala Co., Miss. Graduate of Southwestern Presbyterian U. (Tenn.) in 1890. Was principal of schools at Carthage and Kosciusko, Miss. until 1893; admitted to the bar in 1894, he practiced at Memphis, Tenn. for two years and then at Winona, Miss. Served in state senate; defeated for governor in 1907. Raised in 1893 in Trinity Lodge No. 88, Kosciusko, Miss. dimitting in 1896 to affiliate with Winona Lodge No. 48,


143 Richard B. "Red" Skelton Winona, Miss. Started in grand lodge line in 1902 as junior grand warden and was grand master in 1904. d. Sept. 27, 1923.


            Richard B. "Red" Skelton Comedian. b. July 18, 1913 in Vincennes, Ind. Began acting in a medicine show at age of ten and was successively with a tent show, minstrel show, on a show boat, a clown in Hagenbeck & Wallace Circus, and on burlesque circuit. Made Broadway debut in 1937; radio debut on Rudy Vallee program in 1937, and first motion picture appearance in Having a Wonderful Time in 1938. He has since appeared in many movies including Ship Ahoy; I Dood It; DuBarry Was a Lady; Thousands Cheer; Bathing Beauty; The Show Off; Merton of the Movies; The Fuller Brush Man; A Southern Yankee; Neptune's Daughter; Excuse My Dust; The Clown; etc. His first radio program was "Red Skelton's Scrapbook of Satire" in 1942. Since 1951 he has starred on television in The Red Skelton Show. Was raised in Vincennes Lodge No. 1, Vincennes, Ind. in 1939. Member of Al Malaikah Shrine Temple, Los Angeles.


            John Skene Claimed by some to be the first Mason in America. He was raised in Aberdeen Lodge No. 1 (27 on their roll) in Aberdeen, Scotland in 1682. He came to America in October, 1682, settling at Burlington, N.J. He was deputy governor of West Jersey from 1685 until his death in 1690, James Sketchley English printer and publisher at Birmingham; was the originator of Masonic coins and tokens. He made the first of these to commemorate the election of the Prince of Wales as grand master in Sept., 1794. They were so superior to the coins in use at that time that they became readily accepted as ordinary money. Thousands of them were placed in circulation. All coins werewithdrawn from circulation in 1817 by a government order.


            Alexander Slade Author of The Free Mason Examin'd, a curious and rare "exposure" printed in 1754. It differs from others of the 18th century in that the ceremonies described in its catechism center around the building of the Tower of Babel under Nimrod. Nothing is known of the author, who described himself as "late master of three regular lodges in the city of Norwich." Six editions were published in 1758, and there were also Irish and American editions.


            Robert L. Slagle (1865-1920) President of South Dakota A. & M. College, 1906-14, and president of University of South Dakota, 1914-20. b. March 17, 1865 in Hanover, Pa. Graduate of Lafayette in 1887, 1890, and Johns Hopkins in 1894. First associated with food studies at Middletown, Conn. After 1895 he was a professor of chemistry in South Dakota colleges. Raised March 21, 1899 in Rapid City Lodge No. 25, Rapid City, S. Dak., and was master of same in 1902. d. Jan. 29, 1920.


            James H. Slater (1826-1899) U.S. Congressman and Senator from Oregon. b. Dec. 28, 1826 near Springfield, Ill. Moved to Calif. in 1849 and settled in Corvallis, Oreg. in 1850. Admitted to the bar in 1854. Was member of the territorial assembly in 1857-58 and state house of representatives in 1859. He published the Oregon Weekly Union at Corvallis in 1859-61. Served as congressman to 42nd congress, 1871-73, and as U.S. senator from 1879-85. Resumed law practice at La Grande, Oreg., where he died, Jan. 28, 1899, and was buried in the Masonic cemetery. However, Oregon Grand Lodge has no record of his membership.


            Albert E. Sleeper (1862-1934) Governor of Michigan, 1917-20. b. Dec.


            144 Michael P. Small


31, 1862 in Bradford, Vt. Was president of banks in Yale, Bad Axe, Marlette, and Ubley, Mich. Served as state treasurer, 1909-13. Received degrees in Lexington Lodge No. 61, Lexington, Mich. on March 9, 16 and May 25, 1892. Affiliated with Verona Lodge No. 365, Bad Axe, Mich. on Dec. 14, 1921. d. May 13, 1934.


            Charles H. Sloan (1863-1946) U.S. Congressman to 62nd-65th, 1911-19, and 71st, 1929-31, Congresses from 4th Nebr. dist. b. May 2, 1863 in Monticello, Iowa. Graduate of Iowa State Ag. Coll. in 1884. Was superintendent of schools at Fairmont, Nebr., 1884-87, admitted to the bar in 1887, and practiced at Fairmont until 1891. After that date he practiced in Geneva. Was author and advocate of legislation for eradication of tuberculosis in cows and cholera in hogs. Member of Geneva Lodge No. 79, Geneva, Nebr., and Triune Chapter No. 41, R.A.M. of same city. A Knight Templar and member of Scottish Rite. d. June 2, 1946.


            John D. Sloat (1781?-1867) U.S. Naval officer. b. July 26, 1781 at Stratsburg, near Goshen, Rockland Co., N.Y. (Another source states b. in 1780 in New York City.) Entered Navy as a midshipman on Feb. 12, 1800, serving until May 21, 1801. Reentered the Navy as a sailing master in 1812; served on the frigate United States with Decatur and participated in the capture of the British frigate Macedonian. The United States was subsequently blockaded in the Thames River, Conn. until the end of the war. He was in command of the Grampus suppressing piracy in the West Indies, capturing several ships, and finally, the pirate chief Colfrecinas, the last of the pirates, in 1825. Promoted to captain in 1837, he was commandant of the navy yard at Portsmouth, N.H. from 1840-44. In 1844-46 he was in command of the Pacific squadron. On July 7, 1846 he placed the U.S. flag on a custom house at Monterrey and took possession of that Mexican territory which is now Calif., for the U.S. He returned to Norfolk, Va. in 1847, where he commanded the navy yard until 1851. Was placed on the reserve list in 1855 and retired in 1861. Promoted to commodore in 1862 and real admiral in 1866, while on the retired list. He was admitted a member of St. Andrew's Lodge No. 3, N.Y.C. on May 13, 1800, and "declared off" July 2, 1800. The Grand Lodge of New York has the certificate issued to him by St. Andrew's Lodge. Evidently, he later became a member of St. Nicholas Lodge No. 321, N.Y.C. and was buried Masonically by this lodge and Tompkins Lodge No. 471. d. Nov. 28, 1867.


            Frederick P. Small (1875-1958) President of American Express Company, 1923-44 and director since 1944. b. Nov. 28, 1875 in Augusta, Maine. With the American Express from 1896 and a director from 1918. Also a director of many associated companies. Member of Constitution Lodge No. 241, N.Y.C. Exalted in Bergen Chapter No. 40, R.A.M., Hackensack, N.J. and on Jan. 2, 1906 affiliated with Constitution Chapter No. 732, N.Y.C. Member of Merita Commandery No. 13, K.T., Paterson, N.J. and life member of Salaam Shrine Temple, Newark, N.J., being No. 732 on roster.


            John Small A British officer of the American Revolution, who is said to have been acquainted with General Putnam from the French and Indian Wars. There is a tradition that when Small was once a close target for American marksmen, "Old Put" struck up a rifle barrel and shouted, "Spare that officer, for he is as dear to me as a brother.”


            Michael P. Small (1831-1892) Union Brigadier General (brevet) in Civil


145 Robert 0. Small War. b. Aug. 9, 1831 in Harrisburg, Pa. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1855, and assigned to frontier duty. Served as chief commissary and quartermaster at Rolla, Mo. from Sept., 1861 to Jan., 1863; as chief commissary of the 13th Army Corps. Was supervising commissary officer of states of and Ind., 1863-64, and chief commissary of department of Va. and N. Car. at Fortress Monroe, supplying the armies operating against Richmond. Became brevet colonel in 1865 and brevet brigadier general later the same year. From Oct., 1884 until retirement he was with commissary at Baltimore, Md. Member of York Lodge No. 266, York, Pa. d. Aug. 1, 1892.


            Robert 0. Small Vice President of Chicago, Northwestern Railroad, 195255; now Executive Consultant. b. Aug. 10, 1889 in Deer Creek, Ill. With the Northwestern since 1910; was successively general agent at Indianapolis and Philadelphia; general freight agent, Chicago; freight traffic manager, traffic manager, general freight and traffic manager, and assistant to vice president. From 195254 he was vice president in charge of rates, and since 1954 has been vice president of traffic. Mason, 32° AASR and Shriner.


            Sam Small (1851-1931) Journalist and evangelist. b. July 3, 1851 in Knoxville, Tenn. Graduate of Emory and Henry Coll. (Va.) in 1871 and 1887. Ph.D. from Taylor U. (Ind.) in 1894 and D.D. from Ohio Northern U. same year. Was secretary to President Andrew Johnson during his post-presidential political campaigns. Was on the staff of the Atlanta Constitution from 1875. Was the founder of the Norfolk (Va.) Daily Pilot, and later, of the Daily Oklahoman, at Oklahoma City. He entered evangelistic work at Atlanta in 1885 and was associated in many campaignswith Sam Jones; later alone, he lectured on reform. When only 14 years old he served as a reserve soldier of the Confederate army (Jan.-Apr., 1865). In Spanish-American War was a chaplain of the 3rd U.S. Vol. Engineers. Mason. d. Nov. 21, 1931.


            Robert Smalls (1839-1915) Negro U.S. Congressman and Naval captain in Civil War. b. April 5, 1839 in Beaufort, S. Car., moving to Charleston in 1851. Was appointed pilot in the U.S. Navy and served in that capacity on the monitor Keokuk in the attack on Fort Sumter. Promoted to captain for gallant and meritorious conduct in 1863, he was placed in command of the Planter, and served until that vessel was placed out of commission in 1866. Returned to Beaufort after war, and was member of state constitutional convention in 1868, state house of representatives in 1868, and state senate, 1870-72. Served in 44th-45th, 1875-79, congresses; 48th-49th congresses, 1884-87; and also, having successfully contested election of a congressman to 47th congress, served from July, 1882-March, 1883. Was collector of the port of Beaufort, 18871913. A Prince Hall Freemason. d. Feb. 22, 1915.


            William Smallwood (1732-1792) Major General of American Revolution; Governor of Maryland, 1785-88. b. in Kent Co., Md. Elected colonel of the Maryland battalion on Jan. 2, 1776, and on July 10 joined Washington in N.Y. Took an active part in Battle of Brooklyn Heights, and bore the brunt of the fight at White Plains. For this he was appointed brigadier general, Oct. 23, 1776. Fought at Fort Washington, and saved the day at Germantown in Oct. 1777. Won new laurels in the Battle of Camden. In Sept. 1780 he was appointed major general, but after the removal of Gates, he refused to serve under Baron Steuben, his senior officer.


            146 Benjamin Smith Nevertheless he did serve until Nov. 15, 1783. No proof of his Masonic membership, but traditionally is considered a member of Military Lodge No. 27 of the Maryland line. d. Feb. 14, 1792.


            Jacob E. Smart Major General, U.S. Air Force. b. May 31, 1909 in Ridgeland, S. Car. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1931, and rose through grades to major general in 1953. From 1931-55 he served in various posts in U.S. and Europe. Since 1955 he has been assistant vice chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force in Washington. Made a Master Mason at sight on Dec. 30, 1955, by the grand master of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina in a special communication of American Lodge No. 98 of Ridgeland, his birthplace.


            Graham B. Smedley (1879-1954) Justice, Supreme Court of Texas, 1945-54. b. Nov. 10, 1879 in Millersburg, Ky. Graduate of Georgetown Coll. (Ky.) in 1901 and U. of Virginia, 1904. Practiced law in Dallas, 1905-07, and Midland, 1907-13. Was assistant attorney general of Texas at Austin, 1913-18, and practiced in that city, 1918-25. From 1925-29 he practiced at Wichita Falls, and at Fort Worth, 1929-33. Member of Hill City Lodge No. 456, Austin, Texas, receiving degrees on July 19, Oct. 1 and 29, 1921. 32° AASR and KCCH; Shriner. d. June 16, 1954.


            Sir Robert Smirke (1781-1867) English architect. He designed the Covent Garden Theatre in classical style in 1909, the College of Physicians, the Post Office, the Mint, and the British Museum. He did the library and dining hall of the Inner Temple in Gothic style and the restoration of Yorkminster. His father was an historical painter and book illustrator, who became a member of the Royal Academy in 1793. Sir Robert became a subscribing member ofthe Lodge of Antiquity No. 2 of London in 1808.


            A. Frank Smith Methodist bishop. b. Nov. 1, 1889 in Bastrop Co., Texas. Graduate of Southwestern U. (Texas) in 1912 and 1923. Entered Methodist Episcopal, South, ministry in 1912. Served Texas churches in Dallas, Austin, San Antonio, and Houston. Elected bishop in 1930. In charge of many area, state, and Indian mission conferences. Bishop of Houston-San Antonio area since 1934. Served on many national commissions of the church. In 1940-41 he was president of the Council of Bishops of the Methodist Church. Member of Bennett Lodge No. 531, Detroit, Texas since 1914. 32° AASR at Houston and Arabia Shrine Temple, Houston. Was imperial chaplain of the Imperial Shrine in 1948-49.


            Barton Smith (1852-1935) Grand Commander of Supreme Council, 33°, Scottish Rite, Northern Jurisdiction, 1910-21. b. June 2, 1852 in Channahon, Ill. Graduate of U. of Michigan in 1872 and 1875. Practiced law in Toledo, Ohio from 1875. Was president of the Toledo Blade Co., 1920-26. Active in politics until 1896. Made a Mason in Sanford L. Collins Lodge No. 396, Toledo, May 9, 1876. Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio; grand commander of the Grand Commandery, K.T. of Ohio; first commander-in-chief of the Toledo Consistory AASR. Was delegate to conference of supreme councils of the world at Brussels in 1907, Washington, 1912, and Lausanne, Switzerland, 1922. d. Nov. 16; 1935.


            Benjamin Smith (1750?-1829) Aide-de-camp to General Washington; Governor of North Carolina, 1810-12; Major General of state militia. His birth dates have been given as 1750 and 1756, in Brunswick Co., N. Car. In 1776 he became an aide-de-camp to Washington and was with him in the


147 Sir Bracewell Smith retreat from Long Island. He participated in the defense of Fort Moultrie and served during the British invasion of S. Car. In 1789 he gave 20,000 acres of land to the U. of North Carolina, and the trustees named a hall in his honor. He was a member of the state senate 15 times. He served as a major general of militia from 1794-1810. He was a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1 of Wilmington, N. Car., and on Dec. 20, 1797, when he was speaker of the state senate, that body passed the act incorporating the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. He represented his lodge at grand lodge in 1805-18061807-1808. He was elected grand master of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina in 1809-1810-1811. He last attended that body on Dec. 7, 1816. In 1807 he was selected as a representative, together with James Turner, to represent N. Car. at the convention in Washington, D.C., to consider the formation of a general grand lodge. d. Feb. 10, 1829.


            Sir Bracewell Smith Former Lord Mayor of London, England. As such he was master of Guildhall Lodge No. 3116, which has had 35 lord mayors fill the chair. He was a schoolteacher before WWI. He then turned to catering and became director of several of London's leading hotels, including the Park Plaza. He represented Dulwich in Parliament, and served as sheriff of London. He was twice master of Motherland Lodge No. 3861.


            Sir C. Aubrey Smith (1863-1948) English movie actor, who made many pictures in the United States as a character actor. Was knighted for his work. A member of Hova Ecclesia Lodge No. 1466 of Brighton, England and served as its master in 1891. d. 1948.


            Caleb B. Smith (1808-1864) Secretary of Interior in Lincoln's first cabinet, 1861-62; U.S. Congressman to28th-30th Congresses, 1943-49, from Indiana. b. April 16, 1808 in Boston, Mass. Moved to Ohio with parents in 1814. Attended Miami U. at Oxford, Ohio, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1828, beginning practice in Connersville. Founded and edited the Indiana Sentinel in 1832. In state house of representatives, 1833-37 and 1840-41. As congressman he was member of the board to investigate claims against Mexico. Moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he was active in politics, and a member of the peace convention of 1861 in Washington. Resigned as secretary of interior to become U.S. district judge for Indiana, serving as such until his death on Jan. 7, 1864 at Indianapolis. Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Indiana in 1837. Received degrees in Warren Lodge No. 15, Connersville, Ind. on April 18, 24, 29, 1829, and was master in 1832. In 1852 he dimitted, and is thought to have affiliated with a lodge in Indianapolis. His funeral, held on Jan. 12, 1864, included Masonic services.


            Charles E. Smith (1842-1908) U.S. Postmaster General, 1898-1902; U.S. Minister to Russia, 1890-92; editor. b. Feb. 18, 1842 in Mansfield, Conn. Moved with parents to Albany, N.Y. in 1849. Engaged in raising and organizing Union regiments in Civil War. Was editor of the Albany (N.Y) Express, 1865-70; the Albany (N.Y.) Journal, 1870-80, and Philadelphia Press after 1880. Made a Mason "at sight" by Judge Michael Arnold, grand master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1896, and became member of Rising Star Lodge No. 126, Philadelphia. d. 1908.


            Charles M. Smith (1868-1937) Governor of Vermont, 1935-37. b. Aug. 3, 1868 in West Rutland, Vt. Graduate of Dartmouth Coll. in 1891. Served in state senate, 1927-31, and in house of representatives, 1931-32. Was lieu-


148 Edgar Smith tenant governor, 1932-34. Was president and trustee of the Marble Savings Bank of Rutland. Raised in Hiram Lodge No. 101 of West Rutland, in 1891. d. Aug. 12, 1937.


            Charles P. Smith (1878-1948) Judge of Tax Court of the United States, 1924-46. b. Dec. 12, 1878 in Windham, N.H. Graduate of Brown U. in 1902. Was with Bureau of Census, 1905-11; admitted to bar in latter year and began practice at Washington, D.C. Was assistant to commissioner of Internal Revenue, 1921-23. Member of Joppa Lodge No. 35, Washington, D.C. d. July 6, 1948.


            Delazon Smith (1816-1860) One of the first two U.S. Senators from Oregon. b. Oct. 5, 1816 in New Berlin, N.Y. Graduate of Oberlin Coll. (Ohio) in 1837, studied law and admitted to bar. Established the New York Watchman in Rochester, N.Y. in 1838, and edited it for two years. Published and edited the True Teffersonian and Western Herald in Rochester in 1840. In 1841 founded the Western Empire in Dayton, Ohio. Moved to Territory of Iowa in 1846, and entered the ministry. Moved to the Territory of Oregon in 1852, where he edited the Oregon Democrat. Member of the territorial house of representatives in 1854-56 and delegate to state constitutional convention in 1857. Elected by the legislature as one of the first two U.S. senators from Oregon. Drawing for seniority by lot, Smith became "senior senator" over Joseph Lane, q.v. He spent many months in Washington, D.C. waiting for the Oregon statehood bill to pass before he could be sworn in on Feb. 14, 1859, and was therefore a senator but 18 days. He was named first master in the dispensation for Corinthian Lodge No. 17 of Albany, Oreg., in March 1857. In 1904 this lodge consolidated with St. Johns No. 62 to become St. Johns No. 17. d. Nov. 18, 1860.


            DeWitt C. Smith Vice President of the American Red Cross. b. Oct. 30, 1892 in Hagerstown, Md. First employed by government of District of Columbia, 1916-17, and with Red Cross since 1919. Was assistant to general manager, 1919-21; director of fiscal service, 1921; assistant to vice chairman, 1921-32; manager of eastern 24 states, 1932-33; assistant director of domestic operations, 193339; director of domestic operations and national director of disaster relief, 1939-43; vice chairman of American Red Cross, 1943-47; vice president in charge of social welfare services, 1948-51; assistant general manager, 1951-54; and vice president in charge of operations since 1954. Served with A.E.F. in WWI as lieutenant of machine gun company. Member of Takoma Lodge No. 29, Takoma Park, Md.


            Earl B. Smith Justice of Supreme Court of Idaho from 1954. b. May 9, 1896 in Boise, Idaho. Graduate of U. of Idaho in 1919 and admitted to bar in 1923. Was in law practice until 1954. Mason.


            Edgar Smith (1857-1938) Playwright and librettist who wrote or adapted more than 160 plays, travesties, burlesques, musical comedies and operas. b. Dec. 9, 1857 in Brooklyn, N.Y., he was educated at Pennsylvania Academy at Chester. Was an actor in New York companies, 187886, and a writer of Weber and Fields' extravaganzas and burlesques, 18961904. Among his originals are Spider and Fly; Pousse Cafe; Catherine; Barbara Fidgety; Tillie's Nightmare; Old Dutch; The Mimic World; The Sun. Dodgers; Hands tip; Robinson Crusoe, Jr.; The Blue Paradise; Oh, What a Girl; Home Sweet Home; Hotel Topsy Turvy; Dream City; Step This Way; Hello Alexander; Red Pepper, etc. Mason. d. March 8, 1938.


            149 Edward H. Smith Edward H. Smith Rear Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard and Director of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, 1950-56. b. Oct. 29, 1889 in Vineyard Haven, Mass. Graduate of U.S. Coast Guard Academy in 1913 and Harvard U. in 1924 and 1934. Commissioned ensign in U.S. Coast Guard in 1913, and advanced through grades to rear admiral in 1942. Engaged in oceanographic studies in Bergen, Norway in 1924; with British Meteorol. Office, London, 1925; commander of Coast Guard Marion Expedition, surveying Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay in 1928; member of staff of Graf Zeppelin Polar Expedition, 1931; commander of International Ice Patrol force, 193940; commanded Task Force 24, 194345; and later commanded F.astern area of U.S. Coast Guard. Mason.


            Edward J. Smith Vice President of Ingersoll-Rand Co., 1945-55. b. Feb. 15, 1890 in Ridgeway, Mich. Graduate of U. of Michigan in 1915. Foundry engineer and superintendent of Ingersoll-Rand at Painted Post, N.Y., 191733, and general manager, 1933-55. Director of the company since 1943. Now a manufacturing consultant. Mason.


            Ellison D. Smith (1866-1944) U.S. Senator from South Carolina, 190944. b. Aug. 1, 1866 in Lynchburg, S. Car. Member of S. Car, lodge, but dropped NPD in 1933. d. Nov. 17, 1944.


            Elmo Smith Governor of Oregon, 1956-57; publisher. b. Nov. 19, 1909 in Grand Junction, Colo. Graduate of College of Idaho in 1932. Was editor and publisher of the Ontario Argus Observer, 1933-46, and the Blue Mountain Eagle since 1946; and of the Albany (Oreg.) Democrat Herald since 1957. Member of Acacia Lodge No. 118, Ontario, Oreg.; Zadoc Chapter No. 34, R.A.M. of Ontario; Baker Council No. 16, R. & S.M., and Baker Commandery No. 9, K.T. of Baker, Oreg. Also 32° AASR (SJ) at Baker, and Al Kader Shrine Temple, Portland.


            Fielding Smith Prominent early-day Mormon who was a member of the lodge at Nauvoo, Ill., and present at cornerstone laying of the Masonic temple.


            Forrest Smith Governor of Missouri, 1948-52. b. Feb. 14, 1886 in Richmond, Mo. Studied at Woodson Institute (Richmond) and Westminster Coll. (Fulton). Was deputy county assessor four years and clerk of Ray Co. eight years. He taught school for a time in Ray Co. Served as a member of the state tax commission, 1925-32. Was state auditor, 193248, being the only person in Mo. elected to a fourth term. He became president of the National Assn. of State Auditors, Comptrollers, and Treasurers, and a member of the executive committee of the National Tax Association. He has been referred to as the "father" of the State Sales Tax Act. in Mo. Member of Richmond Lodge No. 47; Cyrus Chapter No. 36, R.A.M.; Richmond Commandery No. 27, K.T.; 32° AASR (SJ) in St. Louis; Ararat Shrine Temple in Kansas City; St. Chrysostom Conclave No. 36, R.C.C., Columbia, Mo.


            Frank 0. Smith (1859-1924) U.S. Congressman to 63rd Congress, 191315, from 5th Md. dist. b. Aug. 27, 1859 in Smithville, Md. In internal revenue service until 1889, when he organized the Calumet Canning Co. and the Frank 0. Smith & Co. general merchandise, in 1890. Member of Prince Frederick Lodge No. 142, Prince Frederick, Md., being initiated Jan. 28, 1899. d. Jan. 29, 1924.


            Frederick M. Smith (1874-1946) President of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 1915-46; son of Joseph Smith, first president of the reorganized branch;


150 George W. Smith grandson of Prophet Joseph Smith, q.o., founder of Mormonism, to whom the angel Moroni revealed the Book of Mormon. b. Jan. 21, 1874 at Plano, Ill., where his father, editor of The Saints' Herald, had, in 1860, established the reorganized branch of the church in opposition to the Brigham Young, q.v., group in Utah. Graduate of Graceland Coll. (Ia.) in 1898 and 1923; at U. of Missouri, 1908-09; A.M. from U. of Kansas in 1911; and Ph.D. from Clark U. in 1916. He was first counselor of the church, 1902-15, and on the death of his father in 1914, succeeded him as the second president. Was professor of mathematics at Graceland Coll., 1899-1900, and editor of the Lamoni (Ia.) Chronicle, 1900-02. Was associate editor of The Saints' Herald, 1900-04, and editor after 1917. He edited the Journal of History, 1908-12. Raised in Carbondale Lodge No. 70, Carbondale, Kans., on March 16, 1927; affiliated with Orient Lodge No. 546, Kansas City, Mo. on April 28, 1928, and was master in 1934; grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Missouri in 1929-30; and Grand Chaplain, Grand Lodge of Missouri, 1940-41. Exalted in Orient Chapter No. 102, R.A.M., Kansas City, June 26, 1928; greeted in Shekinah Council No. 24, R. & S.M., Kansas City on Sept. 12, 1928; knighted in Oriental Commandery No. 35, K.T., Kansas City, Dec. 21, 1928; and affiliated with Palestine Commandery No. 17, K.T., of Independence, Mo., June 2, 1938. Received 32° AASR (SJ) at Fort Scott, Kans. on April 26, 1927 and affiliated with Western Missouri Consistory in Kansas City, Jan. 25, 1933. Received Shrine in Mirza Temple, Pittsburg, Kans., May 25, 1927, affiliated with Ararat in Kansas City, Oct. 8, 1929, and was potentate for 1941. Served on board of directors of Shrine Hospital, St. Louis. Member of Missouri Lodge of Research. Dimitted from chapter, council and commandery in Oct., 1941, but retained other memberships. d. March 20, 1946.


            George Smith British Army captain who was inspector of the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. His fame rests on his work, The Use and Abuse of Freemasonry, published in 1783. He had requested the sanction of the grand lodge for its publication, but on its refusal printed it anyway. It was very popular and all copies were soon sold. Although born in England, he had entered the military service of Prussia at an early age, being connected with a noble family in that country. It appears that he was initiated in one of the German lodges. On his return to England he became master of the Royal Military Lodge at Woolwich, serving four years. During his mastership, he opened the lodge in the King's Bench Prison and initiated some persons confined there. This brought the censorship of the grand lodge on both Smith and the lodge. In 1778 the Duke of Manchester appointed him provincial grand master of Kent, and in 1780 he was appointed junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of England. Grand Secretary Heseltine, unfriendly to Smith, objected to it as illegal for a person to hold two offices in the grand lodge, and Smith resigned at the next quarterly communication. (Actually it was legal at that time, but was not written into the law until 1784.) In 1785 he was expelled from the Craft "for uttering an instrument purporting to be a certificate of the Grand Lodge recommending two distressed Brethren.”


            George W. Smith (1846-1907) U.S. Congressman to 51st-60th Congresses, 1899-1907, from Illinois. b. Aug. 18, 1846 in Putnam Co., Ohio. Moved to Wayne Co., Ill. with father in 1850, where he learned the blacksmith trade. Studied law and graduated from Indiana U. in 1870. Practiced


151 George Wm. Smith his profession at Murphysboro, Ill. Member of Murphysboro Lodge No. 496 and Cairo Commandery No. 13, K.T. of Cairo, Ill. d. Nov. 30, 1907, and buried Dec. 4 by his lodge, with an escort from Cairo Commandery.


            George Wm. Smith (1762-1811) Tenth Governor of Virginia, succeeding James Monroe, who had resigned to accept the position of secretary of State in Madison's cabinet. On Dec. 26, 1811-exactly three weeks later -while attending a performance at the Richmond Theatre, he, with many others, was killed in the fire that consumed the building. The Monumental Church was erected on the site of the theatre the following year, and the remains of the victims, including Smith's, are buried in the portico of the church. He received the degrees in Jerusalem Lodge No. 54, Richmond, Va. (now extinct) in 1804, and on Jan. 13, 1807, affiliated with Richmond Lodge No. 10. d. Dec. 26, 1811.


            Green Clay Smith (1826-1895) U.S. Congressman from Kentucky to 38th-39th Congresses, 1863-66; Governor of Montana Territory, 1866-69; Major General (Union) of volunteers, by brevet, in Civil War. b. July 4, 1826 in Richmond, Ky., the son of John Speed Smith, q.v. Served in the Mexican War as a second lieutenant of 1st Ky. Vol. Inf. 1846-47. Graduate of Transylvania U., Lexington, in 1849. Studied law; admitted to bar in 1852, practicing in Covington. Member of state house of representatives, 186163. Commissioned colonel of 4th Regt., Ky. Vol. Cavalry in 1862; made brigadier general of volunteers on July 2, 1862; resigned Dec. 1, 1863 and breveted major general of volunteers on March 13, 1865. Moved to Washington, D.C. in 1869, where he became a Baptist minister and evangelist. Was a candidate of the National Prohibition Party in 1876 for president of the United States. Memberof Richmond Lodge No. 25, Richmond, Ky., and at one time grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. Later he was a member of Virginia City Lodge No. 1, Montana. He is recorded as addressing the Grand Lodge of Montana at its third communication on Oct. 7-12, 1867, but his name disappears from the list of members of Virginia City Lodge after 1873. d. June 29, 1895.


            Gustavus W. Smith (1822-1896) Confederate Major General in Civil War. b. Jan. 1, 1822 in Scott Co., Ky. Graduate of the U.S. Military Academy in 1842, and appointed to Engineer Corps. Constructed fortifications in New London, Conn. Harbor, and taught engineering in the U.S. Military Academy in 1844-46. In war with Mexico he commanded the sappers and miners at siege of Vera Cruz, and was at Cerro Gordo and Contreras. Again taught in military academy in 1849, but resigned from Army in 1853. Devoted himself to construction of buildings, and was street commissioner of New York City, 185861. In 1860 was a member of the board to revise the instruction at the U.S. Military Academy. Returned to Ky. at start of Civil War, entering Confederate service in Sept., 1861, being appointed major general. Succeeded Gen. Joseph E. Johnston in temporary command of the Army of Northern Virginia in May, 1862, and subsequently commanded at Richmond. Was in charge of forces of Georgia in 1864-65, and was taken prisoner at Macon on April 20, 1865. After war was superintendent of Southwest Iron Works at Chattanooga, Tenn., 1866-69, and insurance commissioner of Ky., 1870-76. Then moved to New York City, where he died June 23, 1896. Member of Keystone Lodge No. 235, N.Y.C.


            Hoke Smith (1855-1931) Governor of Georgia, 1906-09, and Jul.-Nov.,


152 James Smith


1911; U.S. Senator from Georgia, 1911-21; Secretary of Interior in cabinet of President Cleveland, 1893-96. b. Sept. 2, 1855 in Newton, N. Car. Admitted to bar in 1873, and commenced practice in Atlanta, Ga. Became owner of the Atlanta Evening Journal in 1887, serving as editor and president until 1900. Member of Gate City Lodge No. 2, Atlanta, Ga., receiving all degrees in September, 1889. d. Nov. 27, 1931.


            Howard W. Smith U.S. Congressman to 72nd-86th Congresses, 193360, from Virginia. b. Feb. 2, 1883 in Broad Run, Va. Graduate of U. of Virginia in 1903. Practiced law at Alexandria, Va., 1904-22. Served as circuit judge, 1928-30. President of Alexandria National Bank, and engaged in farming and dairying. A vice president and trustee of the National Florence Crittenton Mission. Member of Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Va.


            Hurlbut Wm. Smith (1865-1951) An organizer of the L. C. Smith & Bros. Typewriter Co. in 1903, of which he was director and member of Executive board; was president, treasurer, and chairman of executive board of L. C. Smith & Corona Typewriters, Inc. b. June 24, 1865 in Centre Lisle, N.Y. Began in the gun manufacturing works of L. C. Smith; was later with Smith Premier Typewriter Co. as treasurer, until 1903. Member of Central City Lodge No. 305, Syracuse, N.Y., receiving degrees on Nov. 23, 1897, Feb. 15, March 8, 1898. 32° AASR (NJ) and Shriner. d. Dec. 16, 1951.


            Hyrum Smith (?-1844) Brother of Joseph Smith, q.v., the founder of Mormonism. Killed with his brother by a mob in the jail at Carthage, Ill. on June 27, 1844. He was first senior warden of the Nauvoo Lodge, U.D. at Nauvoo, Ill. After the grand lodge had ordered the dispensation for thislodge returned, it continued work clandestinely, with Hyrum as master. In this capacity he officiated at the dedication ceremonies of the Masonic Hall at Nauvoo on April 5, 1844, and his signature is one of those in the cornerstone documents. It has been claimed that both Hyrum. and Heber C. Kimball were Masons in Ontario Co., N.Y., before becoming Mormons.


            Israel Smith (1759-1810) U.S. Congressman, U.S. Senator and Governor of Vermont. b. April 4, 1759 in Suffield, Conn. Graduate of Yale in 1781. Practiced law first at Rupert, Vt. and later at Rutland. In state house of representatives several terms, and was a delegate to state constitutional convention in 1791. Upon admission of Vt. as a state, he was elected to the 2nd congress and reelected to 3rd and 4th congresses, serving from 1791-97. Was appointed chief justice of the state supreme court in 1797. He was elected to the 7th congress, 1801-03, and was U.S. Senator from 1803 to 1807, when he resigned to become governor of Vermont. Member of Center Lodge No. 6, Rutland, Vt. d. Dec. 2, 1810.


            James Smith (1720?-1806) Signer of Declaration of Independence. Birth date unverified, but born in Ireland, emigrating to America with family in 1729. Educated at Coll. of Philadelphia; studied law, settling first in Shippensburg and later in York, Pa. Possessed considerable property at start of Revolution, but lost it all. Raised a military company in 1774. Appointed brigadier general of Pa. militia in 1782. Member of the provincial congress of 1776 that formed a new government for Pa. Elected to congress on July 20, 1776, remaining in that body until 1778. Served again in congress in 1785. His Masonic membership is not verified. There was a "James Smith" initiated in Lodge No.


            153 James A. Smith


2, Philadelphia on Sept. 11, 1754 and another who received the degrees in Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia in 1851. d. July 11, 1806.


            James A. Smith (1865-1920) U.S. Consul General. b. Nov. 3, 1865 in Grand Rapids, Mich. Manager of marble quarries in Vermont in 1891. American consul at Leghorn, Italy, 1897-1907; consul general at Boma, Congo Free State, 1907-08; at Genoa, Italy, 1908-13; and Calcutta, India after 1913. Mason. d. Oct. 2, 1920.


            James Fairbairn Smith Editor of the Detroit Masonic World. b. Jan. 30, 1902 in Hawick, Roxburghshire, Scotland. Educated at schools in Hawick and Morpeth, England, taking special courses at Rutherford Technical Coll. and the Royal Society of Arts, London. He graduated from the National College of Music in 1923. Left Scotland in Jan., 1924 for Calgary, Alberta, but on arriving in Toronto, decided to visit Detroit, Mich., and remained to make it his home. For the next 12 years he taught music, becoming a director of the Redford Branch, Detroit Conservatory of Music, and an associate instructor of Detroit Foundation School. Helped found the Brightmoor Musical Festival and also the Detroit Musicians' League. Was raised as a "Lewis" at the age of 18 in the lodge at Hawick, Scotland. Exalted in King Cyrus Chapter No. 133, Detroit, in Nov., 1925, and high priest in 1934. Wi.s grand high priest of Michigan in 1945. Greeted in Monroe Council No. 1, R. & S.M. in March, 1926 and knighted in Detroit Commandery No. 1, K.T. in Nov., 1926. Received 32° AASR (NJ) in 1934, and headed the Detroit Consistory in 1953-56; received 33° in 1946. Is a member of St. Clements Conclave No. 39, R.C.C.; Royal Order of Scotland; Philalethes Society; Moslem Shrine Temple; Royal Order of Jesters; Blue Friar.


            Joe L. Smith U.S. Congressman to 71st-78th Congresses, 1929-45, from 6th W. Va. dist. b. May 22, 1880 in Raleigh Co., W. Va. Publisher of Raleigh Register for 20 years. President of Beckley National Bank since 1914 and Beckley Hotel Co. Mayor of Beckley, W. Va. four terms, 190429; member of state senate, 1909-13. Member of Beckley Lodge No. 95, Beckley, W. Va., since 1901; member of Beckley Chapter No. 38, R.A.M.; Mount Hope Commandery No. 22, K.T., Mt. Hope, W. Va.; 32° AASR (SJ) at Charleston, W. Va. and Beni Kedem Shrine Temple of same city. Served twice as master of his lodge.


            John Smith (1752-1816) U.S. Senator from New York, 1804-13. b. Feb. 12, 1752 in Mastic, near Brookhaven, N.Y. Served in state legislature, 178499, and was U.S. congressman from N.Y., 1799-1804. He took the place of DeWitt Clinton, q.v., in the senate, Clinton having resigned. After his service in the senate he became U.S. marshal for N.Y., and was a major general of militia for many years. He was one of the petitioners for a lodge granted in Montgomery, Orange Co., N.Y., on June 6, 1798. d. Aug. 12, 1816.


            John Smith (1850-1929) Philanthropist who endowed the Masonic Home for Bays in Pennsylvania with $600,000, and in his will left more than one million to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for its Masonic homes. b. April 18, 1850. Member of Mt. Moriah Lodge No. 155, Philadelphia. d. Feb. 8, 1929.


            John B. Smith (1838-1914) Governor of New Hampshire in 1893-94. b. April 12, 1838 in Saxton's River, Vt. Began as a manufacturer of hosiery in 1864, locating permanently in Hillsboro, N.H. in 1866. He built up a large business, which was incorporated in 1882, with himself and his nephew as chief owners. Was on executive council of N.H., 1887-89.


            154 John Eugene Smith Raised in Harmony Lodge No. 38, Hillsboro, N.H. on May 3, 1882, and was a member at the time of his death, Aug. 10, 1914.


            John Corson Smith (1832-1910) Union Brigadier General (brevet) of volunteers in Civil War. b. Feb. 13, 1832 in Philadelphia, Pa. Moved to Galena, Ill, in 1854, where he followed his trade as a builder. He enlisted as a private in the 74th III. Vols. in 1862. In same year he raised Co. I of the 96th III. Inf. and was elected major on Sept. 6. Breveted brigadier general of volunteers "for meritorious services," June 20, 1865. He participated in the 2nd Battle of Fort Donelson, and the battles of Franklin, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Kingston, Cassville, New Hope Church, Dallas, Pumpkinvine Creek, Pine Mountain, and Kenesaw Mountain, being severely wounded in the latter. He was in the internal revenue service, 1865-74; chief grain inspector of 111., 1875-77; state treasurer, 1879-81; lieutenant governor of Ill., 1885-89. He was a member of Miners' Lodge No. 273 of Galena, Ill., which furnished five generals in the Civil War from a membership of 50. The others were John A. Rawlings, Ely S. Parker. William R. Rowley and John E. Smith, q.q.v. He was raised May 21, 1859, was secretary in 1862, master in 1870-74, and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Illinois, 1887-88. He was also grand master of the Oddfellows. Exalted in Jo Daviess Chapter No. 51, R.A.M. of Galena on March 15, 1860, he was high priest from 1868-74; greeted in Ely S. Parker Council No. 60, R. & S.M., Galena, on Feb. 19, 1873, he was master of it that year, later becoming member of Freeport Council No. 39, Freeport, Ill. Knighted in Galena Commandery No. 40, K.T. on April 26, 1871, he was commander, 1871-74. Received 32° AASR (NJ) on May 28, 1873 at Free-port, and elected active member of Northern Supreme Council on Sept. 27, 1883. Was also venerable chief of the Illinois Masonic Veteran Association. d. Dec. 31, 1910.


            John Cotton Smith (1765-1845) Governor of Connecticut in 1812-17 and first Freemason to hold that office. A Yale graduate in 1783; LL.D. in 1814. Was a lawyer and state legislator. Served as U.S. congressman, 1800-06; was associate judge of the Connecticut supreme court, 180609; and lieutenant governor of state, 1809. Was the last of the Puritan-Federalist governors, being defeated for reelection by Oliver Wolcott, who headed the reform of Toleration ticket, and was concurrently governor and grand master. Smith retired to his extensive farm in Sharon. Made a Mason in St. Paul's Lodge No. 11, Litchfield, Conn. in 1796. d. 1845.


            John Eugene Smith (1816-1897) Major General (brevet) of Civil War in both volunteers and U.S. Army. b. Aug. 3, 1816 in Berne, Switzerland. His father was an officer under Napoleon, and after the latter's downfall, emigrated to Philadelphia. As a young man Smith learned watchmaking, then the jeweler's business. After living in St. Louis for several years he moved to Galena, Ill, in 1836, living there until the outbreak of the Civil War. He entered service on April 15, 1861 as a colonel of the 45th Ill. Inf. Was at the capture of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, the Battle of Shiloh, and siege of Corinth. Became brigadier general of volunteers on Nov. 29, 1862, and commanded the 8th Division of the 16th Corps. At Vicksburg he led the 3rd Division of the 17th Corps, and in Sept., 1863 was transferred to the 15th Corps, taking part in the capture of Missionary Ridge (for which Grant mentioned him in his memoirs), and in the Atlanta and Carolina campaigns of


155 John M. C. Smith


1864-65. Received brevet of major general of volunteers on Jan. 12, 1865, and mustered out of volunteer service in April, 1866. He then became a colonel of the 14th Inf. Received brevets of brigadier general and major general, U.S. Army, March 2, 1867, for his conduct at the siege of Vicksburg and action at Savannah. Retired in May, 1881. His original membership must have been in St. Louis, for on Dec. 27, 1838 we find him as a charter member of Far West Lodge U.D., chartered in Galena, Ill, by the Grand Lodge of Missouri. At the first meeting of Far West Lodge No. 29, March 23, 1839, he was secretary, and was ordered "to procure the jewels for the Lodge." In 1845 this lodge requested to be released from the Grand Lodge of Missouri, and on May 15, 1858 we find Smith as an honorary member of Miners' Lodge No. 273, Galena. Smith was one of the five generals this lodge furnished in the Civil War. He later became a regular member, served as master, and then became a life member of this lodge. He was exalted in Jo Daviess Chapter No. 51, R.A.M. of Galena, June 22, 1859. In 1888 he was present at the Masonic Veteran Association's meeting at the home of General John C. Smith, q.v., a member of the same lodge and venerable chief of the organization. The home was at 65 Sibley Road, and as the annual meeting place, was designated "Smith's Inn." d. Jan. 29, 1897 at Chicago, and buried at Galena.


            John M. C. Smith (1853-1923) U.S. Congressman to 62nd-67th Congresses, 1911-23, from 3rd Michigan dist. b. Feb. 6, 1853 in Belfast, Ireland and brought to America by parents in 1855. Admitted to the bar in 1882 and practiced at Charlotte. Was president of First National Bank of Charlotte from 1898, and was also interested in farming and stock raising. Member of Charlotte Lodge No. 120, Charlotte, Mich., receiving degrees on May 14, June 11, July 16, 1875; became life member on March 7, 1919. d. March 30, 1923.


            John Speed Smith (1792-1854) U.S. Congressman to 17th Congress, 182123, from Kentucky. b. July 1, 1792 near Nicholasville, Ky. He was the father of Green Clay Smith, q.v. Served in the Indian campaign of 1811 as a private. Admitted to the bar in 1811 and practiced at Richmond. In War of 1812 he again enlisted as a private, and was promoted to colonel as aide-de-camp to General Harrison. Member of state house of representatives in 1819, 1827, 1839, 1841, and 1845. In state senate, 184650. Was U.S. dist-ict attorney for Ky., 1828-32. Member of Richmond Lodge No. 25 as early as 1813, and served as its master. Member of Danville Chapter No. 4, R.A.M., Danville, Ky. in 1825, and also a Knight Templar. d. June 6, 1854.


            John Stafford Smith (1750-1836) English composer who wrote the music for the anthem that later became Key's Star-Spangled Banner. Its original use is in doubt, but at an early date it was used by an Irish Masonic orphans home as its song. It was also known as To Anacreon in Heaven, a drinking song popular in the English pubs. Although Francis Scott Key's words were written in the War in 1812, it was not until March 3, 1931 that congress passed the bill and President Hoover signed it, making The Star-Spangled Banner our national anthem. Smith was a member of Royal Somerset House & Inverness Lodge No. 4 of London.


            John W. Smith (1845-1925) U.S. Congressman to 56th Congress, 1899-1900, from Maryland; Governor of Maryland, 1900-04; U.S. Senator, 1908-1921. b. Feb. 5, 1845 in Snow Hill, Md. Was in lumber business in Md., Va. and N. Car. Was a director


156 Joseph Smith of many business and financial institutions. Served in state senate three terms, and was president of same in 1894. Initiated May 4, 1899 in Sinepuxent Lodge No. 193, Snow Hill, Md. d. April 19, 1925.


            Jonathan Bayard Smith (1742-1812) Member of the Continental Congress from Pa., 1777-78. b. Feb. 21, 1742 in Philadelphia, son of a well-known merchant. Graduate of Princeton in 1760; engaged in mercantile pursuits. Chosen as secretary of the committee of safety in 1775. Commissioned lieutenant colonel of a battalion of "associators" under his brother-in-law, Col. John Bayard. Auditor general of Pa. in 1794. A founder and on first board of U. of Pennsylvania. Raised in Lodge No. 3, Philadelphia, Dec. 18, 1783, was master in 1785, and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1789-94. Exalted in Jerusalem Chapter No. 3, R.A.M. of Philadelphia, and was grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania in 1798. d. June 16, 1812.


            Joseph Smith (1790-1877) Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. b. March 30, 1790 in Boston, Mass. Entered navy as a midshipman in 1809. Was a first lieutenant on the brig Eagle in the victory on Lake Champlain on Sept. 11, 1814, where he was severely wounded. Received a medal from Congress for this. He then served with the Mediterranean fleet, 181545, commanding that fleet in 1844-45, with the frigate Cumberland as his flagship. Was chief of bureau of yards and docks, 1846-69, and then president of the examining board for promotion of officers, until 1871. He had been retired in 1861 and promoted to rear admiral in 1862. After his service with the examining board, he resided in Washington until his death, at which time he was the senior officer of the Navy on the retired list. His son, Joseph B. Smith, q.v., anofficer on the Congress, was killed March 8, 1862, in its encounter with the Merrimac. d. Jan. 17, 1877.


            Joseph Smith (1805-1844) Founder of the Mormon Church (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints). b. Dec. 23, 1805 in Sharon, Vt. of a poor family which migrated to Palmyra, N.Y. in 1815, and then to nearby Manchester. The angel Moroni is said to have revealed the Book of Mormon to him, written on golden plates, which he was able to transcribe by the use of "Urirn and Thummim," instruments of magical power. His detractors say that the Book of Mormon is based on an imaginative tale written in Biblical style by a former Presbyterian minister, Samuel Spaulding, but never published. The manuscript was delivered to Smith by Sidney Rigdon, q.v., who helped revise it and shortly afterwards became one of the presidents of the church. It was printed in Palmyra, N.Y. in 1830, and the church was founded at the home of Peter Whitmer in Fayette, N.Y., on April 6 of that year. Smith moved to Kirtland, Ohio in 1831 and to Missouri in 1838. Here the Mormons ran into trouble at Independence and Far West and were removed in a body from the state by the militia. Smith, Rigdon, and others were arrested for "murder, treason, burglary, arson and larceny," but allowed to escape and join the others at Commerce, Ill., which they renamed Nauvoo. Here Smith governed despotically with the aid of a small group of advisors. When he claimed the revelation of polygamy in 1843 the church was split by a schism. Arrested and jailed at Carthage, Ill., he was shot and killed by a mob on June 27, 1844. It is claimed that many of the symbols and ceremonies used by the Mormon Church are of Masonic origin. In Smith's journal under the date of March 15, 1842 he said: "I officiated as Grand


157 Joseph Smith Chaplain at the installation of the Nauvoo Lodge of Freemasons at the Grove near the Temple. Grand Master Jonas, of Columbus, being present, a large number of people assembled for the occasion. The day was exceedingly fine; all things were done in order. In the evening I received the first degree in Freemasonry in Nauvoo Lodge, assembled in my general business office." The following day he added: "I was with the Masonic Lodge and rose to the sublime degree." Thus it was that Smith officiated as grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Illinois before he was a Mason. It also happened that Sidney Rigdon received his degrees "at sight" with Smith. This, plus the fact that in nearly five months that lodge initiated 256 candidates and raised 243, caused Bodley Lodge No. 1 to prefer charges against Nauvoo Lodge on July 15, 1842, asking the grand lodge to "make inquiry into the manner the officers of Nauvoo Lodge, U.D., were installed by the Grand Master of this State, and by what authority the Grand Master initiated, passed and raised Messers Smith and Rigdon to the degree of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master, at one and the same time." A special committee visited Nauvoo, inspected the records and work and recommended that the lodge be permitted to resume labor. Then they did so much work that two more lodges were established in Nauvoo—Nye and Helm; Rising Sun Lodge at Montrose, Iowa, and a dispensation requested for still another at Keokuk, Iowa. Again the grand lodge ordered an investigation, and this time the committee was refused access to the minutes. The grand lodge then struck all the Mormon lodges from its rolls. However, the Mormon lodges refused to recognize this, and continued their work. On Friday, April 5, 1844 they dedicated the Masonic Hall at Nauvoo. In the History of the Church, Smith wrote that he attended the ceremonies; that about 550 Masons from various parts of the world were present and took' part in a procession that was formed, accompanied by the Nauvoo brass band; that the ceremonies were in charge of Hyrum Smith, worshipful master; that the principal address of the occasion was delivered by Apostle Erastus Snow; and that he, Joseph Smith and Dr. Goforth also addressed the assembly; and that all visiting Masons were given dinner in the Masonic Hall at the expense of Nauvoo Lodge. If the above dedication is the same ceremony and date as the cornerstone laying, there is a discrepancy somewhere. Recently the Mormon Church purchased the old hall for restoration as an historic shrine. The cornerstone box was removed in 1954, and sent to Salt Lake City, where in the presence of President David 0. McKay and the twelve apostles, it was opened; the original documents were retained in Utah, and photostatic copies returned, to be redeposited in two new boxes in the cornerstone at Nauvoo. This ceremony took place, June 24, 1954, being reported in the newspapers as "exactly 111 years after the first ceremony." A document in the cornerstone states that Smith was not present in the procession or ceremony, as he was then being sought on an extradition warrant issued by "Governor Ford of Missouri" (Missouri never had a man named Ford as governor; Gov. Reynolds had recently died and Lt. Gov. Marmaduke had taken his place). Although Smith's signature is among the 50 or more names of the prominent Mormons on the document, it was noted therein that it was added later. It also asked that "peace and harmony be restored and that the chain that holds mankind together and has done so since the dawn of mankind, be retained." Both


158 Lyman C. Smith Joseph and his brother Hyrum were killed by a mob at the Carthage, Ill. jail on June 27, 1844.

 Joseph B. Smith (?-1862) U.S. Naval officer. He was killed on board the Union ship Congress when it was attacked by the Merrimac on March 8, 1862. His father, Joseph Smith, q.v., a rear admiral then on the retired list, when he heard the Congress had surrendered, exclaimed, "Then Joe is dead." The younger Smith was raised Jan. 24, 1852 in National Lodge No. 12 and was knighted in Washington Commandery No. 1, K.T., D.C., on March 5, 1853. d. March 8, 1862.


            Julian C. Smith Lieutenant General, U.S. Marine Corps. b. Sept. 11, 1885 in Elkton, Md. Graduate of U. of Delaware in 1907. Commissioned in Marine Corps in 1909, and advanced through grades to lieutenant general in 1946, when he retired. Served in Cuba, Panama, Mexico, Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Nicaragua. Was commanding general of the Army of Republic of Nicaragua in 1932; director of operations and training of Marine Corps, 1936-37; director of personnel, 1937-38; naval observer in England, 1941; commanded 2nd Marine Div. at Battle of Tarawa, 1943; commander of expeditionary troops, 3rd Fleet in Battle of Palau, 1944; and commanding general of Dept. of Pacific, 1944-46. Was captain of Marine Corps rifle and pistol teams, 1928-29. Wrote History Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, 1927-33. Member of Union Lodge No. 48, Elkton, Md.


            June S. Smith (1876-1947) Judge, Supreme Court of Illinois, 1941-47. b. March 24, 1876 in Irvington, Ill. Admitted to bar in 1904; practiced in Centralia, Ill. Served as major of Infantry in Army during WWI. Member of Centralia Lodge No. 201, Centralia, Ill., being raised April 11, 1919; 32° AASR (NJ) . d. Feb. 7, 1947.


            Lawrence H. Smith (1892-1958) U.S. Congressman to 77th-85th Congresses from Wisconsin. b. Sept. 15, 1892 in Racine, Wis. Graduate of Marquette U. in 1923, beginning law practice in Racine that year. Served as Infantry officer in WWI. Member of Belle City Lodge No. 92, Racine, Wis., receiving degrees on Oct. 3, 24, 1916 and Jan. 2, 1917. d. Jan. 22, 1958.


            Lee S. Smith (1844-1926) Grand Master of Grand Encampment, Knights Templar, U.S.A., 1916- Luther A. Smith Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, 33° Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction from Oct. 21, 1955. b. 1887 in Alpharetta, Ga. Graduate of Emory Coll. (Ga.) in 1904; LL.B. from Vanderbilt U. in 1909. Began law practice in Hattiesburg, Miss., continuing there until appointed judge of court of chancery in 1953. He held this office until elected grand commander in 1955, succeeding Thomas J. Harkins, q.v. Raised in Toccopola Lodge No. 310, Toccopola, Miss., March 23, 1907; master of Hattiesburg Lodge No. 379 in 1923; grand master of Grand Lodge of Mississippi in 1949. Member of chapter, council, and commandery at Hattiesburg. Received 32° AASR (SJ) in Mississippi Consistory in 1920; KCCH in 1923; coroneted 33° in 1929; crowned sovereign grand inspector general in Miss. in 1937; elected lieutenant grand commander in 1952.


            Lyman C. Smith (1850-1910) Organizer of L. C. Smith & Bros. Typewriter Co. in 1903; manufacturer of L. C. Smith breech-loading firearms, 1877-90; capitalist. b. March 31, 1850 in Torrington, Conn. Moved to N.Y. in 1872, where he managed a live stock commission house and engaged in the lumber business. Following his venture in firearms manufacture, he entered the typewriter field in 1886, and in 1890 founded the Smith Pre-


159 McGregor Smith mier Typewriter Co., of which he was president; when later he sold to Union Typewriter Co., he became vice president and member of executive board, resigning in 1903 to organize with his brothers, the L. C. Smith & Bros. Typewriter Co. In 1900 he gave Syracuse U. the Lyman Cornelius Smith Coll. of Applied Sciences. Mason and Knight Templar. Sciences. Petitioned Western Light Lodge No. 597, Lisle, N.Y. at the age of 21 and received degrees on May 8, Sept. 4, 5, 1871. On Nov. 30, 1875 he affiliated with Central City Lodge No. 305, Syracuse, N.Y. Knight Templar. d. Nov. 15, 1910.


            McGregor Smith President of Florida Power & Light Co., 1939-54 and President of Board since 1954. b. June 5, 1899 in Cookeville, Tenn. Graduate of U. of Tennessee in 1921. Began as assistant engineer with Tenn. Railroad & Public Utilities Comm.; then manager of South New Orleans Light & Traction Co.; vice president and general manager of Louisiana Power & Light Co., Algiers, La.; president and general manager of same, 193639; vice president and general manager of Florida Power & Light Co., Miami, 1939, and then president. Member of Coral GabeIs Lodge No. 260, Coral Gables, Fla. and 32° AASR (SJ) at Miami. Shriner.


            Marcus A. Smith (1851-1924) Delegate of Arizona Territory to U.S. Congress, and one of the first two U.S. Senators from that state when admitted to the Union. b. Jan. 24, 1851 near Cynthiana, Ky. Graduate of Transylvania U. (Ky.) in 1872 and U. of Kentucky. Began law practice in Lexington, Ky., moving to San Francisco, 1879-81, and then to Tombstone, Ariz. where he continued the practice of law. Served in U.S. congress as a territorial delegate, 188795, 1897-99, 1901-03, 1905-09. Upon admission of Arizona to the Union, heand Henry F. Ashurst, q.v., were the first two senators. He served in the senate from April 2, 1912 to March 3, 1921. Member of Tucson Lodge No. 4, Tucson, Ariz. d. April 7, 1924.


            Nels H. Smith Governor of Wyoming, 1939-42. b. Aug. 27, 1884 at Gayville, Dakota Territory. A successful rancher, he lives near Newcastle, Wyoming. Received degrees in Newcastle Lodge No. 13, Newcastle, Wyo. on May 5, 1921, April 6, 1922 and May 26, 1923.


            Norman M. Smith Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy and President of University of South Carolina. b. Nov. 16, 1883 in Williston, S. Car. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1906 and Rensselaer Poly. Inst. in 1909. Made around-the-world cruise as a midshipman; promoted through grades to rear admiral in 1933. Engaged in construction of Great Lakes Training Station (Ill.), Navy yards of Puget Sound, Mare Island, and Pearl Harbor Naval base, 1914-17. Between 1917-33 he built plants, hospitals, dredged harbors, and developed waterfronts for the Navy. From 193338 he was chief of Bureau of Yards and Docks and chief civil engineer of the Navy. Retired in 1937, he returned to active duty in 1942 and retired again in Feb., 1945. He was elected president of the U. of South Carolina in Dec., 1944, before his final retirement. Mason and Knight Templar.


            R. Jasper Smith Federal Judge, Western District of Missouri since 1956. b. July 25, 1908 in Campbell, Mo. Graduate of U. of Missouri in 1931; began law practice in Springfield that year. Past president of Missouri Association of Republicans. Served in the state senate, 1942-54. Was majority floor leader in the 64th general assembly and minority floor leader of the 65th. He was chairman of the commission that rewrote the


160 Seba Smith uniform state laws. A member of Solomon Lodge No. 271, Springfield, Mo., he received degrees, Jan. 16, Feb. 19, March 19, 1936, and was master in 1942. Presently (1960), he is senior grand deacon of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. Exalted in Springfield Chapter No. 15, R.A.M., Oct. 7, 1937; greeted in Zabud Council No. 35, R. & S.M., June 16, 1942; knighted in St. John's Commandery No. 20, K.T., Nov. 11, 1937; past sovereign (1949) of St. Christopher Conclave No. 56, R.C.C. and member of Abou Ben Adhem Shrine Temple, all of Springfield. Member of Joplin Consistory No. 3, Scottish Rite (SJ), Kilwinning Council No. 19, A.M.D., DeMolay Legion of Honor and Missouri Lodge of Research (Master, 1960).


            Ralph C. Smith Major General, U.S. Army. b. Nov. 27, 1893 in South Omaha, Nebr. Graduate of Colorado State Coll., 1919. Commissioned 2nd lieutenant in 1916 and advanced through grades to major general. With the A.E.F. in France, 1917-19; instructor at U.S. Military Academy, 1920-23; Infantry School, 1924-27; Command and General Staff School, 1930-34. With War Dept. Gen. Staff on military intelligence, 1938-42; assistant division commander of 76th Div., 1942 and commanding general of 27th Div., 1942-44; 98th Div., 1944 and military attache to Paris, 1945-46. Raised Jan. 30, 1917 in Hancock Lodge No. 311, Ft. Leavenworth, Kans.


            Robert W. Smith Union Brigadier General (Brevet) in Civil War. Past master of Oriental Lodge No. 33, Chicago, and member of Illinois Masonic Veteran Association. Active in Ill. politics, and was a delegate to convention of 1860 that named Lincoln for presidency.


            Samuel Smith (1752-1839) Soldier of Revolution and War of 1812; U.S.


            Congressman and Senator from Maryland; Secretary of the Navy. b. July 27, 1752 in Lancaster, Pa. Appointed captain in the 6th Co. of Maryland line in 1776, under Col. Wm. Smallwood. In heavy fighting at Long Island where his regiment lost one third of its men; took part in battles of Harlem and White Plains. Promoted to lieutenant colonel of the 4th Maryland Rgt. in 1777. Was in attack on Staten Island, at Battle of Brandywine, and commanded Fort Mifflin. Severely wounded in the latter, he received thanks of congress for his gallant defense. Was at Valley Forge, Battle of Monmouth. Served in U.S. Congress from Md., 1793-1803 and 1816-22. U.S. senator from Md. 1803-15, and 1822-33. Under President Jefferson he served without compensation a short time in 1801, as secretary of Navy, though declining the appointment. In the threatened war with France and England in 1794 he was appointed brigadier general of militia of Baltimore, and with the rank of major general, commanded the Maryland troops suppressing the Whiskey Insurrection of Pa. He was a major general of state troops in the defense of Baltimore in the War of 1812. He was among the projectors of the Washington Monument; was mayor of Baltimore, 1835-38. Member of Concordia Lodge No. 13, Baltimore, Md. d. April 22, 1839.


            Seba Smith (1792-1868) American journalist and humorist. b. Sept. 14, 1792 in Buckfield, Maine. Graduate of Bowdoin in 1818, settling in Portland, Maine as a journalist, where he edited the Eastern Argus, the Family Recorder, and the Portland Daily Courier. During the administration of President Jackson, he wrote a series of humorous and satirical letters, which attained wide celebrity. He moved to N.Y.C. in 1842, where he continued his profession. Member of


161 St. Clair Smith Ancient Land Mark Lodge No. 17, Portland, Maine, in 1819.


            St. Clair Smith Judge, Supreme Court of South Dakota since 1937. b. July 10, 1889 in Rondell, S. Dak. Graduate of Washington U. in 1912 and practiced law at Aberdeen, S. Dak. from 1933-37. Raised Dec. 28, 1915 in Aberdeen Lodge No. 38, Aberdeen, S. Dak. Was master of lodge in 1925, and grand master of the Grand Lodge of South Dakota in 1928.


            W. Angie Smith Methodist Bishop. b. Dec. 21, 1894 in Elgin, Texas. Graduate of Southwestern U. in 1917 and Columbia U. in 1924. Ordained to Methodist ministry in 1921, serving churches at Kerrville and Midland, Texas, Nashville, Tenn., El Paso, Texas, Shreveport, La., Washington, D.C., Birmingham, Ala., and at Dallas, Texas. Became bishop in 1944. Was official representative of Council of Bishops to India, Burma, and Maylaysia in 1946. Member of Amity Lodge No. 473, Oklahoma City, Okla.; 32° AASR (SJ) at Guthrie, and KCCH. Member and chaplain of India Shrine Temple, Oklahoma City, and honorary member of DeMolay Legion of Honor.


            Wayne C. Smith Major General, U.S. Army. b. Dec. 4, 1901 in St. Joseph, Mo. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1925, advancing through grades to major general in 1952. With Chemical Warfare Service, 1920-21. In China, 1931-34; Hawaii, 1937-39; Central Pacific, 1943. Was assistant and chief of staff, G-4 of VII Corps, 1941-43; chief of staff, Central Pacific Base Command, 1944-45; commanding general Schofield Barracks, 1945-47; asst. commanding general 9th Inf. Div., 1947-49; asst. division commander 11th Airborne Div., 1949-51; asst. corps commander IX Corps, asst. division commander of 46th Div. and commanding general of7th Inf. Div. in Korea, 1952-53; commanding general 11th Airborne Div. and commander of Ft. Campbell, Ky., 1953-55. Was chief military advisor to Republic of Philippines, 1955-56, retiring in latter year. Received degrees in Schofield Lodge No. 443, Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, Dec. 17, 1946, Jan. 21, and Feb. 18, 1947, and in 1953 became charter master of Fort Campbell Lodge U.D. (now 946) of Fort Campbell, Ky. He is thought to be the only general officer, besides George Washington to be charter master of a lodge. 32° AASR (NJ) at Trenton, N.J. Member of Rizpah Shrine Temple, Madisonville, Ky.; honorary member of Nile Temple, Oregon, and El Hasa Temple, Ashland, Ky. Past president of Fort Campbell Shrine Club (1954). Commander of Old Hickory Camp, Heroes of '76 (1950) at Fort Campbell. Past president of Fort Dix Chapter, National Sojourners (1948). Past commander of Washington Crossings Camp, Heroes of '76 (1949). National president of National Sojourners, 1956-57, and commander of New England area since 1958. His great, great-grandfather was Cains Smith, one of the Freemasons actively concerned in the famous William Morgan case. His father was not a Mason, due to the fear engendered in his family by the Anti-Masonic Party. The 14th degree diploma of his grandfather was hidden and finally turned over to him before his mother died. She had been afraid that he still might be hurt or hounded in some way by the Morgan affair.


            William Smith (1727-?) Dedicated first Masonic building in America. b. in Aberdeen, Scotland, he came to N.Y. in 1751, and later was a minister and teacher in Pa. He preached the dedication sermon of "The Freemasons' Lodge" (said to be the first Masonic building in America). A member of Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia,


162 William L. Smith he was famous throughout the colonies for his learning. In 1781, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania decided to reissue its Ahiman Rezon, or Book of Constitutions, and appointed Smith to do the revision. He served as grand secretary of that grand lodge in 1783.


            William Smith Compiler of the Pocket Companion for Freemasons, published at Dublin, Ireland in 1735. He was from Belfast, but of Scottish descent. He set himself up as a bookseller in Dublin. The same book had been printed in London earlier in 1735 and was banned by the Grand Lodge of England. Anderson, q.v., who wrote the English Constitutions, complained that "one William Smith, said to be a Mason, had without his consent pyrated a considerable part of the Constitutions aforesaid to the prejudice of the said Dr. Anderson, it being his sole property.”


            William Smith (1762-1840) U.S. Senator and Congressman from South Carolina. b. in 1762 in N. Car. A graduate of Mount Zion Institute, Winnsboro, S. Car., in 1780, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1784, practicing first at Pickneyville, and later Yorkville (now York). Also engaged as a planter, he amassed large tracts of land in La. and Ala. U.S. congressman to 5th Congress, 179799; served in state senate, 1802-08, and president of same in 1806. Was judge of circuit court, 1808-13. Served in U.S. senate, 1816-23 and 1826-31. He was twice offered a seat on the U.S. Supreme Court bench, refusing both times. He moved to La. in 1831, and to a farm near Huntsville, Ala. in 1833. Served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, Ancient York Masons. d. June 26, 1840.


            William A. Smith (1859-1932) U.S. Congressman to 54th-61st Congresses, 1895-1907, and U.S. Senator, 1907-19,from Michigan. b. May 12, 1859 in Dowagiac, Mich. Studied law and was admitted to bar, 1883, practicing in Grand Rapids. Was general counsel of Chicago & Western Railway, and Detroit, Lansing, and Northern Railroad. Served as assistant secretary of the state senate in 1883, and as state game warden, 1887-91. Became owner of the Lowell & Hastings R.R. in 1900 and owner and publisher of Grand Rapids Herald in 1906. Member of York Lodge No. 410, Grand Rapids, Mich., and York and Scottish Rite bodies of that city. d. Oct. 11, 1932.


            William A. Smith Justice, Supreme Court of Kansas from 1930. b. Dec. 31, 1888 in Valley Falls, Kans. Graduate of Washburn Law School, 1914, and began practice at Valley Falls, Kans. Attorney general of Kansas, 1926-30. Member of Valley Falls Lodge No. 21, Valley Falls, Kans., receiving degrees Dec. 5, 1914, Jan. 2 and March 3, 1915. Was junior deacon in 1916. Exalted in Oskaloosa Chapter No. 9, R.A.M., Oskaloosa, Kans., on Dec. 6, 1915. 32° AASR (SJ) and Shriner.


            William E. Smith (1873-1946) President of Standard Oil Co. of New York, 1927-45. b. March 12, 1873 in Buffalo, N.Y. With Standard Oil of N.J., 1897-1901; sales manager Standard Oil of N.Y., 1906-21; vice president of same, 1921-27. Retired in 1945, after 50 years of service. Member of Solomon's Lodge No. 5, Shelbyville, Ky. receiving degrees on March 9, April 13, June 8, 1903. d. Oct. 21, 1946.


            William L. Smith (1758-1812) U.S. Congressman to 1st-5th Congresses, 1789-97, from South Carolina. b. in Charleston, S. Car., he attended preparatory schools in England, and studied law in the Middle Temple at London. Studied in Geneva, 1774-78, and returned to Charleston in 1783, being admitted to the bar the following year, and practicing at Charles-


163 Sir William Sidney Smith ton. Member of state house of representatives, 1784-88. Also engaged in agricultural pursuits. Appointed U.S. minister to Portugal and Spain in 1797, and served until 1801. Member of Lodge No. 8 in Charleston and past master of same. Grand master of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, 1793-98 and again 1809-12. d. Dec. 19, 1812.


            Sir William Sidney Smith (17641840) English Admiral. While plenipotentiary at Constantinople, he went to the relief of Acre, and compelled Napoleon to raise his siege. He destroyed the Turkish fleet off Abydos in 1807, and blockaded the Tagus River. Made vice admiral in 1810 and admiral in 1821. Rceived all three degrees, April 17, 1790, in Somerset House and Inverness Lodge No. 4, London. In 1818 he was chancellor of the Chapitre des Trinosophes at Paris, and in 1829 became a joining member of the Grand Masters Lodge in London.


            Wint Smith U.S. Congressman to 81st-86th Congresses from 6th Kans. dist. b. Oct. 7, 1893 in Mankato, Kansas. Graduate of U. of Kansas in 1920 and Yale in 1922. Admitted to bar in 1923 and practiced at Mankato. Was assistant attorney general of Kansas, 1931-40. Served on Mexican border and overseas with 47th Inf., in WWI. Member of Westgate Lodge No. 438, Kansas City, Kansas; 32° AASR (SJ) at Salina and Isis Shrine Temple, Salina.


            Robert E. Smylie Governor of Idaho from 1954. b. Oct. 31, 1914 in Marcus, Iowa. Graduate of Coll. of Idaho in 1938 and George Washington U. in 1942. Practiced law in Boise since 1947. Was attorney general of Idaho from 1947-54. Member of Boise Lodge No. 2, Boise, Idaho.


            Thomas A. Smyth (1832-1865) Union Brigadier General in Civil War. b.


            Dec. 25, 1832 in Ballyhooly, Cork, Ireland. Emigrated to America in his youth, settling in Wilmington, Del., where he engaged in coach making. At the beginning of the Civil War, he raised a company. He became major of a Del. regiment, and rose to brigadier general of volunteers on Oct. 1, 1864. He earned a reputation for bravery, fighting in the following battles: Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Bristow Station, Warrenton, Centreville, Culpepper, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Petersburg, and Hatcher's Run. He was killed by a sniper's bullet at Farmville, Va. Wounded on April 7, 1865, he died two days later (on the very day of Lee's surrender), and was the last Union general to be killed in the war. He was a Freemason but 28 days. He had received the degrees in Washington Lodge No. 1, Wilmington, Del. on March 6, 1865, by special dispensation of A. V. Lesley, grand master. He had petitioned and was elected on Dec. 15, 1864. He was buried by the lodge, April 17, 1865, in Brandywine Cemetery at Wilmington.


            Howard M. Snapp (1855-1938) U.S. Congressman from Illinois to 58th-61st Congresses, 1903-1911. b. Sept. 27, 1855 in Joliet, Ill. Studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1878, beginning his practice at Globe, Ariz., but returning to Joliet, where he lived the rest of his life. Was raised in Matteson Lodge No. 175, Sept. 16, 1890; exalted in Joliet Chapter No. 27, R.A.M., April 18, 1892, and knighted in Joliet Commandery No. 4, K.T., Nov. 25, 1896. Also a member of Joliet Council No. 82, R. & S.M. d. Aug. 14, 1938.


            Earl Snell (1895-1947) Governor of Oregon. Elected governor in 1942 and again in 1947, but was killed in an airplane crash before he could complete second term. b. July 11,


164 John Snow


1895 in Olex, Oreg. He was owner of automobile agency and garage in Arlington from 1915. Served four terms in state house of representatives, and was speaker in 1933. Was elected secretary of state in 1934 and 1938. Member of Arlington Lodge No. 88, Arlington, Oreg. receiving degrees on Nov. 3, Dec. 7, 1920 and Jan. 15, 1921. Was master in 1924-25 and grand master of Grand Lodge of Oregon, 1940-41. Was killed in airplane accident, Oct 28, 1947.


            Perez Snell Early day ritual instructor who worked throughout the Southern states. He belonged to a Royal Arch Chapter in Lexington, Ky. and held a commission from John Barker authorizing him to confer the R. & S.M. degrees on "such worthy companions, Royal Arch Masons, of respectable standing in the community as he may think proper in the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri.”


            Culver C. Sniffen (1844-1930) Brigadier general, U.S. Army in Spanish-American War. b. Jan. 1, 1844 in N.Y.C. From 1873-77 he was assistant secretary to President Grant. Entered army as major from New York in 1877. Became brigadier general and paymaster general on Sept. 11, 1906, retiring Jan. 1, 1908. Member of Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C. d. July 28, 1930.


            Charles A. Snodgrass Author of Light From the Sanctuary of the Royal Arch. and Freemasonry iv. Tennessee. b. Dec. 27, 1876 in Terre Haute, Ind. Member of Ridgedale Lodge No. 660, Chattanooga, Tenn. Served as grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of Tennessee.


            George M. Snodgrass (1879-1939) President of Wisconsin State Teachers College, La Crosse from 1926. b. Jan. 4, 1879 in Boscobel, Wis. Graduate of Hamline U. at St. Paul in 1900.


            Taught in Wausau and River Falls, and was principal in Alma and Barron. Was superintendent of schools in Oconto and Neillsville, and then director of teacher training at State Normal School in Superior. Mason. d. Jan. 12, 1939.


            H. Clyde Snook (1878-1942) Electrophysicist and inventor of X-ray transformer, holding numerous patents in X-rays, radio, meallurgy, optics and communications. b. March 25, 1878 in Antwerp, Ohio. Graduate of Ohio Wesleyan U. in 1900 and 1910. Taught school until 1902. Became president of the Roentgen Mfg. Co. at Philadelphia, 1903-13, and of the Snook-Roentgen Mfg. Co., 191316. Was vice president of Victor Electric Corp., Chicago, 1916-18, and with Western Electric Co., 1918-25. Was consulting engineer after 1927. Mason. d. Sept 22, 1942.


            John Snow (1780-1852) Early Masonic lecturer. b. Feb. 15, 1780 at Providence, R.I. Made a Mason in Mt. Vernon Lodge of Providence in 1809, and master in 1811. He affiliated with New England Lodge No. 4 of Worthington, Ohio, and was master from 1818-22 and 1827-31. Was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio, 1818-23, and again in 1829. In 1818 he was the founder and first grand commander of the first grand encampment of Knights Templar West of the Allegheny Mountains—Mt. Vernon Encampment No. 1 of Worthington. He was high priest of Horeb Chapter No. 3, Worthington, and grand high priest of Ohio in 1819. As deputy grand high priest of the General Grand Chapter, he presided at both the 1826 and 1829 meetings, the principal officer being absent. In the council, he received the degrees from Jeremy Cross, q.v., and was authorized to establish councils in the West. He was instrumental in introducing Webb's system into the lodges of the Western states. In the


165 Leslie P. Snow grand encampment he rose to general grand generalissimo, and presided over that body in the absence of the senior officer. d. May 16, 1852.


            Leslie P. Snow (1862-1934) Justice, Supreme Court of New Hampshire, 1921-32. b. Oct. 19, 1862 in Eaton, N.H. Graduate of Bridgton Academy, 1881, Dartmouth, 1886 and Columbian Law School, 1890. Practiced law at Rochester, N.H. Served in both branches of state legislature, and was president of senate in 1921. President of Rochester Trust Co. from 1920 and was president of both state bankers and state bar associations. Raised in Humane Lodge No. 21, Rochester, N.H. on Feb. 13, 1894. d. March 16, 1934.


            Silas D. Snow President of Arkansas State Teachers College, Conway, Ark., from 1953. b. July 9, 1909 in Conway, Ark. Graduate of the State Teachers Coll. in 1929. Was principal or superintendent of schools in Magnet Cove, Crossett, and Corning, Ark. until 1953. Member of Crossett Lodge No. 576, Crossett, Ark. being raised Feb. 12, 1932.


            Valentine Snow An English sergeant trumpeter for whom Handel wrote the trumpet obligato in the Messiah and Judas Maccabaeus. He was a member of a lodge meeting at the Rainbow Coffee House in York Buildings, about 1731.


            Eulan L Snyder Former National President of National Sojourners and National Commander of Heroes of '76. b. in Berks Co., Pa. Received degrees of A.B., LL.B., LL.M. and M.P.I. from National University (now George Washington) at Washington, D.C. A Naval commander and lawyer, he served on the staff of the judge advocate general of the Navy from 1926-1958, and for six years on the military judicial system, created by Congress and comparable to the U.S.court of appeals. Charter member and past master of Sojourners Lodge No. 51; past high priest of Columbia Chapter No. 1, R.A.M.; past master of Adoniram Council No. 2, R. & S.M.; life member of Columbia Commandery No. 2, K.T.; life member of Almas Shrine Temple; past master of Kadosh of Albert Pike Consistory, AASR (SJ) , all of Washington, D.C. Holds membership in many other Masonic organizations. Member of grand lodge committee on correspondence since 1946, and director of Friends of Pusan Children's Charity Hospital (Korea).


            John W. Snyder U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, 1946-53. b. June 21, 1895 in Jonesboro, Ark. Was a banker in Arkansas and Missouri, 191930. From 1931-37 he was a national bank receiver in Washington, D.C., and from 1937-43 was manager of the St. Louis loan agency of the R.F.C. Was executive vice president and director of the Defense Plant Corp., Washington, D.C., 1940-43. Appointed Federal loan administrator in 1945 but resigned to become director of Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion. From 1943-45 he was vice president of the First National Bank, St. Louis. Since 1953 he has been chairman of finance committee, director and executive vice president of the Overland Corp. Member of Steele Lodge No. 634, Steele, Mo.


            Oscar P. Snyder Major General and Chief of Army Dental Corps, 1954-56. Member of faculty of College of Dentistry, Ohio State University, since 1957. b. Jan. 6, 1895 in Millersburg, Ohio. Received dental degree from Ohio State U. in 1916, and was commissioned 1st lieutenant in U.S. Army Dental Corps in that year, advancing to brigadier general in 1948 and major general in 1954. In 194244 he was chief dental surgeon of S.W. Pacific Theatre; Fitzsimons General Hospital, 1945-48; director of


166 Haym Solomon dental activities, Army Medical Center, Washington, 1948-53. Retired, 1956. Became member of Cedar Lodge No. 430, Orrville, Ohio in 1920. Once affiliated with both York and Scottish Rites as well as Shrine in Rockford, Ill., but now dimitted. Is charter member and past president of National Sojourner chapters at Walter Reed Hospital (303), Washington, D.C. and Fort Sam Houston (370), Texas.


            Reginald C. Snyder (1873-1941) Newspaper publisher. b. Sept. 25, 1873 in Findlay, Ohio. Purchased Coshocton Daily Age in 1907 and Evening Herald and Daily Reflector of Norwalk, Ohio in 1912, merging the latter two. In 1929 he purchased and merged the Sandusky Register and Star Journal. Was president of Sandusky Newspapers, Inc., and Associated Ohio Dailies. Vice president of Press Congress of the World. Member of Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 64, Norwalk, Ohio, receiving degrees on Feb. 1, March 20, 1915 and April 5, 1916. d. Oct. 3, 1941.


            George Soane A non-Mason; published one of the earliest essays in the attempt to prove that Freemasonry originated in Rosicrucianism.


            Fernando Figueredo Socarras (18461929) Cuban patriot. b. Feb. 9, 1846 in Camaguey, Cuba. Entered Troy (N.Y.) Polytechnic Academy in 1864, and while there organized a patriotic club of 60 Cuban students to assist in a revolution for Cuban independence. It was also in Troy that he was raised in King Solomon's Lodge No. 91, Jan., 1868. He sailed for Cuba with Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, q.v., "Father of Cuba," and became a lieutenant in the Cuban Army. He went to the Dominican Republic, where he became orator and senior warden of Restauracion Lodge at Puerta Plata. Later, he settled in Key West, Fla.,and became an American citizen. Here he joined Dr. Felix Varela Lodge No. 64 and served as its master for several years. In 1885, he was elected to the state house of representatives. He then settled in Tampa where he again became interested in a movement to free Cuba from Spanish rule. With other Cuban emigrants, he founded the city of West Tampa, Fla., and became its mayor. A charter member of Francisco Vicente Aguilera Lodge, and was its master from 189498. Assisted in raising funds for the fight for Cuban independence, and when it was won, returned to his native land. On Sept. 18, 1899 he was made sovereign prince of Rose Croix in Humildad Chapter, Cienfuegos. In 1900, General Leonard Wood, governor of the island under American occupation, and a Mason, appointed Socarras, as secretary of interior and state. On April 29, 1900, he and other Cuban patriots were granted a charter for Logia Cobe. He served as master in 1901-06 and 1909-20. He became grand master of the Grand Lodge of Cuba in 1907, and served as grand treasurer from 1910-26. Was master of the Rose Croix chapter in Havana for several years, and in 1909 was grand master of ceremony of the Supreme Council AASR (SJ). d. April 13, 1929.


            Charles, Duke of Sodermanland (see Charles XIII of Sweden).


            Duke of Sodermanland (see Oscar I).


            Axel Solitander Became first grand master of Grand Lodge of Finland on Aug. 9, 1924. Was one time Finnish consul general in New York City and government officer in Helsinki. Became master of Lodge Suoni No. 1, Finland in Aug., 1922. A contemporary of Sibelius, q.v.


            Haym Solomon (see under Salomon).


            167 Anastasio Somoza Anastasio Somoza (1896-1956) President of Nicaragua, 1939-47 and 1950-56. b. Feb. 1, 1896 in San Marcos, Nicaragua. After graduating from the Institute Nacional de Oriente at Granada, he attended the Pierce School in Philadelphia, Pa. He became administrator of taxes for department of Leon in 1925, and the following year participated in the revolution of the Nationalist Liberal Party. He became governor of the department of Leon, ambassador to Costa Rica, second in command under President Moncada, undersecretary of foreign relations and minister of war. Was named chief director of auxiliary army of Nicaragua in 1932, and chief director of the national guard under President Sacasa. Following his first term as president he was again head of the national guard under President Arguello, and minister of war under presidents Lacayo Sacasa and Roman y Reyes. Upon the death of the latter he was named president by congress, and reelected by the Liberalist Party for a six-year term beginning in 1950. His son of the same name succeeded him as president in 1956. He was raised a Master Mason in Managua on April 21, 1939, and shortly afterwards, while on a visit to the United States, was made an honorary member of the Spanish lodge, Cervantes No. 5, in New Orleans under the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. d. Sept. 29, 1956.


            Gilberto M. Sotomayor Peruvian physician. b. March 29, 1903 in Morropon, Pirura, Peru. Graduate of the medical school of National Univ. of San Marcos, Lima, in 1931. He has served as president of the Children's Hospital Medical Assn.; Children's Hospital Society; Sports Medical Assn.; Daniel A. Carrion Medical Assn.; and the Peruvian Medical Assn. He has attended many inter-American conferences on children's medical service, national surgery con-gresses and conferences of International Congress of American Surgeons College. Became member of Lodge Virtue and Union No. 3 in 1943 and master in 1947-48. Has held many grand lodge positions, and in 1951-55 was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Peru; member of Supreme Council AASR of Peru and 33°. In 1951-52 he was president of the executive committee of the Inter-American Masonic Confederation, and in 1954 and 1955 attended the Grand Masters' Conference in Washington, D.C.


            Carlos Soublette (1790-1870) President of Venezuela, 1843-47. Was a general and secretary of war of Venezuela, 1836-39. In exile, 1848-58. Was third sovereign grand commander of the Supreme Council of Venezuela, AASR from 1850-55.


            George Soule (1834-1926) Founded (1856) and was president of the Soule Commercial College and Literary Institute, New Orleans. b. May 14, 1834 in Barrington, N.Y. Was an expert accountant and lecturer on social and educational problems. Served as a lieutenant colonel, C.S.A. in Civil War. A past grand commander of the Grand Commandery, K.T. of Louisiana and member of the Grand Encampment, K.T., U.S.A. Wrote a number of books on arithmetic, accounting, and business problems. Received degrees in Quitman Lodge No. 76, New Orleans, La. on April 1, 15, May 15, 1859 and life member in 1887. Master of lodge in 1877-78. Affiliated with Orleans-Delta Chapter No. 1, R.A.M. in 1882 from Polar Star Chapter. Greeted in Holland Council No. 1, R. & S.M. in 1878 and later affiliated with Louisiana Council No. 2. Knighted in Indivisible Friends Cornmandery No. 1, K.T. March 18, 1860; commander in 1878; grand commander in 1881. 32° AASR and member of Jerusalem Shrine Temple, New Orleans. d. Jan. 26, 1926.


            168 Nicholas Jean de Dieu Soult Joshua Soule (1781-1867) Methodist Bishop. b. Aug. 1, 1781 in Bristol, Maine. Joined the church when 16, and the following year traveled with a presiding elder as a "boy preacher." When 23, he was placed in charge of the church organization in Maine, as a presiding elder. Helped draft the constitution of the general conference of 1813, which remained church law for several decades. At the conference of 1816 he was elected editor of the Methodist Magazine. In 1820 he was elected bishop, and declined, but accepted the office in 1824. In 1844, at the general conference held in New York, when Bishop James 0. Andrew, who had become involved in the complications of the slavery question, was asked to desist. Soule sided with him, causing the church to split into Northern and Southern groups—a break unhealed for almost 100 years. He became the senior bishop of the Southern group. d. March 6, 1867 in Nashville, Tenn. Mason.


            Pierre Soule (1801-1870) U.S. Senator from Louisiana, 1847 and 184953; U.S. Minister to Spain, 1953-55. b. Aug. 28, 1801 in Castillon, near Bordeaux, France. Attended a Jesuit College at Toulouse, but rebelled and quit after a year, going to an academy in Bordeaux. He took part in a plot against Louis XIV, was detected, and fled to the Pyrenees, where he worked as a shepherd for a year. Went to Paris, where he engaged in journalism, supporting the extreme liberal faction. He was imprisoned for publishing revolutionary articles in 1825, but escaped and made his way to England, Haiti, and then to the U.S. He first settled in Baltimore, Md. and later in New Orleans, La., where he studied law and began practice there. Was a member of the state senate in 1845 and elected to fill vacancy in U.S. Senate in 1847. He was elected the next year, but resigned to become U.S. minister to Spain, with instructions to attempt to settle the Cuban situation. In Spain, his son fought a duel with the Duke of Alva, and a resulting duel followed between the elder Soule and the French ambassador, Marquis de Turgot. Soule crippled de Turgot for life. While in the senate he favored secession, but when Louisiana eventually did secede, he had reversed himself, although he abided by his state's action. When New Orleans was captured, he was arrested and imprisoned in Fort Lafayette for several months. He later served on the staff of General Beauregard and was made brigadier general for special service. He moved to Havana, Cuba, but eventually returned to New Orleans. He was master of Polar Star Lodge No. 5 (L'Etoille Polaire) of New Orleans in 1833, and served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. He was a Royal Arch Mason and 33° AASR (SJ). d. March 26, 1870.


            Robert H. Soule (1900-1952) Major General, U.S. Army. b. Feb. 10, 1900 in Laramie, Wyo. Was commissioned second lieutenant in 1918 and advanced through grades to major general in 1950. In WWI he was with the 31st Infantry, and then served in Siberia and the Philippines. From 1929-33 he was attached to American legation in Peking, China, and with War Department general staff, 194142. He was commander of the 11th Airborne Division in 1943-45, and military attache at Nanking, China, 1946-50. He was later commanding general of the 3rd Infantry in Korea and inspector of Army Field Forces at Fort Monroe, Va. Mason and Shriner. d. Jan. 26, 1952.


            Nicholas Jean de Dieu Soult (17691851) Duke of Dalmatia, Marshal of France. Won distinction under Massena at Zurich in 1799 and in defense of Genoa in 1800. Created marshal by Napoleon in 1804. Was at Austerlitz,


169 John Philip Sousa Jena, Pultusk, Preussich-Eylau. Created Duke of Dalmatia in 1807. Served in Spain, 1808-11; conquered Andalusia in 1810, but suffered defeat at La Albuera in 1811. He was minister of war under Louis XVIII, 1814-15, and rallied to Napoleon on his return from Elba. He lived in exile, 1815-19, but was recalled to France and again appointed marshal; was minister of war, 1830-34 and 1840-44. Was a 33° AASR and second grand surveillant of the Grand Chapter General of France. After his defeat by the Duke of Wellington, his Masonic apron was found in his tent and became the property of Lodge St. Nathalan, Tulloch-in-Mar, where it was preserved until 1851. It was then given to the grand lodge for return to its owner. It reached Soult, through the British ambassador, shortly before his death.


            John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) American bandmaster and composer, known as "The March King." b. Nov. 6, 1854 in Washington, D.C. He was a teacher of music at 15 and a conductor at 17. He was leader of the U.S. Marine Corps Band, 1880-92, and after that of his own band, with which he successfully toured the world. Among his most famous marches are Semper Fidelis, 1888; Washington Post March, 1889; Liberty Bell, 1893; King Cotton, 1897; Stars and Stripes Forever, 1897; and Hands Across the Sea, 1899. Among his comic operas were El Capitan and The Bride Elect. He probably had more influence on martial music than any other composer or band leader. A member of Hiram Lodge No. 10, Washington, D.C., he petitioned June 3, was initiated July 15, and raised, Nov. 18, 1881. A member of Eureka Chapter No. 4, R.A.M., Washington, he was knighted in Columbia Commandery No. 2, K.T., Dec. 10, 1886, and was a member of the Almas Shrine Temple, all of Washington. At the time of his death he had been a Mason more than 50 years.


            Masonic services were conducted by his lodge at the Congressional Cemetery. d. March 6, 1932.


            Thomas, 2nd Baron of Southwell Grand Master, Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1743.


            Thomas George, Viscount Southwell Grand Master of Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1753.


            Solemn Southwick (1773-1839) Anti-Mason. b. Dec. 25, 1773 in Newport, R.I., where his father was editor of the Mercury and an active patriot. He first entered a printing office in N.Y.C.; in 1792 moved to Albany, N.Y., where he was employed by his brother-in-law on the Albany Register. He became a partner and later, 1808, sole editor. He held many local offices at this time, and his paper was a great influence in the Democratic party. He lost party support in a quarrel and the paper was discontinued in -1817. He then established The Plough.boy, first agricultural paper of the state. Subsequently he edited the Christian Visitant, a religious periodical, and the National Democrat, in opposition to the majority of his party. He ran for governor of New York on the Anti-Masonic ticket, and for several years published the National Observer, which he founded in the interest of that party. He then retired from public life, and between 1831-37, delivered lectures on the Bible, temperance, and self-education. Many of his addresses and pamphlets were published, including A Solemn Warning Against Free-Masonry, 1827. He received the degrees in Union Lodge, Albany, N.Y., Jan. 26, March 8, 22, 1796. In the same year, he was a petitioner for Temple Lodge No. 14 of Albany, but does not appear as a member. In 1806 Union Lodge became Mount Vernon Lodge No. 3. He did become a member of this lodge, but


170 John Spargo did not sign the by-laws of 1806. d. Nov. 18, 1839.


            Cyril S. Spackman Artist. b. Aug. 15, 1887 in Cleveland, Ohio. Attended Kings College, London. Exhibited at Chicago Art Institute, Cleveland Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, and Corcoran Gallery of Art. Also in London, Liverpool, Hull, Brighton, Bradford in England, and in Paris. Designed Masonic Peace Memorial medal and other Masonic medals. Painted The Nativity, The Crucifixion, The Ascension, as altar panels of 13th century church in Grosmont, England. Has executed a number of heads in stone. A Mason and Knight Templar, he is past provincial grand senior warden of Surrey.


            Edward E. Spafford (1878-1941) National commander of American Legion, 1927-28. b. March 12, 1878 in Springfield, Vt. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy in 1901. Resigned from Navy as lieutenant commander in 1914, but returned in WWI. Raised in Delta Lodge No. 451, Brooklyn, N.Y., April 15, 1924. d. Nov. 13, 1941.


            Richard D. Spaight, Jr. (1796-1850) Governor of North Carolina, 1835-37; U.S. Congressman to 18th Congress, 1823-25. b. in New Bern, N. Car. in 1796; his father of the same name (not a Mason however) had also served as governor of the state. Graduate of U. of North Carolina in 1815 and admitted to the bar in 1818, practicing in New Bern. Member of state house of commons, 1819-22 and state senate, 1825-26. Member of St. Johns Lodge No. 3, he was elected junior warden of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina in 1822 and grand master in 1830. He was also high priest of Eureka Chapter No. 7, R.A.M., when it was organized. d. May 2, 1850.


            Rufus P. Spalding (1798-1886) U.S. Congressman from Ohio to 38th-40th Congresses, 1863-69; Associate Justice Supreme Court of Ohio, 1849-52. b. May 3, 1798 in West Tisbury, Mass. Graduate of Yale in 1817, studied law, and began practice in Little Rock, Ark. in 1820. Moved to Ravenna, Ohio in 1835, and later to Cleveland. Member of state house of representatives in 1839-42. Was first master of Akron Lodge No. 48, Akron, Ohio in 1841. Also member of old Jerusalem Lodge No. 19. d. Aug. 29, 1886.


            Simon Spalding (1742-1814) Revolutionary soldier, and later general of Pennsylvania militia. b. Jan. 16, 1742 in Plainfield, Conn., moving to Wyoming, Pa. in 1772. Was a lieutenant and later a captain, June, 1778, in the American Revolution. Was present at Bound Brook, N.J., April 13, 1777, and the escape of the Americans with slight loss was largely due to his personal efforts. Served until the close of the war. In May, 1783 he moved to Shesequin, Bradford Co., Pa. Member of Rural Amith Lodge No. 70, Athens, Pa. d. Jan. 24, 1814.


            Harrison E. Spangler Chairman of Republican National Committee, 194244, and general counsel of same, 194448. b. June 10, 1879 in Guthrie Co., Iowa. Graduate of U. of Iowa in 1903 and 1905. In law practice at Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Served as private in Spanish-American War. Mason; 32° AASR (SJ) in Cedar Rapids.


            John Spargo Author and antiquarian. b. Jan. 31, 1876 in Cornwall, England. At the age of 18 he was identified with the Socialict cause in England, and publicly opposed the Boer War. Came to U.S. in 1901, and has since been active as a lecturer, writer, and political worker. He was the U.S. delegate to the International Socialist and Trade Union Congress at Copenhagen in 1910; served several years on the national executive committee of the Socialist party; was a delegate to all leading conventions of that party, and state chairman of Vermont.


            171 John Sparkman He resigned from the Socialist party in May, 1917. Was temporary chairman of the National Party, organized in 1918, and director of propaganda and educational activities of same. Is a founder of Prospect House Social Settlement, Yonkers, and director-curator of Bennington Historical Museum and Art Gallery, Bennington, Vt. Has written dozens of books, many on socialism, communism, labor, capital, Vermont, and early American history. In the Masonic field he has written One Hundred Years of Masonry in Bennington, Vt.; Lieut. Col. Joseph Wait of Rogers' Rangers, Freemason and Pioneer Vt. Settler; Freemasonry's Link to Operative Masonry and the Mediaeval Guilds. In 1917, with Samuel Gompers, q.v., he founded the American Alliance for Labor and Democracy. Was with U.S. government in Italy in 1918, and appointed by President Wilson as a member of the Industrial Conference in 1919. A Knight Templar and 33° AASR (NJ), he is grand historian of the grand lodge, grand chapter, and grand cornmandery of Vermont. Member of Royal Order of Scotland; Red Cross of Constantine; grand prior of Vermont Priory, Knights York Cross of Honour.


            John Sparkman U.S. Senator from Alabama since 1946. U.S. Congressman to 75th-79th Congresses, 193747. b. Dec. 20, 1899 in Morgan Co., Ala. Graduate of U. of Alabama in 1921, 1923 and 1924. Admitted to bar in 1925, and practiced at Huntsville, 1925-30. Was raised in Tuscaloosa (Ala.) Lodge No. 785 on Jan. 11, 1922, and later dimitted to Helion Lodge No. 1, Huntsville. Was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Alabama in 1948-49. Member of Eastern Star.


            Will M. Sparks (1872-1950) Judge of U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, 7th circuit, 1929-49. b. April 28, 1872 in Charlottesville, Ind. Graduate of DePauw U. in 1896. Admitted to Indiana bar, and was a circuit court judge for many years. Received degrees in Phoenix Lodge No. 62, Rushville, Ind. on April 15, May 9, 29, 1895. A Knight Templar, he was grand commander of Knights Templar of Indiana in 1926. d. Jan. 7, 1950.


            Count Axel Wrede Sparre (17081772) Swedish Major General. Was governor general of Stockholm. Initiated in Paris in 1731, he was raised in 1733. After his return to Sweden, he founded the first Masonic lodge in that country at Stockholm in 1735, named after its founder, Grey Wrede Sparres. It ceased to work in the middle of the 18th century.


            Oliver L. Spaulding (1833-1922) Union Brigadier General of Civil War; U.S. Congressman to 27th Congress, 1881-83, from Mich.; Assistant Secretary of Treasury, 1890-93 and 18971903. b. Aug. 2, 1833 in Jaffrey, N.H. Graduate of Oberlin Coll. in 1855, and admitted to bar in 1858. Entered Civil War as captain of Co. A, 23rd Mich. Inf. in 1862, and breveted brigadier general of volunteers on June 25, 1865. Was regent of U. of Michigan, 1859-64; secretary of state of Michigan, 1866-70. He declined appointment as U.S. judge of Utah Territory in 1871. Was a special agent of U.S. Treasury, in 1885 and 1889-90. His son, of the same name, was also a brigadier general and Mason, q.v. Initiated July 15, 1861 in St. Johns Lodge No. 105, St. Johns, Mich. and raised Aug. 2, 1861. Elected senior deacon the same year. Returning from the war in 1865, he was elected senior warden, and was master two years, 1866-67. In 1881 he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Michigan. In capitular Masonry, he was exalted in Grand Rapids Chapter No. 7, R.A.M., Nov. 20, 1863, and was charter member and first king of St. Johns Chapter No. 45, when organized in 1866.


            172 Merritt C. Speidel Was high priest in 1867, and grand high priest of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M., of Michigan in 1877. Greeted in Ionia Council No. 12, R. & S.M. in 1866, he was grand master of the Grand Council of Michigan in 1869. Knighted in DeMolay Commandery No. 5, Grand Rapids, Jan. 29, 1864, he was charter member and first commandery of St. Johns Commandery No. 24, K.T. In 1872 he was grand commander of St. Johns Commandery, K.T. of Michigan. d. July 30, 1922.


            Oliver L. Spaulding, Jr. (1875-1947) Brigadier General, U.S. Army. b. June 27, 1875 in St. Johns, Mich., the son of Oliver L. Spaulding, q.v., who was a brevet brigadier general in the Civil War and assistant secretary of the U.S. Treasury. Graduate of U. of Michigan in 1895 and 1896; of Harvard U. in 1932. Entered army as second lieutenant of artillery in 1898, and retired as a brigadier general in 1939. Was recalled to active duty in 1941 and taught at Army War College. He saw service in Alaska, China relief expedition, Philippine insurrection, Panama, Mexican Border, and with A.E.F. in France in WWI as a brigadier general. He taught at several Army service schools, and was professor of military science at Harvard, 1931-35. He lectured on military history at Lowell Institute, Boston, and George Washington U., 1939-41. In WWI he was chief of the historical section of the general staff, A.E.F. Among his writings are Notes on Field Artillery; Warfare; The United States Army in War and Peace; and The Second Division., A.E.F., in France. d. March 27, 1947.


            Tristram E. "iris" Speaker Member of Baseball Hall of Fame at Cooperstown, N.Y. in 1937. b. Aug. 4, 1888 in Hubbard City, Texas. He was the greatest centerfielder of his day. His lifetime batting average was .344.


            He was manager of the Cleveland American League team in 1920 when it won its first pennant and world championship. Always with the American League, he played for Boston, 1909-15; Cleveland, 1916-26; Washington, 1927; and Philadelphia, 1928. Member of Hubbard City Lodge No. 530, Hubbard City, Texas.


            John C. Speaks (1859-1945) U.S. Congressman to 67th-71st Congresses, 1921-31, from 12th Ohio dist. b. Feb. 11, 1859 in Canal Winchester, Ohio. In milling and lumber business. State conservation officer of Ohio, 1907-18. Served 40 years in Ohio National Guard, from private to brigadier general. Major of Ohio Volunteers in Spanish-American War. Member of Potter Lodge No. 540, Canal Winchester, Ohio, receiving degrees on June 24, July 8, 22, 1885. Knight Templar and 32° AASR (NJ). d. Nov. 6, 1945.


            Albert M. Spear (1852-1929) Justice, Supreme Court of Maine, 190223. b. March 17, 1852 in Madison, Maine. Graduate of Bates Coll., 1875. Taught school, 1868-75; was principal of Anson Academy, 1876-77; admitted to bar in 1878, he practiced at Hallowell until 1885, and then at Gardiner. Served in both branches of state legislature. Was grand commander of Grand Commandery, K.T. of Maine in 1899 and grand master of Grand Lodge of Maine, 1922. d. Jan. 31, 1929.


            J. Zach Spearing (1864-1942) U.S. Congressman to 59th-71st Congresses, 1925-31, from 2nd La. dist. b. April 23, 1864 in Alto, Texas. Admitted to La. bar in 1886, and began practice in New Orleans. First appointed to congress to fill vacancy. Member of Louisiana Lodge No. 102, New Orleans; Jerusalem Shrine Temple and National Sojourners. d. Nov. 2, 1942.


            Merritt C. Speidel (1879-1960) Newspaper editor and publisher. b.


            173 Brent Spence May 19, 1879 in Port Jervis, N.Y. Interested in journalism since boyhood, he began with the Tri-States Publishing Co. of Port Jervis, N.Y., and became editor of the Port Jervis Daily Union. Purchased the Piqua. (Ohio) Daily Call in 1910; Iowa. City Press-Citizen. in 1921, and moved to Iowa; moved to Palo Alto, Calif. in 1937, and in that year established Speidel Newspapers, Inc., national newspaper service and research organization. President of Speidel Newspapers, Inc. (papers in 7 states) ; pres. of Press-Citizen Co. (Ia.); Chillicothe (Ohio) Newspapers, Inc.; Salinas (Calif.) Newspapers, Inc.; Fort Collins (Colo.) Newspapers, Inc.; Reno (Nev.) Newspapers, Inc.; Poughkeepsie (N.Y.) Newspapers, Inc.; and Western Horseman, Inc. Mason; received 32° AASR (SJ) in Iowa June 2, 1930. Had several transfers of membership, including Dayton, Ohio (NJ). d. March 20, 1960.


            Brent Spence U.S. Congressman from Kentucky to 72nd-86th Congresses, 1931-60. b. Dec. 24, 1874 in Newport, Ky. Graduate of Law School, U. of Cincinnati, and admitted to Ky. bar in 1895, practicing at Newport. In state senate, 1904-08. Received 1st and 2nd degrees in Robert Burns Lodge No. 163, Newport, Ky. on March 23, July 17, 1907, and third degree in Fort Thomas Lodge No. 808, Fort Thomas, Ky. and made life member of same. Member of Ft. Thomas Chapter No. 177, R.A.M. and 32° AASR (SJ) at Covington, Ky. Member of Grotto.


            Edward William Spencer (see 10th Duke of Devonshire).


            Herbert L. Spencer (1894-1960) President of Samuel H. Kress Foundation, N.Y.C., since 1949; President of Pennsylvania College for Women, Pittsburgh, 1935-45; President of Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pa., 1945-49. b. July 13, 1894 in Whitney Point, N.Y. Graduate of Carnegie Inst. of Technology, 1921, and U. of Pittsburgh in 1934. Was a mechanical engineer with various industrial organizations, and then a teacher in Pittsburgh. Member of Monongahela Lodge No. 269, Pittsburgh, Pa., receiving degrees on Dec. 15, 1922, Jan. 19, Feb. 16, 1923. 33° AASR (NJ). d. Jan. 29, 1960.


            John W. Spencer (1864-1939) Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Indiana, 1912-19. b. March 7, 1864 in Mt. Vernon, Ind. Began law practice at Evansville, Ind. in 1885. Became member of Reed Lodge No. 316, Evansville, Ind. in 1905 but dimitted in 1919. d. June 28, 1939.


            Mickhail M. Speransky (1772-1839) Russian count and statesman. He accompanied Czar Alexander I to the conference with Napoleon at Erfurt in 1806, and was described by Napoleon as "the only clear head in Russia." He was minister of state, 1809-12; governor general of Siberia and member of the council of state in 1821. He was initiated at a secret meeting of the Lodge of the Polar Star (Fessler's lodge), probably at the request of Alexander I, q.v., for he was later a member of a governmental committee to look into the political status of all Masonic lodges.


            George W. Speth (1847-1901) A founder and first secretary of the English research lodge, Quatuor Coronati No. 2076. b. in 1847, he was initiated in the Lodge of Unity No. 183, London, and master of same in 1876. In 1881 he published a history of the lodge. He served the research lodge as secretary from 1886-1901. Author of many Masonic articles, particularly for AQC. d. April 19, 1901.


            John C. Spooner (1843-1919) U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, 1885-91 and 1897-1907. b. Jan. 6, 1843 in Lawrenceburg, Ind. Moved to Madison, Wis. in


174 Peleg Sprague


1859. Graduate of U. of Wisconsin in 1864. Served with 40th Wis. Inf. in Civil War, and was later secretary to Governor Lucius Fairchild, q.v., in 1866-67. Admitted to the bar in 1867, he was assistant attorney general of Wis., and in general practice at Madison from 1867-70. From 1870-84 he practiced at Hudson, Wis. Was a regent of the U. of Wisconsin, 1882-85; member of state assembly, 1872. He resigned as senator, May 1, 1907, to enter law practice in New York City. He was known as one of the most brilliant men in the senate at that time. A personal friend and confidant of President Theodore Roosevelt, three presidents—McKinley, Roosevelt and Taft—offered him a place in their cabinets, but he declined all. A member of Hiram Lodge No. 50 at Madison, he received the degrees, Feb. 20, March 20, 1865, and Jan. 25, 1867. He was a member of Madison Chapter No. 4, R.A.M., and a Knight Templar. d. June 11, 1919.


            Count Antonius Sporck (1662-1738) The first true Mason in Bohemia. An adherent to the teachings of Comenius, benefactor of the poor and enemy of the Jesuits. He preached the return of the original Christian life, erected churches and benevolent institutions, protected art, and upheld the connections with the most prominent savants of that time. He was first master of The Three Stars Lodge. All the enemies of the monarchy, dynasty, and the Jesuits gathered into this lodge. At the request of the priest, Konais, famous destroyer of Bohemian literature, Sporck's library of more than 30,000 volumes was confiscated, and Count Sporck himself tried before the bishops' consistory at Hradec, Kralovi (Koeinigrantz) as a heretic.


            Edward W. Spottswood (1866-1951) General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, 1946-48. b. Jan. 2, 1866 in Lake City, Minn., Graduate of medical school of U. of Minnesota in 1893, he located in Missoula, Mont. Was assistant chief surgeon of the Western division of the Northern Pacific Railway, and after 1903, chief surgeon, resigning in 1908 for private practice. He retired from active practice in 1940. Was past president of the state medical board. Raised in Missoula Lodge No. 12, May 4„ 1897, was its master twice, and grand master of the Grand Lodge of Montana in 1925-26. Exalted in Western Sun Chapter No. 11, R.A.M., Missoula, Nov. 6, 1897, was high priest in 1919, and grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of Montana, 1927-28. Although he was elected general grand high priest of the General Grand Chapter for the term 1946-48, he was too ill to serve actively as such. Greeted in Tyrian Council No. 3, R. & S.M. of Missoula, May 10, 1917, he was master in 1920, and grand master of Grand Council, R. & S.M. of Montana in 1924-25. Knighted in St. Omer Commandery No. 9, K.T., Missoula, on Feb. 11, 1898, he was commander in 1919, and grand commander of the Grand Commandery, K.T., of Montana in 1932-33. Member of St. Peter's Conclave, Red Cross of Constantine; past sovereign and intendant general. Received 33° AASR (SJ) in 1939. Member of Algeria Shrine Temple of Helena and potentate in 1926. d. May 13, 1951.


            John de Spoulee He is claimed to have presided over the Freemasons of England in 1350, in the reign of Edward III. Dr. Anderson stated that he was called Master of the Ghiblim in his 1738 Constitutions.


            Peleg Sprague (1793-1880) U.S. Senator from Maine, 1829-35; U.S. Congressman from Maine, 19th-21st Congresses, 1825-29. b. April 27, 1793 in Duxbury, Mass. Graduate of Harvard in 1812, studied law at Litchfield Law School, and admitted to bar in


175 William Sprague


1815. Commenced law practice in Augusta, Maine, but moved to Hallowell in 1817. After his resignation as U.S. senator in 1835, he practiced in Boston, Mass. He was a member of the lower house of Maine in 182122, and an incorporator of the Maine Historical Society in 1822. He was U.S. district judge of Mass. from 184165. Member of Kennebec Lodge No. 5, Hallowell, Maine, he was corresponding grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of Maine in 1822, district deputy grand master in 1825, and deputy grand master in 1828. Member of Jerusalem Chapter No. 4, R.A.M., Hallowell, serving as high priest in 1825. d. Oct. 13, 1880.


            William Sprague (1830-1915) U.S. Senator from Rhode Island, 1863-75; Governor of Rhode Island, 1860-63. b. Sept. 12, 1830 in Cranston, R.I. Was in calico-printing business, and also the manufacture of locomotives. Was a colonel of marine artillery of R.I. militia in 1860, and at start of Civil War declined a commission as brigadier general. He was an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1883. An uncle of the same name (but not a Mason) was also governor of R.I. in 1838-39. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 2, Providence, R.I. d. in Paris, France, Sept. 11, 1915.


            Edward Spratt Editor of an Irish edition of Anderson's Constitutions of 1738, published at Dublin in 1751. He was grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of Ireland.


            Claus A. Spreckels (1828-1908) Capitalist. b. in Hanover in 1828, coming to the U.S. in 1846. He worked at Charleston, S. Car. and N.Y., going to San Francisco in 1856. Here he conducted a store, and later a brewery. Established Bay Sugar Refinery in 1863, procuring raw material from Hawaii. He invented a new refining process; acquired sugar properties in Hawaii, and was a large owner in the Oceanic Steamship Co., plying between San Francisco and Honolulu. He was a brother of John D. Spreckels, q.v., and both were members of Oriental Lodge No. 144, San Francisco. d. 1908.


            John D. Spreckels (1853-1921) Capitalist. b. Aug. 16, 1853 in Charleston, S. Car., a brother of Claus A. Spreckels, q.v. In 1880 he founded J. D. Spreckels & Bros., shipping and commission merchants. He was president of the Oceanic Steamship Co. (mail and passenger line to Hawaii), Western Sugar Refining Co., Spreckels Sugar Co., Coronado Beach Co., Hotel del Coronado, Coronado Tent City, San Diego Electric Railway Co., Coronado Water Co., San Diego & Coronado Ferry Co., United Light, Fuel and Power Co., San Diego & Arizona Railway Co., and other companies. He registered the first automobile in Calif. (a White Steamer) on May 5, 1905. A member of Oriental Lodge No. 144 and San Francisco Chapter No. 1, both of San Francisco. d. Aug. 8, 1921.


            Christian F. K. von Sprengseisen (1731-1809) German Mason of note. b. Saalfield, Germany in 1731. Was an ardent adherent of Von Hund, q.v., and admirer of his Templar system. In 1786 he wrote the book, Anti Saint Nicaise, in defense of the system and against spiritual templarism. d. Jan. 11, 1809.


            Raymond S. Springer (1882-1947) U.S. Congressman to 76th-80th Congresses; 1939-49, from 10th Ind. dist. b. April 26, 1882 in Rush Co., Ind. Graduate of Indiana Law School in 1904. Was county attorney and circuit judge. Practiced law at Connersville from 1922. Candidate for governor in 1932 and 1936. Served as captain of Infantry in WWI. Received degrees in Warren Lodge No. 15,


176 Mary Sproule Connersville, Ind. on May 28, June 10, July 1, 1909 and was master in 1914. d. Aug. 28, 1947.


            William L. Springer U.S. Congressman to 82nd-86th Congresses, 195160, from 22nd dist. b. April 12, 1909 in Sullivan, Ind. Graduate of DePauw U. in 1931 and U. of Illinois in 1935. In law practice at Champaign, from 1935. Served as states attorney and county judge. With Navy in WWII, advancing to lieutenant commander. Member of Western Star Lodge No. 240, Champaign, Ill., being raised Aug. 29, 1945.


            Elliott White Springs Flying ace of WWI; manufacturer and author. b. July 31, 1896 in Lancaster, S. Car. Graduate of Culver Military Academy in 1913 and Princeton U. in 1917. As a test pilot, he flew in first cross country airplane race (N.Y.C. to Toronto) in 1919. Enlisted as a private in aviation corps in 1917, training with the R.F.C. Rose to captain, and was officially credited with destroying 11 enemy planes. A cotton manufacturer, he is known as the creator of a revolutionary advertising technique for his company's Springmaid Sheets. He is president of three banks, Springs Cotton Mills, Columbia Compress, Leroy Springs & Co., Kershaw Cotton Mills, Lancaster Cotton Mills, Fort Mill Mfg. Co., Eureka Cotton Mills, Springstein Cotton Mills and Springs Mills. A member of Catawba Lodge No. 56, Fort Mill, S. Car., he received the degrees, Nov. 30, Dec. 28, 1922, and Feb. 8, 1923.


            Ebenezer Sproat (1752-1805) Revolutionary soldier and Ohio pioneer. b. in Middleborough, Mass. Entered Provincial Army as a captain early in 1775, was promoted to lieutenant colonel and given command of the 2nd Mass. Regiment. Was in General Glover's brigade at battles of Trenton, Princeton, and Monmouth. Was appointed brigade inspector by Baron Steuben. After the war he was a surveyor at Providence, R. I., and subsequently went West, where in 1786, he began a survey of the territory now within the border of Ohio. In 1788 he led the party of emigrants that settled at Marietta, and was for 14 years sheriff and colonel of militia. He was tall and commanding in person, and known among the Indians as "The Big Buckeye"—from which Ohio derived its name of "The Buckeye State." Member of American Union Lodge No. 1, Marietta, Ohio, being raised Dec. 8, 1790. d. Feb., 1805.


            Elliott W. Sproul (1856-1935) U.S. Congressman to 67th-71st Congresses, 1921-31, from 3rd Ill, dist. b. Dec. 28, 1856 in Apohaqui, Canada. Came to U.S. in 1878 and was naturalized in 1886. Was a building contractor in Chicago from 1880, and later president of the E. W. Sproul Co. (until 1913). Raised Oct 3, 1885 in Englewood Lodge No. 690, Chicago, Ill. d. June 22, 1935.


            William C. Sproul (1870-1928) Governor of Pennsylvania, 1919-23 and industrialist. b. Sept. 16, 1870 in Octoraro, Pa. Graduate of Swarthmore Coll. in 1891. President of Chester (Pa.) Daily Times and Morning Republican; organizer and president of Seaboard Steel Casting Co.; organizer and chairman of General Refractories Co. with 15 plants; also Lebanon Iron Co., Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R.R. Organized and developed numerous railroads, mining, traction, and power enterprises in W. Va. Served 22 continuous years in Pa. state senate. A Republican primary candidate for president in 1920. Known as "father of the good roads" in Pa. Raised April 15, 1897 in Chester Lodge No. 236, Chester, Pa. Received Mark Master degree, Nov. 21, 1919. d. March 21, 1928.


            Mary Sproule Said to be Canada's only "woman Freemason." It is told


177 Amon L. Squiers that in 1783, when 10,000 refugee Loyalists from the U.S. settled in New Brunswick, they did their best to pick up their old way of life. Many of the men, who were granted land around Sussex in the Kennebecasis River Valley, were Masons in the U.S. It was not long before they formed Zion Lodge at Sussex. Scattered over a 40-mile area, they traveled to meetings by horse in the summer and snowshoe in the winter. They had no hall but met in private homes, "on the first Monday after the full moon in the calendar month," with each member taking a turn as host. Early in the 1800's they met in the two-room log house of young James Sproule. As the first brethren arrived, Mary Sproule, James' wife, picked up her candle and knitting and withdrew to the bedroom, which was separated from the main room by a curtain. It was not until the meeting was over and the candidate had been initiated, that the Rev. Oliver Arnold, Anglican rector of the parish, realized that Mrs. Sproule had been able to hear all that went on—that, in fact, she couldn't help from hearing. "You listened to the initiation ceremony," he thundered at her. "I didn't listen," she said, "but you talked so loud. . . ." The old parson turned pale, for it was prescribed that no outsider could be allowed to live after learning the secrets of initiation. It was then determined that she should be sworn in as a Freemason, and she took the oath that made her the only woman member of the Order in Canadian history. She was never to hold office, nor even to attend another meeting, but the curious incident was eventually reported in newspapers around the world, and brought fame to the little lodge in the Kennebecasis Valley. When Mary Sproule died, a stone bearing the Masonic emblem was placed over her grave. As a footnote to the story, Ralph T. Pearson, of Sussex, a direct descendant of James and Mary Sproule was grand master of the Grand Lodge of New Brunswick in 1954.


            Arnon L. Squiers (1869-1921) Justice, Supreme Court of New York, 1919-21. b. Oct. 6, 1869 in Smyrna, N.Y. Graduate of Columbia U. in 1893 and New York Law School in 1894. Was assistant professor of mathematics at Columbia U., and instructor of mathematics at Barnard Coll. until 1895. Admitted to bar in latter year, practicing in N.Y.C. Member of Anglo-Saxon Lodge No. 137, Brooklyn, N.Y., receiving degrees on May 17, June 7, 21, 1905; master in 1911; district deputy grand master of 1st Kings dist. in 1919-20. d. Oct. 28, 1921.


            St. (all names with "Saint" or "St." are grouped under the alphabetical listing of Saint for convenience).


            Edward J. Stackpole Publisher and soldier. b. June 21, 1894 in Harrisburg, Pa. Graduate of Yale in 1915. Starting as a salesman for Telegraph Press, of Harrisburg, he has been president and director since 1931. Also president, director of Radio Station WHP since 1931, Telegraph Building Corp., and The Stackpole Co., book publishers. Is director of many other companies. Was infantry captain in WWI, and later organized and commanded the 104th Cavalry of the Pa. National Guard, as well as the 22nd Cavalry Div. Served throughout WWII as brigadier general of the line. Reorganized the Pa. National Guard, and was major general, commanding 28th Inf. Division, 1946-47. Has written a number of books on the Civil War. Member of Robert Burns Lodge No. 464, Harrisburg, Pa., since 1917. 32° AASR (NJ), Zembo Shrine Temple, and National Sojourners, all of Harrisburg.


            178 Robert N. Stanfield H. Eugene Stafford (1869-1954) Medical officer, U.S. Army, and first grand master of the Grand Lodge of the Philippines. b. in Meridian, Miss. Was one of the first to be commissioned in the medical service in the Spanish-American War. Made captain and assistant surgeon in the 71st N.Y. National Guard. Was wounded by shrapnel at San Juan Hill in Cuba. Arrived in Manila, Philippines, in May, 1899, where he was in charge of the surgery department of the First Reserve Hospital. Then detailed to the Malacanan Palace as surgeon to General Arthur MacArthur, q.v. He engaged in civil practice for a time, and shortly before WWII, moved to Baguio, a mountain resort 165 miles north of Manila. In 1942 his stay was interrupted by the Japanese, who imprisoned Stafford and his wife. Here he underwent, from the hands of the Japanese, innumerable tortures which left him sightless and deaf—and from which he never recovered. Dr. Stafford raised General Douglas MacArthur, q.v., to the third degree, and MacArthur later said of him, "He was the noblest Mason of them all." Raised in Roome Lodge No. 746, N.Y.C., he was master in 1895 and 1898. He later dimitted to become charter member and first master of Manila Lodge No. 342 under Calif. (now Manila No. 1). Became a member of Jerusalem Chapter No. 8, R.A.M., New York City, March 28, 1894, and high priest of same in 1898; greeted in Adelphic Council No. 7, R. & S.M. in 1894; knighted in Coeur de Lion Commandery No. 23, K.T. of N.Y.C. on May 11, 1894, and was generalissimo in 1898. Was life member of Mecca Shrine Temple, N.Y.C., and first president of the National Sojourners in Manila. Received the 32° AASR (NJ) in Dec. 1892, and affiliated with Southern Jurisdiction, Sept. 9, 1921; KCCH in 1931 and 33° in May, 1936. Was first grand master ofthe Grand Lodge of the Philippines at its formation in Dec., 1912, and reelected the next year at the first regular meeting. d. 1954, and his ashes, together with those of his wife, were scattered over Manila Bay at sundown on Aug. 7, 1954, as ordered by his will.


            John M. Stahl (1860-1944) Writer, lecturer; leader of "good roads" movement; first to propose Rural Free Delivery; led in the movement for parcel post. b. Aug. 24, 1860 in Mendon, Ill. Was an editor of the Ohio Farmer at 18; editor of same, 1881-1916; and proprietor, 1883-1916. President of Farmers' National Life Insurance Co., 1913-24. Opposed free silver. An organizer of National Civic Federation in 1900. Declined appointment as secretary of Agriculture under Harrison, and another cabinet seat under Wilson. Was an early advocate of direct election of U.S. senators. Raised Feb. 29, 1892 in Kenwood Lodge No. 800, Chicago, Ill.; Knight Templar and 32° AASR (NJ). d. Oct. 17, 1944.


            James G. Stab'man Publisher and president of the Nashville Banner. b. Feb. 28, 1893 in Nashville, Tenn. Graduate of Vanderbilt U. in 1916. Served as private in Army in WWI, and captain in Navy in WWII. President of American Newspaper Publishers, 1932-33, and chairman of board, 1933-34. Mason, Knight Templar, 32° AASR (SJ), and past potentate of Al Menah Shrine Temple.


            John, 12th Earl of Stair (Sir John James Dalrymple) Eighty-fourth grand master Mason of Scotland, 1924-45. Peer of the Realm. Initiated in Lodge Stranraer Kilwinning No. 208 in 1905. Affiliated with Scots Lodge No. 2319 (E.C.) in 1910, and master in 1919.


            Robert N. Stanfield (1877-1945) U.S. Senator from Oregon, 1921-27. b. July 9, 1877 in Umatilla, Oreg. Engaged in


179 Leland Stanford livestock and banking. Member of state house of representatives, 191317, and speaker of same in 1917. Mason, and member of Al Kader Shrine Temple, Portland. Received degrees in Umatilla Lodge No. 90 in 1902 and dropped NPD Dec. 12, 1933. d. April 13, 1945.


            Leland Stanford (1824-1893) Founder of Leland Stanford, Jr. University, Palo Alto, Calif. in 1885 in memory of his only son; capitalist; governor of California, 1861-63, and U.S. senator from Calif., 1885-1893. b. March 9, 1824 in Watervliet, N.Y. Studied law, and admitted to practice in 1848. Moved to Port Washington, Wis. in 1848 and to Calif. in 1852, where he opened a general store at Michigan Bluff. In 1855 he moved to Sacramento and engaged in mercantile pursuits on a large scale. He was one of the "big four" who built the Central Pacific Railroad, linking the Union Pacific and the Southern Pacific lines to form the first transcontinental road, 1,776 miles long. He drove the golden spike at Promontory Point, Utah, May 10, 1869. To establish Leland Stanford, Jr. Univ. he gave $22,500,000; he is buried on the university grounds. Was raised in Prometheus (now Ozaukee) Lodge No. 17, Port Washington, Wis., in March, 1850. Dimitted from same in 1852 to become charter member and first senior deacon of Michigan City Lodge No. 47, Michigan City, Calif., on January 11, 1854. A year later he withdrew from the lodge. d. June 21, 1893.


            Philip Dormer Stanhope (see 4th Earl of Chesterfield).


            Augustus Poniatowski Stanislas, II (1732-1798) Last king of independent Poland, 1764-95. Son of Prince Stanislaw Poniatowski. Elected to the Diet in 1752. As a representative at the Russian court in 1755, he gained the favor of Catherine II, and throughher influence was made king in 1764. He was well educated and well meaning, but without strength of character. The condition of the country became anarchic, and three partitions were carried out by Russia, Austria, and Prussia. Stanislas resigned in 1795, on the third partition, and was called to St. Petersburg, where he died. He was the protector of Freemasonry, and a member of the Warsaw Lodge "Under Three Helmets" in 1777. This lodge worked under the German system of "higher" grades, and the king was knighted, assuming the name Eques Salsinatus. Nearly all his courtiers, prominent statesmen, and many aristocrats were Masons, such as Prince Kasimir Sapieha, Prince Adam Chartorysky, Ignatius Potocky, and the Priest Piatoly. Masonic ideas of tolerance and benevolence influenced the policy of the Polish government and a number of charitable institutions were organized by Polish Masons.


            Edward John Stanley (see earl of Derby).


            Wykeham Stanley (see Lord Cornwallis, 2nd Baron).


            Edwin M. Stanton (1814-1869) Attorney General of the U.S., 1860-61; Secretary of War, 1862-68, guiding the war department through the Civil War. b. Dec. 19, 1814 in Steubenville, Ohio. Admitted to the bar in 1836, and practiced at Cadiz, Ohio, returning to Steubenville in 1839. In 1848 he moved to Pittsburgh, Pa., and in 1857, to Washington, D.C. Served as attorney general under President Buchanan. Lincoln named him secretary of war, in which position he "masterminded" the Union forces, retiring General McClellan, and placing General Grant as commander-inchief of the three armies. After Lincoln's death, Stanton opposed President Johnson, and intrigued with congressional groups against him. He


180 John Stark was suspended by Johnson in Aug., 1867, but restored by act of U.S. Senate in Jan., 1868. Was dismissed by Johnson, Feb. 21, 1868, but refused to leave the office. In this the senate supported him. This led to the impeachment charges against Johnson, and when these charges failed, Stanton resigned in May, 1868. President Grant appointed him associate justice of the supreme court, but he died Dec. 24, 1869, four days after he had been confirmed by the senate. He was a member of Steubenville Lodge No. 45, Steubenville, Ohio, and upon moving to Pittsburgh, Pa., became a member of Washington Lodge No. 253 of Pittsburgh on March 25, 1851 as a charter member. He resigned on Nov. 29, 1859. d. Dec. 24, 1869.


            Johann August Von Starck (17411816) Closely connected with the history of German Freemasonry, especially with the Rite of Strict Observance. b. Oct. 29, 1741 at Schwerin. Studied at the U. of Gottingen. Made a Freemason in 1761 in a French military lodge. In 1763 he became a teacher in a public school at St. Petersburg, and it is thought that here he was adopted into the Rite of Melesine, then flourishing in the Russian capital. After two years in Russia, he went to England, and then to Paris in 1766. In 1767 he was director of schools at Wismar, where he was junior warden of the Lodge of the Three Lions. In 1770 he went to Konigsberg to occupy the chair of theology and to be court chaplain. The following year he resigned both offices and retired to Mettau to devote himself to literary and philosophical pursuits. He formed a schism from the Strict Observance, which he gave the name Clerks of Relaxed Observance. It consisted of seven degrees. Originally a Protestant, he had been secretly connected with Romanism while in Paris, and attempted to embody Roman Catholicism into his new system. In fact, he demanded that the candidate should be a Roman Catholic as a prerequisite to admission. Other groups grew suspicious of his intentions and linked him with the Jesuits. His rite diminished in popularity, and he finally withdrew from Freemasonry and wrote several anti-Masonic works, including A Treatise on Secret Catholicism, on Proselyte Making, on Jesuitism and on Secret Societies. In this book he says "It is true that when the so-called Strict Observance was introduced into Masonry I belonged to it.. . . But I have withdrawn from all that, and all that is called Freemasonry for more than nine years." Whatever his secret motives, he was an active member of the Masonic order and wrote many valuable Masonic works, including Apology for the Order of Freemasonry, 1778, and On the Design of the Order of Freemasonry, 1781. d. March 3, 1816.


            Benjamin Stark (1820-1898) U.S. Senator from Oregon, 1861-62. b. June 26, 1820 in New Orleans, La. Engaged in mercantile pursuits in N.Y.C., studied law and moved to San Francisco, Calif., where he was in the mercantile business from 1849-50. He then moved to Portland, Oreg. and was admitted to the bar in 1850. Was a member of the territorial house of representatives in 1852; served in the Oregon Indian hostilities in 1853 as a colonel; was a member of the house of representatives in 1860. He later moved to New London, Conn. where he was active in political affairs, and served in the Connecticut legislature in 1874. Received the degrees in Loge Le Progres de l'Oceanie, Honolulu, Hawaii, and later affiliated with Willamette Lodge No. 2, Portland, which he served as secretary and master. d. Oct. 10, 1898.


            John Stark (1728-1822) Major General of American Revolution and last


181 Joe Starnes surviving general officer of that war. b. Aug. 28, 1728 in Londonderry, N.H. Hunting and trapping in his early years, he was captured by the Indians, but ransomed for $103—remarking that he thought he was worth more than that. Joined the famous Rogers' Rangers as a lieutenant, and served through all the campaigns around Lake George and Lake Champlain. At the close of the Indian War, he retired to his farm at Derryfield, N.H. (now Manchester) until news of the Battle of Lexington reached him. He led several hundred neighbors to join the army at Cambridge. He was famous for his saying "Look yon, men! There are the red coats! Before the night they're ours or Molly Stark's a widow." His remark at the Battle of Bunker Hill, "Boys, aim at their waistbands," has become historical. He was in the Canadian expedition of 1776 and met with defeat. Next he was at Trenton and Princeton. Having been slighted in the promotion list, he resigned his commission and retired to his farm. Congress rebuked him, but he again entered the conflict as a brigadier general of N.H. militia, and his troops completely routed the British at the Battle of Bennington on Aug. 16, 1777. This led to the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga. For this victory, congress made him a brigadier general, Oct. 4, 1777. He commanded the Northern Department, and was a member of the court martial that condemned Major Andre of treason. At the end of the war he was breveted major general. He became a member of Masters Lodge No. 2 (later 5) at Albany, N.Y., Jan. 9, 1778. The minutes read, "The petition of Brigadier General John Starke being presented to the body, he was balloted for, met with the unanimous consent of the members present, and was initiated accordingly. Brig. Gen. John Starke paid 5 pounds for his initiation fee, 8 shil- lings to the Tyler, and 4 shillings for extra lodge." d. May 8, 1822.


            Joe Starnes U.S. Congressman to 74th-78th Congresses, 1935-45, from 5th Ala. dist. b. March 31, 1895 in Guntersville, Ala. Graduate of U. of Alabama in 1921, and in law practice at Guntersville since that time. Was member of special committee for investigating un-American activities, 75th-78th congresses, and author of the Veterans Preference Act of 1944. Member of Marshall Lodge No. 209, Guntersville, Ala., being raised in Aug., 1917; past master of same. Member of Tuscaloosa Chapter No. 1, R.A.M., Tuscaloosa Council No. 4, R. & S.M., and Tuscaloosa Commandery No. 13, K.T., all of Tuscaloosa, Ala. Member of Eastern Star at Guntersville and Zamora Shrine Temple of Birmingham.


            Floyd Starr Founder and President of Starr Commonwealth for Boys and author of the statement "There is no such thing as a bad boy." b. Decatur, Mich. Graduate of Albion Coll. in 1910. In 1913 he established the home and school for underprivileged and delinquent boys at Albion, Mich., for which has provided home, education, and guidance for 5,000 boys. A recognized pioneer in the field of social service. The Starr Commonwealth also has branches at Jackson, Mich. (advanced students) and in Van Wert, Ohio (limited to Ohio boys). Member of Murat Lodge No. 14, Albion, Mich., receiving degrees on March 18, April 1 and 22, 1924. Exalted in Albion Chapter No. 32, R.A.M. and Marshall Commandery No. 17, Marshall, Mich. 32° AASR (NJ) at Grand Rapids, Mich. Member of Saladin Shrine Temple, Grand Rapids, and Albion Chapter No. 124, O.E.S., Albion.


            Harris E. Starr Chief Associate Editor of Dictionary of American Biography,1926-36. b. May 7, 1875 in


182 Edward L. Stauffacher Phenix, R.I. Graduate of Brown U., 1897; Harvard U., 1899; Yale, 1910 and 1922. English instructor at Brown U., then ordained to ministry in Congregational Church in 1902, serving at Mansfield, Mt. Cannel, and New Haven, Conn. Director of Dictionary of Biography since 1936, and editor in chief of The Army Chaplain, official organ of the Chaplains' Association, U.S. Army, 1929-34. Served as chaplain in WWI with rank of captain. Raised in 1903 in Uriel Lodge No. 24, Merrow, Conn. Was master of same and grand chaplain of Grand Lodge of Connecticut in 1908.


            Raymond W. Starr Federal Judge, Western Michigan since 1946. b. Aug. 24, 1888 in Harbor Springs, Mich. Graduate of U. of Michigan in 1910, and practiced law at Grand Rapids. Attorney general, 1937-38, and justice of supreme court of Michigan, 194146. Member of York Lodge No. 410, Grand Rapids, Mich., receiving degrees on Dec. 12, 1921, Jan. 2, 23, 1922. 33° AASR (NJ) in Oct., 1955.


            Harold E. Stassen Governor of Minnesota, 1939-43. b. April 13, 1907 in West St. Paul, Minn. Graduate of U. of Minnesota in 1927 and 1929. Began law practice in South St. Paul. Was youngest governor in the history of the U.S. Was reelected for term 1943-45, but resigned to serve with U.S. Navy. He was personal aide and flag secretary to Admiral William P. Halsey in the South Pacific, and appointed assistant chief of staff in June, 1944. President of U. of Pennsylvania, 1948-53. Mutual Security Administrator, 1953; special assistant to president with cabinet rank to direct studies of U.S. and world disarmament; one of U.S. delegates to San Francisco Conference of United Nations in 1945. Temporary chairman and keynoter of Republican National Convention in 1940. Member of Shekinah Lodge No. 171, St. Paul, Minn., andmaster of same in 1939, while governor of state. 32° AASR (NJ) and received KCCH in 1945.


            Ellsworth M. Statler (1863-1928) Founder of the Statler Hotel system. b. Oct. 26, 1863 in Somerset Co., Pa. Founded Statler's Restaurant, Buffalo, N.Y. in 1896; built and operated hotel at Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901, and Inside Inn at St. Louis Exposition in 1904. Was president and director of Hotels Statler Co., Inc., owning and operating hotels in Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, St. Louis, and New York City. Became member of DeMolay Lodge No. 498, Buffalo, N.Y., Jan. 8, 1900. Received 33° AASR (NJ) at Buffalo, Sept. 18, 1923. d. April 16, 1928.


            Charles H. Stauffacher (1879- ) United Brethren Bishop from 1934. b. Oct. 27, 1879 in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Graduate of Des Moines U. in 1901; Western Union Coll., (Ia.) in 1927. Licensed minister in Evangelical United Brethren Church in 1901, and ordained in 1903, serving churches in Belle Plaine, Waterloo, Zearing, and Cedar Rapids, Iowa until 1917. Then served as associate secretary of General Missionary Society, 1921-22; secretary of Forward Movement, 1922-26; and field secretary of General Missionary Society, 1926-34. As bishop, was supervisor of Southwestern Area, including Ia., Mo., Kan., Neb., Colo., Okla., Texas and Calif. Mason and 33° AASR (SJ).


            Edward L. Stauffacher President of Cities Service Oil Co. of Pennsylvania. b. Sept. 25, 1901 in St. Paul, Mimi. Graduate of U. of Minnesota in 1924. Started as engineer with Cities Service Oil Co. of Del. in 1924, rising to vice president in charge of marketing, 1950-55, and director. Became vice president of Cities Service Oil Co., Ltd., 1950-55. Mason and Shriner.


            183 William Staughton William Staughton (1770-1829) Early American Baptist clergyman and college president. b. Jan. 4, 1770 in Coventry, England. Graduate of Baptist school in Bristol, England in 1792, and came to U.S. in 1793, landing at Charleston. Preached for more than a year at Georgetown, S.C.; moved to N.Y.C., and thence to N.J., residing for some time at Bordentown, and then at Burlington. Came to Philadelphia in 1805 as pastor of the 1st Baptist church. After a successful ministry there of six years, he founded a new church on Sansom St., where he served from 1811-22. Became president of Columbian College, Washington, D.C., 1822-27, and president of Georgetown Coll. (Ky.), 1829. Member of Columbia Lodge No. 91, Philadelphia, Pa. d. Dec. 12, 1829.


            Ralph F. Stearley Major General U.S. Air Force. b. July 25, 1898 in Brazil, Ind. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy, 1918, advancing through grades to brigadier general in 1943, and major general (temp.) in 1949. Director of Air Support, Hdq., Army Air Forces, 1943; A-3 with 9th Air Force, E.T.O., 1944; G-3 of first Allied Airborne Army, E.T.O., 1944-45; commanding general of 9th Tactical Air Command, E.T.O., 1945-46; deputy chief and later chief of War Dept. Special Staff Legislative and Liaison Div., 1946-48; commanding general 14th Air Force, 1948-50; commanding general of 20th Air Force, 1950-53, retiring in latter year. Now military advisor of Twigg Industries, Brazil, Ind. Received degrees in Rio Grande Lodge No. 81, Brownsville, Texas on Jan. 5, Feb. 9, March 9, 1921. Suspended NPD in 1933 and restored in 1953, transferring to Brazil Lodge No. 264, Brazil, Ind. in 1954.


            Lorenzo Stecchetti (see under Olin-do Guerrini).


            Daniel F. Steck (1881-1950) U.S. Senator from Iowa, 1926-30. b. Dec.16, 1881 in Ottumwa, Iowa. Graduate of U. of Iowa in 1906, and began law practice in Ottumwa. Served as a captain in 34th Division, A.E.F. in WWI. Was special assistant to U.S. attorney general, 1933-47. Member of Ottumwa Lodge No. 16, Ottumwa, Iowa. d. Dec. 31, 1950.


            William E. Steckler Federal judge, Southern District of Indiana since 1950. b. Oct. 18, 1913 in Mount Vernon, Ind. Graduate of Indiana Law School in 1936 and 1937. Practiced law in Indianapolis, 1937-50. Served as seaman, U.S. Navy in WWII. Raised Oct. 25, 1943 in Center Lodge No. 23, Indianapolis. Received 33° AASR (NJ) in Sept., 1956. Member of Murat Shrine Temple, active member of Order of DeMolay, and Royal Order of Jesters.


            Thomas J. Steed U.S. Congressman to 81st-86th Congresses from 4th Okla. dist. b. March 2, 1902 near Rising Star, Texas. Connected with Okla. daily newspapers for 20 years, and managing editor of the Shawnee News and Star, four years. Served in WWII from private to lieutenant. Member of So. McAlester Lodge No. 96 of McAlester, Okla. since 1925. 33° AASR (SJ) in McAlester (Indian Consistory) and member of the Shrine.


            James B. Steedman (1818-1883) Union Major General in Civil War. b. July 30, 1818 in Northumberland Co., Pa. Went to Ohio in 1837, where he was a contractor on the Wabash and Erie Canal. Member of state legislature in 1843. In 1849 organized a company to cross the plains to Calif. in search of gold, but returned to Ohio the next year. During Buchanan's administration he was public printer at Washington. At opening of Civil War he became a colonel of the 4th Ohio Regiment. Promoted to brigadier general in July, 1862; was at Perryville; commanded 1st division


184 Reuben A. Steere of the reserve corps of Army of the Cumberland; reinforced General G. H. Thomas at Battle of Chickamauga. Promoted major general in April, 1864; relieved the garrison at Dalton and defeated General Wheeler's cavalry in June, 1864. Resigned in July, 1866, after serving as provisional governor of Georgia, and was appointed by President Johnson as collector of internal revenue at New Orleans. Poor business judgment involved him in financial trouble and he returned to Ohio in 1879, where he was editor and nominal owner of the Weekly Ohio Democrat, and police chief of Toledo. Received his degrees in Northern Light Lodge No. 40, Waynesfield, Ohio in the summer in 1851. Was also a Royal Arch Mason and Knight Templar. d. Oct. 18, 1883.


            John Steele (1758-1827) Revolutionary War officer and Brigadier General of Pennsylvania militia. b. Aug. 15, 1758 in Lancaster Co., Pa. Rose to the command of a company in March, 1779, but was seriously wounded at the Battle of Brandywine, and retired from the service in Jan., 1783. Member of Pennsylvania state senate and speaker of that body in 1805. President Jefferson appointed him collector of the Port of Philadelphia in 1808, and he held that post until his death, Feb. 27, 1827. Member of Lodge No. 61, Wilkes-Barre, Pa.


            John Steele (1764-1815) First Comptroller of the U.S. Treasury; U.S. Congressman from North Carolina. b. Nov. 1, 1764 in Salisbury, N. Car. Became a merchant and successful planter. Served in state legislature in 1787, 1788, 1811-13. He was a member of the first two U.S. congresses, 1790-93. Washington made him the first comptroller of the Treasury, and he served from 1796 to 1802. Active in the state militia, he attained the rank of general. Member of Old Cone Lodge No. 9, Salisbury, N. Car. He was at one time grand pursuivant of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. d. Aug. 14, 1815.


            John B. Steele (1814-1866) U.S. Congressman to 37th-38th Congresses, 1861-65, from New York. b. March 28, 1814 in Delhi, N.Y., he graduated from Williams Coll. Williamstown, Mass., and was admitted to the bar in 1839. Began law practice at Cooperstown, N.Y. moving to Kingston in 1847. Accidentally killed near Kingston, N.Y. Sept. 24, 1866. Member of Kingston Lodge No. 10, Kingston, N.Y.


            John H. Steele Governor of New Hampshire, 1844-45. Initiated March 13, 1816 in Altemont Lodge No. 26, Peterborough, N.H.; raised April 1, 1817. Was twice master, 1826-29 and 1849-50. Was grand lecturer of the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire, 1835-37, and district deputy grand master, 1838-40 and 1851. Member of Peterborough Chapter No. 12, R.A.M.


            Sir Richard Steele (1672-1729) British essayist and dramatist. Started the Tatler in 1709, a triweekly journal of politics and society, into which he inserted essays on manners and morality. Also collaborated with Addison on the Spectator, but later broke with him. Believed to have been a Mason, but no proof.


            Thomas J. Steele (1853-1920) U.S. Congressman to 64th Congress, 191517, from Iowa. b. March 19, 1853 in Rush Co., Ind. Practiced law at Sheldon, Iowa, and after 1897 was in the cattle commission business at Sioux City. Mason. d. March 21, 1920.


            Reuben A. Steere (1838-?) Midget. b. Oct. 19, 1838 in Gloscester, R.I. Was called the "Second Tom Thumb" and "Colonel Steere." He entered Stone & Murray's Circus in 1870, at the age of 31; weighed 43 lbs. and was 44 inches tall. He was later with


185 Karl Stefan Bailey's Circus, North American Circus, and others. Married another midget—Rebecca Ann Myers—March 7, 1880, and both traveled with circuses until 1906, when they retired to his home in Chepachet, R.I. Was made a Mason in Friendship Lodge No. 7, Chepachet in May, 1889, and served as its tyler for 15 years.


            Karl Stefan (1884-1951) U.S. Congressman to 74th-82nd Congresses, 1935-51, from 3rd Nebr. dist. b. March 1, 1884 in Zebravkow, Bohemia, and brought to the U.S. the following year. Educated in public schools of Omaha, Nebr. Was variously a telegraph operator, news writer, reporter, editor, radio news commentator. Member of committee in 1935 to assist in inauguration of Philippine Commonwealth. Was congressional observer to signing of Japanese Peace Treaty in San Francisco in 1951. Member of Mosaic Lodge No. 55, Norfolk, Nebr., receiving degrees in 1911. d. Oct. 2, 1951.


            Baron Heinrich von Stein (17571831) Prussian statesman, born at Nassau, Germany. As Prussian minister of foreign affairs from 1807-08, he accomplished many reforms in administration, taxation, and civil service, as well as abolishing serfdom. He assisted Sharnhorse and Gneisenau in reorganizing the army. Napoleon forced him to resign in 1808, and he fled to Austria where he lived until 1812. He was summoned to Russia as a counselor to the czar and after the Battle of Leipzig he headed the council of administration of the reconquered German territory, and was leader in military diplomacy. He was frustrated in his plans for Germany by Metternich and Hardenberg at the Congress of Vienna, and spent the remaining years in promoting German arts and sciences. He is said to have been a member of the lodge"Joseph of the Three Helmets" at Wetzler.


            Louis P. Stein (1893-1952) Organizer of Helene Curtis Industries, beauty supply manufacturers at Chicago in 1927. b. Sept. 18, 1893 in Warsaw, Poland. Was student at universities of Heidelberg and Warsaw. Came to U.S. in 1913, and naturalized in 1919. Served as president of Helene Curtis Industries, 1927-47, and chairman of board after that date. Raised Jan. 2, 1923 in Hyde Park Lodge No. 989, Chicago, Ill. d. June 24, 1952.


            Frederick Steiwer (1883-1939) U.S. Senator from Oregon, 1927-38. b. Oct. 13, 1883 in Jefferson, Oreg. Graduate of U. of Oregon in 1906. Admitted to bar in 1908, and began practice at Pendleton. Was actively identified with wheat growing. Served as district attorney, member of state senate, and in Field Artillery in WWI. Delivered the "keynote" address at the Republican National Convention of 1936. Member of Jefferson Lodge No. 33, Jefferson, Oreg. receiving degrees on Feb. 15, Aug. 12, Sept. 9, 1905. d. Feb. 2, 1939.


            John C. Stennis U.S. Senator from Mississippi since 1947. b. Aug. 3, 1901 in Kemper Co., Miss. Graduate of Mississippi State Coll. in 1923, and U. of Virginia in 1928. Entered law practice at DeKalb, Miss. Active in promotion of farm youth training programs. Member of DeKalb Lodge No. 64, DeKalb, Miss., receiving degrees on Sept. 10, 1925, Feb. 15, and March 7, 1940.


            Alexander Petrovich Stepanov (1731-1837) Russian author who joined "Gerebzov's Lodge," Gerebzov being grand master of the provincial lodge, successor to the Directorial Lodge Vladimir of Russia in 1815. He wrote of his initiation on June 14, 1815. Prince G. M. Odoevsky was initiated the same night. Stepanov's


186 Ross S. Sterling uncle, R. S. Stepanov, the celebrated Moscow Rosicrucian, became the leader of Moscow Masons after Posdeef's death.


            Lawrence V. Stephens (1858-1923) Governor of Missouri, 1897-1901. b. Dec. 21, 1858 in Boonville, Mo. Learned printers' trade, and was at one time editor of the Boonville Advertiser. Became vice president and director of Central National Bank, Boonville, and later appointed government receiver of Fifth National Bank of St. Louis. Was state treasurer of Missouri, 1889-97. Was a member of Tuscan Lodge No. 360, St. Louis, Mo.; received chapter degrees in Kilwinning Chapter No. 50, R.A.M. St. Louis, on March 28 and April 24, 1890; knighted in Olivet Commandery No. 53, K.T. of Boonville, Dec. 18, 1891. Masonic services conducted by Tuscan Lodge, following his death, Jan. 10, 1923.


            Uriah S. Stephens (1821-1882) Early American labor leader who became first Grand Master Workman of the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor in 1878. A tailor by trade, he formed the first local assembly of the Knights of Labor among the garment cutters of Philadelphia. The organization expanded by taking in other trades, and when the national group was founded, he became first Grand Master Workman, with Charles Litchman, q.v., as first Grand Secretary. The principles laid down were secrecy, union of all trades, education, cooperation, and "brotherhood." The Knights believed in boycott rather than strike. In the second year, Stephens was succeeded by Terence V. Powderly, q.v. The scriptural passages and oath were eliminated in 1881 because many of the members were Irish Catholic. By 1886 the Knights had more than 700,000 members. It passed out of existence in the early 1890's, being taken over bythe A.F. of L. under Samuel Gompers, q.v. Stephens was a member of Kensington Lodge No. 211 of Philadelphia.


            William D. Stephens (1859-1944) Governor of California, 1917-23, and U.S. Congressman to 62nd-64th Congresses, 1911-17. b. Dec. 26, 1859 in Eaton, Ohio. Taught school while reading law. Engaged in railroad construction in Indiana, Ohio, La., and Iowa from 1880-87, and then moved to Los Angeles, where he was a traveling salesman and member of Carr & Stephens grocers, 1902-09. Was mayor of Los Angeles in 1909. Was member of Signet Chapter No. 57, R.A.M., Los Angeles; served as grand commander of the Grand Commandery, K.T. of Calif. in 1908; 33° AASR (SJ); charter member of Red Cross of Constantine; potentate of Al Malaikah Shrine Temple in 1904. Member of Southern California Lodge No. 278, Los Angeles. d. April 25, 1944.


            Clotworthy Stephenson Was grand marshal at the laying of the cornerstone of the U.S. capitol in 1793. He was at one time a member of Lodge No. 19 of Virginia, but listed as "removed" in proceedings of 1794. He was later past master of Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C., and was a Royal Arch Mason and high priest of an early "encampment" of Royal Arch Masons in the District of Columbia, 1795-98.


            Ross S. Sterling (1875-1949) Governor of Texas, 1931-32. b. Feb. 11, 1875 in Anahuac, Texas. Was on a farm until maturity, then entered business for self. From 1903 he was an oil operator, being chairman of board of Sterling Oil & Refining Corp., and chairman of board and president of Humble Oil & Refining Co., 1917-25. Initiated in Holland Lodge No. 1, Houston, Texas, on Oct. 30, 1923. d. March 25, 1949.


            187 Thomas Sterling Thomas Sterling (1851-1930) U.S. Senator from South Dakota, 1913-25. b. Feb. 21, 1851 in Amanda, Ohio. Moved with parents to McLean Co., Ill. in 1854, and graduated from Illinois Wesleyan U. at Bloomington in 1875. Admitted to bar in 1878, after teaching school for two years, and began practice in Springfield, Ill. Moved to Dakota Territory, and located at Northville in 1882, but moved to Redfield in 1886. Member of state constitutional convention of 1889. Was dean of college of law at U. of South Dakota, 1901-11. After senatorial term he resumed law practice in Washington, D.C., and served on faculty of National U. Law School. Received his degrees in Illinois in May, 1877. Member of El Riad Shrine Temple, Sioux Falls, S. Dak. d. Aug. 26, 1930.


            Horace Stern Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania 1952-54, and associate justice for a term of 21 years from 1935. b. Aug. 7, 1878 in Philadelphia. Graduate of U. of Pennsylvania in 1899 and 1902 with honors. Practiced law in Philadelphia. Was judge of court of common pleas, 1920-35. Served as a lecturer at the U. of Pennsylvania from 1902-17 and for many years was director and honorary president of the Federation of Jewish Charities in Philadelphia. Was major in Ordnance Dept., U.S. Army in WWI. Member of Mozart Lodge No. 436, Philadelphia.


            Joseph S. Stern President of U.S. Shoe Corporation, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1931-39 and chairman of board from 1949. b. Sept. 10, 1891 in Cincinnati. Graduate of Cornell U. in 1913. With Stern-Auer Co., 1913-35, and president of same, 1921-35. With U.S. Shoe from 1931. Member of Cincinnati Lodge No. 133 (Ohio) receiving degrees on Dec. 4, 1913, Jan. 8, Feb. 5, 1914. 32° AASR (NJ).


            Frank W. Sterrett Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Bethlehem, Pa.from 1928. b. Jan. 21, 1885 in Middle-port, N.Y. Graduate of U. of Pennsylvania in 1908; Philadelphia Divinity School, 1911. Became priest in 1912, and served churches in Kingston and Wilkes-Barre, Pa. Consecrated bishop coadjutor of Bethlehem in 1923 and bishop in 1928. Member of Quakertown Lodge No. 512, Quakertown, Pa., receiving degrees on Feb. 9, March 9, May 11, 1911. 33° AASR (NJ) in 1952.


            Thomas P. Stetson Member of Hancock Lodge No. 70, N.Y.C.; as captain of the ship Mercury on a voyage from New York to Havre, France in June, 1865, rescued 43 persons from the burning American ship, William Nelson. Again in Feb., 1862, while captain of the Frothiugham, he saved the lives of 47 persons on the ship, Sparta. Was also a member of Columbian Commandery No. 1, K.T., of N.Y.C.


            Baron von Steuben (1730-1794) Major General of American Revolution. Name in full was Frederick William Augustus Henry Ferdinand von Steuben. b. Nov. 15, 1730 in Magdeburg, Prussia. Educated in Jesuit colleges at Neisse and Breslau, distinguishing himself as a mathematician. His father was a Prussian Army officer, and at the age of 14 young Frederick served under him in the War of 1744, and was present at the siege of Prague. Entered army at age of 17, and served in the Seven Years' War. Was taken prisoner by Russians at capitulation of Colberg. In 1762 was made aide to Frederick the Great, q.v., and took part in the siege of Schweidnitz, which closed the Seven Years' War. From 1762-63, he was aide-de-camp to the king. Franklin recommended him to Washington, and in 1777 he came to America, reporting to Washington at Valley Forge, Feb. 23, 1778. He was designated inspector general of the Conti-


188 Edward Stevens nental Army with the rank of major general, and given the task of training the troops. He reorganized and drilled the army with marked success. He was engaged at Monmouth and Yorktown, and became a trusted adviser to Washington. It is doubtful if the American cause would have succeeded without the aid of Steuben in organizing and training. He was one of those who sat on Andre's court martial. He desired a field command, but did not receive it until late in the war, when he commanded in the Virginia campaigns. Honorably discharged in 1784, he became a naturalized American citizen of Pennsylvania and New York, making his home in New York, where he received bounty lands near Utica. A generous man he never learned the value of the American dollar, and his former army associates kept him out of deep financial embarrassment only by closely supervising his funds. At Washington's inauguration he had a seat on the platform with the favored few, and soon after became the beneficiary of liberal retired pay from the new congress. He made frequent trips to New York City where he mingled with his brethren of the Masonic fraternity. It is not known where he received the degrees and earned the title of "past master," but it is presumed to have been in Europe. E. A. Sherman states it was in the "Military Lodge of the Blazing Star" at Berlin. He was a member of Trinity Lodge No. 10 (now 12) of New York City and an honorary member of Holland Lodge No. 8, N.Y.C. On St. John's Day, 1788, he dined with Holland Lodge, and addressed the "Veterans of the Royal Art" in French. In the minutes of Feb. 6, 1789, "Bro. Past Master von Steuben" was appointed a member of the committee to inform Washington of his election as an honorary member of the lodge. d. Nov. 28, 1794.


            Arthur W. Steudel President of Sherwin-Williams Co., paint manufacturers, since 1940. b. Aug. 28, 1892 in Cleveland, Ohio. Has been with Sherwin-Williams since 1908. Transferred to Chicago in 1917 as Eastern sales manager; Eastern sales manager N.Y.C., 1919-23; assistant to president and department manager at Cleveland, 1928-29; vice president, 1929-36, then vice president, general manager and director. Director of Wilson & Co., Inc., Chicago; Baltimore & Ohio Railroad; Cleveland Trust Co.; Republic Steel Corp. Mason.


            Atherton Ii. Stevens, Jr. Union Major who gave protection to the Masonic Hall at Richmond, Va. during the Civil War. Was a member of Putnam Lodge, East Cambridge, Mass.


            Edward Stevens (1745-1820) Brigadier General of American Revolution. b. in Culpeper, Va. Commanded a battalion of militia at the Battle of Great Bridge in Dec., 1775, and the following year was appointed colonel of the 10th Va. Regiment. Joined Washington's Army in N.J. in 1777, and checked the attack of General Howe's forces at the Battle of Brandywine, where by holding the road until nightfall, he prevented a serious disaster. Served at Germantown, and was made a brigadier general. In Aug., 1780, he joined the army of General Horatio Gates with 700 Virginia militia, fighting in the Battle of Camden and at Guilford Courthouse. He was severely wounded in the latter. He served at the siege of Yorktown. From the adoption of the state constitution until 1790 he was in the Virginia senate. In his will he left one acre of land near his own family burying-ground in Culpeper to be used as a cemetery for the members of his lodge—Fairfax No. 43. d. Aug. 17, 1820.


            189 Frederick B. Stevens Frederick B. Stevens Acting Grand Commander, Northern Supreme Council, AASR from Oct. 10, 1932 to Sept. 28, 1933.


            Thaddeus Stevens (1792-1868) Anti-Mason. U.S. Congressman, 184953 and 1859-68. He vigorously opposed slavery and was a leader in the congressional reconstruction plan. He was the principal leader in the proposed impeachment of President Johnson and managed the trial. It is claimed by some—and disclaimed by others—that he was rejected for membership in Good Samaritan Lodge No. 336 of Gettysburg, Pa. He did much for the public schools and higher education in his state.


            W. Bertrand Stevens (1884-1947) Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Los Angeles from 1928. b. Nov. 19, 1884 in Lewiston, Maine. A graduate of Bates Coll., Columbia U., New York U., and Episcopal Theol. School. Became deacon in 1910, and priest in 1911, of Protestant Episcopal Church. Served churches in New York City and San Antonio, Texas until 1920, when he became bishop coadjutor of Los Angeles, and in 1928, bishop of same. Was originally a member of Johkheer Lodge No. 865, Yonkers, N.Y., and at time of his death, of Garfield Lodge No. 565, Los Angeles. A member of both York and Scottish Rites, he was a 33° AASR (SJ), and twice grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of California. d. Aug. 22, 1947.


            Walter H. Stevens (1827-1867) Confederate Brigadier General and chief engineer of Lee's Army. b. Aug. 24, 1827 in Penn Yan, N.Y. Graduate of the U.S. Military Academy in 1848; commissioned a lieutenant of engineers. Engaged in construction and repairing of fortifications at New Orleans; built two forts on the coast of Texas; removed the great Colorado River raft by order of congress;and built lighthouses, etc. Resigned his commission in May, 1861, and entered the Confederate service, accompanying General Beauregard to Va. as his chief engineer. Was chief engineer of the Army of Northern Virginia until 1862, when he was placed in charge of fortifications at Richmond. He then became chief engineer for Lee's Army, and continued as such until the close of the war. After the war he became an engineer on the Mexican Railway between Vera Cruz and Mexico City, and at the time of death was its superintendent and constructing engineer. Member of Richmond Lodge No. 10, Richmond, Va. and buried Masonically by that lodge. d. Nov. 12, 1867.


            Adlai E. Stevenson (1835-1914) Twenty-Third Vice President of the United States. b. Oct. 23, 1835 in Christian Co., Ky. Educated at Centre College in Ky. The family removed to Bloomington, Ill. in 1852, and he was admitted to the bar in 1857. He served as master in chancery and district attorney. He was U.S. congressman to the 44th and 46th congresses, 1875-77; 1879-81. From 188589 he was first assistant postmaster general, and vice president of the United States from 1893-97. Received the degrees in Metamora Lodge No. 82, Metamora, Ill. (now extinct) sometime in 1858, and was master of same in 1862. He later affiliated with Bloomington Lodge No. 43, Bloomington, Ill, and was master in 1874. He was grand orator of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1895-96, and while vice president, addressed that body, saying: "I have been a member of the Masonic fraternity from my early manhood, and the more I have known of its principles, the more I have mingled with the members of this order, and the darker the shadows gather around me, the dearer the Order becomes." He was exalted in


190 Tom (Arthur Thomas) Stewart Peoria Chapter No. 7, R.A.M., Peoria, Ill. about 1866. Belonged to Metamora Council No. 38, R. & S.M. at Metamora, Ill.and DeMolay Commandery No. 24, K.T. of Bloomington. He dimitted from the latter in 1904. On June 24, 1875 he delivered an oration on St. John's Day at Bloomington, Ill. On Nov. 3, 1887 (while first assistant postmaster general) he addressed a Masonic gathering in Washington, D.C., the minutes of St. John's Lodge No. 11 of that date stating: "Immediately the grand lodge retired, our lodge was formed in procession and proceeded to LaFayette Lodge where we were entertained by a very interesting address by Brother Past Master Stevenson of Bloomington, Ill." He was present at the dedication of the Mary Washington monument at Fredericksburg, Va. by the Grand Lodge of Virginia on May 10, 1894, being vice president at the time. His grandson, of the same name, who became governor of Illinois and Democratic presidential nominee in 1956, is not a Mason. d. June 15, 1914.


            Carter L. Stevenson Confederate Major General of Civil War. He was first junior warden of Rocky Mountain Lodge No. 205, Camp Floyd, Utah, military lodge (Mo.).


            Coke Stevenson Governor of Texas, 1941-47. b. March 20, 1888 in Mason Co., Texas. With a bank in Junction, Texas from 1906-14. Admitted to bar in 1913. Served in state legislature, and was speaker of the house, 1933-37. Was lieutenant governor, 1939-41. Returned to private law practice at Junction, Texas. Member of Junction City Lodge No. 548 since May, 1911; 32° and KCCH, ASSR (SJ) at San Antonio. Master of his lodge in 1916 and 1918 and twice district deputy grand master.


            Edward A. Stevenson (?-1895) Governor of Idaho Territory; fourtimes grand master of the Grand Lodge of Idaho, being first elected in 1876. While he was governor of Idaho Territory, his brother Charles C., was governor of Nevada. They were cousins of Adlai E. Stevenson, q.v., the vice president of the United States. In his youth Col. Stevenson was in charge of an Indian reservation in Northern Calif. Called away on business, he left his wife and children at their agency home. He returned to find that they and all employees of the reservation had been murdered by the Indians. He pursued, captured, and killed all the Indians but one. The one was brought to trial, and Stevenson strode into the courtroom, took the criminal out, and with his own hands hanged him to a nearby tree. He received the first degree at Red Bluff, Calif. in 1857 and the other degrees in Pioneer Lodge No. 4, Pioneerville, Idaho, in the spring of 1869. d. July 6, 1895.


            William H. Stevenson U.S. Congressman to 77th-80th Congresses, 1941-47, from 3rd Wis. dist. b. Sept. 23, 1891 in Kenosha, Wis. Graduate of U. of Wisconsin in 1919; practiced law first at Richland Center and then LaCrosse. Member of Badger Lodge No. 345, LaCrosse, Wis., receiving degrees on July 6, Dec. 28, 1944 and April 3, 1945. Shriner.


            Tom (Arthur Thomas) Stewart U.S. Senator from Tennessee, 1939-49. b. Jan. 11, 1892 in Dunlap, Term. Admitted to bar in 1913; began practice in Birmingham, Ala., returning to Jasper, Tenn. in 1915, and moving to Winchester, Term. in 1919. After his term in senate, resumed practice of law in Nashville. Received first degree in Olive Branch Lodge No. 297 of Jasper, Tenn., Jan. 5, 1918, and others on July 17 and Nov. 6, 1923 in Winchester Lodge No. 158, Winchester, Term.


            191 Dugald Stewart Dugald Stewart (1753-1828) Scottish philosopher. Was professor of moral philosophy at Edinburgh from 1785-1820. He was of the Scottish school, holding the doctrine of natural realism. He professed the Baconian empirical method, but disavowed its developments and retained intuitionism. Was the author of Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind and The Philosophy of the Active and Moral Powers. Became a member of Canongate Kilwinning Lodge at Edinburgh in Dec., 1775 when a young man. Later made an honorary member of Lodge St. James, Tarbolton.


            James G. Stewart (1881-1959) Judge, Supreme Court of Ohio, 194759. Father of Potter Stewart, q.v., U.S. supreme court justice. b. Nov. 17, 1881 in Springfield, Ohio. Graduate of Kenyon Coll. (Ohio) in 1902 and U. of Cincinnati Law School in 1905. Was mayor of Cincinnati, 1938-47. Member of Anthony Lodge No. 455, Springfield, Ohio, receiving degrees on Jan. 16, Feb. 5, March 21, 1907. Received 50-year medal from grand lodge. 33° on Sept. 24, 1947. d. April 4, 1959.


            Paul Stewart (1892-1950) U.S. Congressman to 78th-79th Congresses, 1943-47, from the 3rd Okla. dist. b. Feb. 27, 1892 in Clarksville, Ark. Entered business at the age of 13, and was a farmer, merchant, lawyer, publisher, and ranchman. Owned and published the Antlers (Okla.) American, a weekly paper, from 1929. Operated the Paul Stewart Ranch-Farm at Antlers. Served two terms in state house of representatives and five terms in state senate. Received degrees in Haworth Lodge No. 338, Haworth, Okla. on May 18, July 6, Aug. 7, 1916. Affiliated with Good-water (Okla.) Lodge No. 148, Oct. 27, 1934. d. Nov. 13, 1950.


            Potter Stewart Associate Justice, United States Supreme Court from1958. b. Jan. 23, 1915 in Jackson, Mich., the son of James G. Stewart, q.v., judge of the Ohio supreme court. Graduate (cum laude) of Yale in 1937 and 1941. Was a fellow at Cambridge U., England, 1937-38. Admitted to bar in 1941 and practiced in New York City and Cincinnati. Member of Lafayette Lodge No. 81, Cincinnati, Ohio, receiving degrees, April 17, May 22, and Oct. 2, 1951, Member of Oola Khan Grotto, Cincinnati.


            Sir Robert King Stewart Eightieth Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1914-16.


            Robert M. Stewart (1815-1871) Governor of Missouri, 1857-61. b. March 12, 1815 in Courtland Co., N.Y. Studied law and taught school at same time. In 1837 he went to Louisville, Ky., practiced law there and worked on a newspaper until 1838, when he moved to St. Charles, Mo. A year later he relocated in Buchanan Co. at the present site of DeKalb. With the removal of the county seat from Sparta to St. Joseph, he made his home in the latter city and was active in political affairs there. Elected a member of the state constitutional convention in 1845; served in the state senate from 1846-57. He is credited with improving the railway systems in Missouri, and fathered the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad. Member of Zeredetha Lodge No. 189, St. Joseph, Mo. d. Sept. 21, 1871.


            Samuel V. Stewart (1872-1939) Governor of Montana, 1913-21. b. Aug. 2, 1872 in Monroe Co., Ohio. Law graduate of U. of Kansas in 1898. Began practice of law at Virginia City, Mont. in July, 1898. Was justice of supreme court of Montana, 1933-39. Member of Virginia City Lodge No. 1. d. Sept. 15, 1939.


            Thomas E. Stewart (1824-1904) U.S. Congressman to 40th Congress, 1867-69, from New York. b. Sept. 22,


192 Andrew T. Still


1824 in N.Y.C. Admitted to bar in 1847 and practiced in N.Y.C. Exalted in Jerusalem Chapter No. 8, N.Y.C. in 1893. d. Jan. 9, 1904.


            Walter Stewart (1756?-1796) Aide-de-camp to General Gates in American Revolution. Early in war he raised a company for the 3rd Pennsylvania battalion and was commissioned captain in Jan., 1776. Appointed an aide to General Gates in May, 1776, serving in that capacity until June, 1777. Led a regiment of Pa. militia at Brandywine and Germantown. In Nov. 1777 his regiment was annexed to the Continental Army, becoming the 13th Regiment of the Pa. line. In Jan., 1881 it was incorporated with the 2nd Pa. Retired in Jan., 1783 with the rank of brevet brigadier general. He was said to have been the handsomest man in the American Army, and was known as the "Irish Dandy." He afterward became a well known merchant in Philadelphia, and a major general of state militia. His full length portrait is in Col. Trumbull's picture of the surrender of Cornwallis, on the left of the line of American officers. Member of Pennsylvania Union Lodge No. 29, A.Y.M. d. June 14, 1796.


            William M. Stewart (1827-1909) U.S. Senator from Nevada, 1864-75 and 1887-1905. b. Aug. 9, 1827 in Galen, N.Y. Moved with parents to Trumbull Co., Ohio. In 1850 he moved to San Francisco and engaged in mining in Nevada Co. He studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1852, practicing in Nevada City, Calif. In 1854 he was attorney general of Calif. He moved to Virginia City, Nev. in 1860, where he was active in developing the Comstock lode. A member of the territorial council in 1861, and member of state constitutional convention in 1863. Upon the admission of Nevada as a state, he became—with James W. Nye, q.v.—first U.S. senator from that state. Member of Nevada Lodge No. 13, Nevada City, Calif. d. April 23, 1909.


            William W. Stickney (1853-1932) Governor of Vermont, 1900-02. b. March 21, 1853 in Plymouth, Vt. Graduate of Phillips Academy at Exeter, N.H., in 1877. Admitted to the bar in 1878. Served as states attorney and in Vermont legislature, being speaker, 1892-96. Was president of Vermont Bar Assn. and life president of the Vermont Bar Assn. and life president of the Vermont Historical Society. Became a Mason in Black River Lodge No. 85 of Ludlow, Vt. on Sept. 14, 1880, and exalted in Skitchewaug Chapter No. 25, R.A.M., Springfield, Vt., Jan. 14, 1889. d. Dec. 15, 1932.


            James F. Stiles, Jr. Former vice president, director, treasurer, and chairman of board of Abbott Laboratories, Chicago. b. June 27, 1892 in Chicago. Associated with Abbott from 1913, he rose from an order picker in the shipping room. Presently is associated with treasury department in U.S. Savings Bonds division, Washington, D.C. Was president of Illinois Chamber of Commerce, 1945-47. Past sovereign of St. John's Conclave No. 1, Red Cross of Constantine, Chicago. Member of Wayfarers Lodge No. 1001, Evanston, Ill. and was raised May 21, 1919.


            Andrew T. Still (1828-1917) Founder of osteopathy. b. Aug. 6, 1828 in Jonesboro, Va. He moved to Kansas in 1853, where he busied himself with farming, doctoring Indians, and studying anatomy. He lost three children in an epidemic of spinal meningitis in 1864, and soon thereafter devised the treatment known as osteopathy. He was a surgeon, and major of the 21st Kansas Vol. in the Civil War. Began the practice of osteopathy on June 22, 1874. He moved to Kirksville, Mo. in 1875 and developed a large practice. Here he founded the Ameri-


193 Joseph W. Stillwell can School of Osteopathy in 1892, and published the Journal of Osteopathy. Was raised in Palmyra Lodge No. 23, Baldwin, Kansas. d. Dec. 12, 1917.


            Joseph W. Stillwell (1883-1946) General, U.S. Army. b. March 19, 1883 in Florida. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1904; rose through grades to major general in 1940, lieutenant general in 1942, and full general in 1944. He was nicknamed "Vinegar Joe." After a term in the Philippines, he was an instructor at West Point, 1906-10 and 1913-17. It was during this last tour of duty that he became a member of West Point Lodge No. 877, June 1, 1916. In WWI was with general headquarters, A.E.F., as assistant chief of staff, 4th -Corps. After studying the Chinese language at the U. of Calif., he spent three years in Peking, and another three years in Tientsin. In WWII he was appointed commander of the 5th and 6th Chinese Armies in Burma by Chiang Kai-Shek, and was commanding general of U.S. forces in ChinaBurma-India Theater, 1942-44. In 1945 he was appointed commander of the U.S. ground forces and in 1945 commander of the 10th Army in the Pacific Theater. d. Oct. 12, 1946.


            Sir James Stirling Lord Provost of Edinburgh and 42nd Grand Master Mason of Scotland, 1798-99.


            Charles C. Stockley (1819-1901) Governor of Delaware, 1883-87. b. Nov. 6, 1819 in Sussex Co. Del. Was treasurer of the county, 1851-52, sheriff, 1856 and state senator in 1872. In 1891 he was registrar of wills of his county. Was president of the Farmers Bank of Georgetown, Del. In 1855 he was senior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Delaware. d. April 21, 1901.


            John Stockton Brigadier General of state militia in War of 1812. Coroner of New Castle Co., Del. in 1783;sheriff, 1788-91; state senator in 1795. Served in Revolutionary War. Admitted a member of Lodge No. 33, New Castle, Del. (Pa. charter) on March 1, 1790.


            Richard Stockton (1730-1781) Signer of the Declaration of Independence. b. Oct 1, 1730 near Princeton, N.J. Graduate of Princeton in 1748, admitted to the bar and gained reputation in the legal field. He secured the services of Dr. John Witherspoon as president of Princeton U. Member of state executive council in 1768, and raised to the supreme bench of N.J. in 1774. A moderate patriot, he first tried to effect a reconciliation between the colonies and England. Sent to Continental Congress in 1776 by the provincial congress. He was betrayed by Tory neighbors in 1777, and held prisoner in N.Y.C. for some time. When released, his health was shattered, his estate pillaged, his fortune gone, and he soon succumbed under these misfortunes. He was charter master of St. John's Lodge at Princeton on Dec. 27, 1765, having possibly been made a Mason while in England or Scotland in 1766-67. In 1888 his statue was placed in the national capitol at Washington as New Jersey's representative in the Hall of Fame. d. Feb. 28, 1781.


            Thomas Stockton (1781-?) Thirty-third Governor of Delaware, being elected in Nov., 1844. b. April 1, 1781, the son of General John Stockton, q.v. He was the last master of Lodge No. 14 in Delaware under Pa. charter. Was charter master of Washington Lodge No. 1. In 1812 he was master of St. John's Lodge No. 2 at New Castle, and was active in establishing the Grand Lodge of Delaware, being the first grand treasurer. He served in the War of 1812 as a captain and fought in the battles of Fort George and Lundy's Lane. In 1833 he was adjutant general of the state.


            194 Edward C. Stokes Walter L. Stockwell (1868-1950) General Grand Master of the General Grand Council, R. & S.M., 1930-33. b. Jan. 13, 1868 in Anoka, Minn. Graduate of U. of Minnesota in 1889, and served as principal of schools at St. Thomas, N. Dak. same year. Superintendent of schools at Grafton, N. Dak. 1891-1903, and elected state superintendent of public instruction of N. Dak. in 1903. In 1910 he was made grand secretary of the various Masonic bodies of N. Dak. Raised in Temple Lodge No. 30, St. Thomas in 1891, he later affiliated with Crescent Lodge No. 11 of Grafton, and was master in 1898. He later became charter member of East Gate Lodge No. 120 at Fargo and served as its first master. Member of Grafton Chapter No. 9, R.A.M., and high priest in 1897. Charter member of St. Omer Commandery No. 6, Grafton, and commander in 1898. Greeted in Fargo Council No. 1, R. & S.M., he was master in 1919. He headed the grand lodge in 1902, the grand council in 1921, and was given title of honorary past grand commander, K.T., in 1922. Grand high priest in 1923. d. Dec. 4, 1950.


            A. E. Stoddard President of Union Pacific Railroad from 1949. b. July 28, 1895 in Auburn, Nebr. Began as a shop apprentice on the Frisco Lines at Springfield, Mo. in 1915. Associated with Union Pacific from 1916 successively as student helper, operator, dispatcher, chief dispatcher, train-master, assistant superintendent, superintendent, assistant general manager, general manager, vice president, and president. Served in Navy in WWI as a radio operator. In WWII was brigadier general, serving in Iran, England, and Europe. Was deputy director general of military railroads for SHEAF in England, and European manager of first military railway service, 1945-46. Member of Victory Lodge No. 310 of Valley, Nebr. since 1925; 32° and KCCH, Scottish Rite at Omaha; and member of Tangier Shrine Temple, National Sojourners and High Twelve Club.


            Amos Stoddard (1762-1813) Governor of Missouri Territory, 1804-05. b. Oct 26, 1762 in Woodbury, Conn. He served as a soldier in the American Revolution from 1779 until the close of the war. He then became a clerk of the supreme court in Boston, Mass. and practiced as a lawyer in Hallowell, Maine from 1792-98. He was appointed captain of artillery on June 1, 1798; major on June 30, 1807 and deputy quartermaster on July 16, 1812. At the siege of Fort Meigs, he received a wound that resulted in his death. He wrote Sketches, Historical and Descriptive of Louisiana (1812) and The Political Crisis. His papers are in the archives of the Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio. A member of Kennebec Lodge No. 5, Hallowell, Maine, he gave a Masonic oration before that lodge on June 24, 1797 and on June 24, 1799 gave a Masonic oration at Portland, Maine. On April 1, 1801, Kennebec Lodge "voted no longer a member on account of absence." Records of the Grand Lodge of Maine indicate he was born in 1759 and died at age of 54.


            Edward C. Stokes (1860-1942) Governor of New Jersey, 1905-08. b. Dec. 22, 1860 in Philadelphia, Pa. Graduate of Brown U. in 1883, and was engaged in banking from that date. Chairman of Board of First Mechanics' National Bank, Trenton, N.J. Served in both branches of the state legislature. Was first president of New Jersey Bankers Assn. Member of Shekinah Lodge No. 58 of Millville, N.J., being initiated, May 4, 1893, while superintendent of schools in that city. d. Nov. 4, 1942.


            195 Montfort Stokes Montfort Stokes (1762-1842) U.S. Senator; Governor of North Carolina; Veteran of Revolutionary War and War of 1812; Indian agent. b. March 12, 1762 in Lunenburg Co., Va. Entered Continental Navy under Commodore Stephen Decatur at the age of 14, and was captured by the British in the same year and confined to the prison ship Jersey in the New York harbor for seven months. Settled in N. Car. after the war and engaged in planting. Elected to U.S. senate in 1804, but declined. Moved from Salisbury to Wilkesboro in 1812. Served in U.S. senate, 1816-23. Was in state senate, 1826-29, and house of commons, 1829-30. Served as governor of North Carolina from 1830-32. Jackson appointed him a member of the Board of Indian Commissioners in 1832, and he resided at Fort Gibson (now Okla.). Was later appointed commissioner to negotiate treaties with various Indians in the West and Southwest. In 1837 he was appointed agent to the Cherokee Indians, and later subagent for the Senecas, Shawnees and Quapaws. In North Carolina he was a member of four lodges, including Royal White Heart No. 2, at Halifax where he received the degrees on May 28, June 13, 1783, and March 1, 1784. His other lodges were Old Cone No. 9, Salisbury; Stokes Lodge No. 32, Concord; and Liberty Lodge No. 45, Wilkesboro. In 1787 he was nominated for grand secretary of the grand lodge. Received Mark Master degree in session of the grand lodge at Fayetteville on Nov. 22, 1789. Was grand secretary pro tem at grand lodge meeting on Jan. 8, 1792. From 1787 until 1818 he attended grand lodge almost every year, and was deputy grand master from 1803-07, serving as grand master pro tem for several years, during the annual communication. d. Nov. 4, 1842.


            William B. Stokes (1814-1897) U.S. Congressman to 39th-41st Con-gresses, 1866-71, from Tennessee and brevet major general in Union Army of Civil War. b. Sept. 9, 1814 in Chatham Co., N. Car. Moved to Term., where he engaged in agricultural pursuits. Served in both branches of state legislature between 1849 and 1856. Entered Civil War as a major of Tenn. volunteers, and breveted major general on discharge in 1865. Admitted to the bar in 1867, he practiced at Alexandria, Tenn. Member of Alexandria Lodge No. 175, Alexandria, Tenn. d. March 14, 1897.


            Claudius U. Stone (1879-1957) U.S. Congressman to 62nd-64th Congresses, 1911-17, from 16th Ill. dist. b. May 11, 1879 near Middletown, Ill. Prior to 1902 was a high school principal and teacher; county superintendent of schools, Peoria Co., Ill., 1902-10. Admitted to bar in 1909. Was postmaster of Peoria, Ill. 1917-20, and editor and publisher of the Peoria Staff, 1938-49. Served as enlisted man in Spanish-American War with Co. K, 4th Vol. Inf., and was in Cuba four months. Raised Sept. 19, 1906 in Temple Lodge No. 46, Peoria, Ill. Shriner. d. Nov. 13, 1957.


            John M. Stone (1830-1900) Governor of Mississippi, 1878-81 and 1890-95. b. April 30, 1830 in Gibson, Tenn. Moved to Miss. in 1855. Served in Confederate Army from captain to colonel of the 2nd Miss. Vol. Was state senator, 1869-77, and acting governor, 1876-77. Member of Iuka Lodge No. 94, luka, Miss. and senior warden in 1860; master in 1875. Grand master of Grand Lodge of Mississippi in 1898. d. March 26, 1900.


            Lewis Stone (1879-1953) Actor. b. Nov. 15, 1879 in Worcester, Mass. He starred on the stage in New York City and also in the Belasco Theatre, Los Angeles. Starred in motion pictures from 1915, and had a part in all the "Andy Hardy Family" series. Served in the Spanish-American War,


196 William H. Stone and in WWI was a major. Member of Silver Trowel Lodge No. 415, Los Angeles. d. 1953.


            Mortimer Stone Justice, Supreme Court of Colorado, 1945-53 and Chief Justice, 1953-55. b. Jan. 15, 1882 in Mansfield, Pa. Graduate of Colgate U. in 1904 and N.Y. Law School, 1910. Taught in N.Y.C. private schools, 1905-09 and after receiving law degree, settled in Delat, Colo. and later Fort Collins (after 1922). Since 1955 he has practiced at Denver. Raised March 17, 1913 in Paonia Lodge No. 121, Paonia, Colo., dimitting to Delta Lodge No. 62, Delta, Colo. on May 24, 1915, and to Collins Lodge No. 19, Fort Coffins, Colo. on July 17, 1928. Member of Colorado Consistory No. 1, AASR (SJ) of Denver; inactive member of Delta Commandery No. 34, K.T. and Delta Chapter No. 38, R.A.M.


            Royal A. Stone (1875-1942) Justice, Supreme Court of Minnesota, 1923-42. b. June 26, 1875 in LeSueur, Minn. Graduate of Washington U. in 1897, and began law practice at Morris, Minn. in that year. Practiced at St. Paul from 1907-23. Served as enlisted man in Spanish-American War with 15th Minn. Vol. Infantry, and as a captain and major in 88th Div. in WWI. Received degrees in Golden Sheaf Lodge No. 133 of Morris, Minn. on July 22 and 23, 1898 and affiliated with Summit Lodge No. 163, St. Paul on Nov. 1, 1910. d. Sept. 13, 1942.


            Seymour M. Stone Portrait painter. b. June 11, 1877 in Russia. Original family name was Kameniaysky. Brought to U.S. at age of six. Studied at Chicago Art Institute, Royal Academy, Munich, Julian Academy, under Lefebvre, and with John Singer Sargent, London. Produced the celebrated painting Parsifal, and has painted many portraits of royalty and nobility in their respective castles in Europe. American portraits include Chauncey M. Depew, Theodore Roosevelt, Harry F. Byrd, Richard E. Byrd; Generals Bullard, Allen, Pershing and Connor; Calvin Coolidge, Franklin D. Roosevelt, John Nance Garner, Will Rogers, Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower and many others. Raised in Cortland Lodge No. 34, Peekskill, N.Y. and later dimitted to Fort Worth Lodge No. 148, Texas. Member of Scottish Rite in Dallas and Shriner. He writes "I am a Roving Ambassador of the Shriners wherever I go." Member of York Rite in Texas.


            William A. Stone (1846-1920) Governor of Pennsylvania, 1899-1903, and U.S. Congressman to 52nd-55th Congresses, 1891-99, from 23rd Pa. dist. b. April 18, 1846 in Tioga Co., Pa. Served in Civil War as second lieutenant in Co. A, 187th Pa. Vols. Admitted to the bar in 1870, he practiced at Wellsboro until 1877 and then at Pittsburgh. U.S. district attorney, Western district of Pa., 1880-85. Member of Allegheny Lodge No. 223, Allegheny City, Pa. and was made a Mason "at sight." d. March 1, 1920.


            William H. Stone (1828-1901) U.S. Congressman to 43rd-44th Congresses, 1873-77, from Missouri. He was a member of the firm of Stone & Howe, St. Louis, which manufactured gunboats during the Civil War. b. Nov. 7, 1828 in Shawangunk, N.Y. Moved to St. Louis in 1848 and engaged in manufacture of iron. Was president of the St. Louis Hot Pressed Nut and Bolt Co., on its organization in 1867. Served in state house of representatives. Was past master of George Washington Lodge No. 9; exalted in St. Louis Chapter No. 8, R.A.M., April 22, 1854; and knighted in St. Louis Commandery No. 1, June 16, 1856. He was commander of same in 1867, 1868, 1871, and 1883. He was grand generalissimo of the Grand Cornmandery, K.T., of Missouri in 1870. Stone was active in the construction


197 William J. Stone of the Masonic Temple at 7th and Market in St. Louis. d. July 9, 1901.


            William J. Stone (1848-1918) U.S. Senator, Congressman and Governor of Missouri. b. May 7, 1848 near Richmond, Ky. Graduate of U. of Missouri at Columbia in 1867, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1869. Practiced a short time at Bedford, Ind., but moved to Columbia, Mo. where he was city attorney for a few months in 1870, and then removed to Nevada, Mo. Was U.S. congressman from Mo. to the 49th-51st congresses, 1885-91. Was vice chairman of the Democratic National Committee in 1900-04. Moved to St. Louis in 1897, where he practiced law. Was governor of Missouri, 1893-97. Served in U.S. senate from 1903-18, and during WWI was chairman of the important Foreign Relations Committee. A member of Argyle Lodge No. 451, Nevada, Mo., he affiliated with Osage Lodge No. 303 of the same city, when Argyle's charter was surrendered in 1892. Exalted in Nevada Chapter No. 56, R.A.M., Jan. 2, 1882, and knighted in O'Sullivan Commandery No. 15, K.T., on March 9, 1882. Shriner. d. April 14, 1918.


            William Leete Stone (1792-1844) American journalist who was active in anti-Masonic period. b. April 20, 1792 in New Paltz, N.Y. Moved to Sodus, N.Y. in 1808, where he helped his father on a farm. At the age of 17 he became a printer in the office of the Cooperstown (N.Y.) Federalist, and 1813 became editor of the Herkimer (N.Y.) American with Thurlow Weed, q.v., as his journeyman. He then edited the Northern Whig at Hudson, N.Y., and while here in 1815, became a member of Hudson Lodge No. 7. In 1817 he was editor of the Albany (N.Y.) Daily Advertiser and was exalted in Temple Chapter No. 5, R.A.M., of that city. In 1818 he became editor of the Hartford (Conn.) Mirror. Here he was admitted to Washington Commandery No. 1, K.T., April 28, 1819. At Hartford he was also associated with Peter Parley, q.v., and others in the publication of a literary magazine called The Knights of the Round Table. In 1821 he became editor and part owner of the New York Cammerca/ Advertiser, and held this position until his death. He advocated the abolition of slavery by congressional action, and favored the Greeks in their struggles for independence. In 1825 (with Thurlow Weed) he accompanied Lafayette on his tour through part of the U.S. He was appointed U.S. minister to The Hague by President Harrison, but was recalled by Tyler. Soon after the William Morgan episode, he addressed a series of letters on Masonry and Anti-Masonry to John Quincy Adams, who in his retirement had taken an active part in the anti-Masonic movement. These letters were afterward collected and published (1832). In the letters he attempted to placate both sides and maintained that Freemasonry should be abandoned, chiefly because it had lost its usefulness. He also cleared away the mists of slander which had gathered around the name of DeWitt Clinton, q.v. He was the first superintendent of public schools in N.Y.C. and while holding that office in 1844, engaged in a discussion with Archbishop Hughes as to the use of the Bible in public schools. d. Aug. 15, 1844.


            William M. Stone (1827-1893) Sixth Governor of Iowa, 1864-68. b. Oct. 14, 1827 in Jefferson Co., N.Y. As a youth he was a driver on the Ohio Canal and then learned the chairmaker's trade. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1851, beginning practice at Coshocton, Ohio. In 1854 he moved to Knoxville, Ohio. In 1855 he became editor of the Knoxville Journal and a member of


198 Clement Storer the convention of 1856 which organized the Republican party in Iowa. Entered Civil War as a private and assisted in organizing Co. B of the 3rd Iowa Inf. Became captain, major and breveted brigadier general in 1864 after he resigned. Was wounded in the Battle of Blue Mills, Mo. and taken prisoner at Shiloh. As a colonel of the 22nd Iowa Vols. he participated in the battles of Fort Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River and Vicksburg. Resigned commission to become governor. He was at Ford's Theatre when Lincoln was assassinated and was with the president until his death; later accompanied the remains to Springfield, Ill. Resumed practice of law at Knoxville, served in the state legislature. Moved to Arizona and then to Colorado for a brief period, but returned to Des Moines. In 1893 he moved to Oklahoma Territory where he died July 18, 1893. Received degrees in Coshocton Lodge No. 96, Coshocton, Ohio on Nov. 19, Dec. 1, 4, 1852. In Iowa he was a petitioner for the dispensation for Oriental Lodge No. 61, Knoxville and was charter senior warden in 1855. Member of Tadmor Chapter No. 18, R.A.M. of Knoxville and was captain of the host in 1861. Was knighted in DePayens Commandery No. 6, Oskaloosa in 1874.


            William 0. Stone (1830-1875) American portrait painter. b. Sept. 26, 1830 in Derby, Conn. He studied with Nathaniel Jocelyn at New Haven, and in 1851 moved to New York City. In 1856 he was elected an associate of the National Academy, and became an academician three years later. He gained distinction in portraiture. Member of Holland Lodge No. 8, N.Y.C. d. Sept 15, 1875.


            Baron Stonehaven (1874-1941) British diplomat and Governor General of New South Wales, 1928-30. Name was John Lawrence Baird, 1st Baron Stonehaven. Served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of New South Wales at same time he was governor. Initiated in Grecia Lodge No. 1105 at Cairo (under English Constitution) and became a founding member of Lawrence Sheriff Lodge No. 3497 at Rugby, England, and was master of same.


            George Stoneman (1822-1894) Union Major General in Civil War and Governor of California, 1883-87. b. Aug. 8, 1822 in Chautauqua Co., N.Y. Graduate of U.S. Military Academy in 1846. Acted as quartermaster to the Mormon battalion at Santa Fe, and was sent with it to Calif. in 1847. From 1857-61 he was with the 2nd Cavalry, chiefly in Texas. Appointed brigadier general and chief of cavalry in the Army. of the Potomac in 1861, commanding it during the Va. peninsular campaign of 1862. He pursued the Confederates after the evacuation of Yorktown and brought them to battle at Williamsburg. Took command of General Kearney's division after second Battle of Bull Run, and succeeded General Heintzelman as commander of 3rd Army Corps in 1862, leading it at Fredericksburg. Promoted to major general on Nov. 29, 1862, and led a cavalry corps in the raid toward Richmond. He later commanded a cavalry corps in the Department of Ohio, in the Atlanta campaign, and conducted a raid for the capture of Macon and the Andersonville prison. Retired from army in Aug. 1871. Was a member of Benicia Lodge No. 5, Benicia, Calif., and Temple Lodge No. 14, Sonoma, Calif., being secretary of the latter. Was a member of Benicia Chapter No. 7, R.A.M. d. Sept. 5, 1894.


            James Richard Neville Stopford (see Earl of Courtown).


            Clement Storer (1760-1830) U.S. Senator and Congressman from New


199 Dr. Elisha Story Hampshire. b. Sept. 20, 1760 in Kennebunk, Maine. Studied medicine in Portsmouth, N.H. and in Europe. Engaged in practice of medicine at Portsmouth and also had a store on Portsmouth pier before it was destroyed by fire in 1813. Became major general of state militia. Served as U.S. congressman to 10th congress, 1807-09, and U.S. senator from 1817-19. At one time he entertained President Monroe at his home, Cutter House, at corner of Middle and Congress Sts. Monroe was accompanied by General Miller, Commodore Bainbridge and General Henry Dearborn. He was raised Jan. 6, 1790 in St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, and served as the 12th master of same from 1795-97. He was elected grand steward of the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire in 1792, but resigned after three months, because of his election as junior warden of St. John's Lodge. However, he later went through the chairs and was grand master from 1808-10. d. Nov. 21, 1830.


            Dr. Elisha Story Surgeon of the American Revolution; was one of the members of the Boston Tea Party. Was the father of Joseph Story, q.v., who became justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Member of Philanthropic Lodge of Marblehead, Mass., as was his son.


            Joseph Story (1779-1845) Justice, U.S. Supreme Court, 1811-45. b. Sept. 18, 1779 in Marblehead, Mass., the son of Dr. Elisha Story, q.v., a Revolutionary War surgeon. A graduate of Harvard in 1798, he studied law, began practice in Salem in 1801, and soon became a leading member of the New England bar. As supreme court justice he divided with Chancellor Kent the honor of having founded the American system of equity jurisprudence. Taught law at Harvard from 1829-45. Member of Philanthropic Lodge at Marblehead, Mass., as was his father. d. Sept. 10, 1845.


            Sir Alexander Strachan One of the first three speculatives to be admitted to the Lodge of Edinburgh on July 3, 1834.


            Earl of Stradbroke (1863-1947) Grand Master of the Provincial Grand Lodge for Suffolk for 45 years, and Grand Master of the Mark Grand Lodge from 1943-47. Served as pro-grand master for 30 years under two ruling royal princes. A soldier, statesman, squire, farmer, and sportsman, he was active in affairs up to his last illness. d. Dec. 20, 1947.


            Herbert R. Straight Oil and gas executive. b. Sept. 30, 1874 in Tidioute, Pa. Graduate of Leland Stanford U., 1897. Began in oil business with father in Pa. in 1897. Was manager of oil production of several companies in Okla., 1912-20; vice president and general manager of Empire Gas and Fuel Co., later Empire Oil and Refining Co., 1920-37; president and director of Cities Service Oil Co. (Del.) and Empire Pipeline Co., 193746, and chairman of board of both companies, 1946-47; president and director of Cities Service Gas Co., 193744; retired in 1947. Mason, Knight Templar.


            Robert Strange (1796-1854) U.S. Senator from North Carolina, 183640. b. Sept. 20, 1796 in Manchester, Va. Attended Washington College (now Washington and Lee U.) and graduated from Hampden-Sidney Coll. (Va.). Moved to Fayetteville, N. Car, in 1815, studied law, and was admitted to the bar, practicing at Fayetteville. Was member of house of commons, 1821-23 and 1826. Resigned from U.S. senate on Nov. 16, 1840 to resume practice of law. A past master of Phoenix Lodge No. 8, he was grand master of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina in 1823-24. Exalted in Concord Chapter No. 1 at Wilmington, N. Car., he became high priest



200 Alfred B. Street of Phoenix Chapter No. 2, Fayetteville, and grand high priest of the Grand Chapter of N. Car. in 1822-24 and 1829-30. d. Feb. 19, 1854.


            Duke of Strathearn (see Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught).


            Charles S. Stratton (1838-1883) Midget made famous by P. T. Barnum as "General Tom Thumb." b. Jan. 4, 1838 in Bridgeport, Conn. He was first exhibited by Barnum in his American Museum in N.Y.C. on Dec. 8, 1842. At that time he was not more than two feet high and weighed 16 pounds. Was engaged at a salary of three dollars a week and traveling expenses. In 1844 he visited Europe under Barnum's management, appearing at the courts of England, France and Belgium. He accumulated a large fortune, and settled at Bridgeport. In 1863 he married Lavinia Warren, also a midget exhibited by Barnum. His title to the "world's smallest Mason" was also claimed by two other midgets —Vance Swift and Reuben Allen Steer, qq.v. Later in life Stratton became stout, weighing 70 pounds and was 40 inches in height. He and his wife traveled throughout the world giving exhibitions. He was raised in St. John's Lodge No. 3, Bridgeport, Conn., Oct. 3, 1862; exalted in Jerusalem Chapter No. 13, Oct. 8, 1862; greeted in Jerusalem Council No. 16, R. & S.M. on July 21, 1863, and knighted in Hamilton Commandery No. 5, July 23, 1863; received 32° AASR (NJ) in Lafayette Corisistory in 1866, all being in Bridgeport, Conn. Hamilton Commandery No. 5, K.T., displays his Knight Templar uniform with the little sword and other proportionate equipment. d. July 15, 1883.


            William G. Stratton Governor of Illinois from 1953; Member of 77th and 80th congresses. b. Feb. 26, 1914 in Ingleside, Ill. Graduate of U. of Arizona in 1934. Was state treasurer of Ill. in 1943-44 and 1951-52. In1957-58 he was chairman of the Governors' Conference, and president of the Council of State Governments in 1958. Member of Cedar Lodge No. 124, Morris, Ill., being raised March 17, 1942. Received 33° AASR (NJ) in 1955.


            Joseph Rend Valliere de St. Real (1787-1847) Chief Justice of Montreal, 1842-47. The son of a blacksmith named Valliere, he became known as one of the best educated men of his day in Canada. Attended Quebec Seminary, studied law, and served as a British officer in the War of 1812. He was a political rival of Louis Papineau, leader of the Canadian Rebellion of 1837-38. Served as speaker of the provincial parliament, 1823-25. He was named to the executive council of Lower Canada by the Earl of Durham in 1838, but that same year was suspended from the bench for granting a writ of habeas corpus to a prisoner of the rebellion (after two other judges had been suspended previously for the same thing). He was married three times—to women of French-Canadian, Jewish and Irish backgrounds. He was buried from the Catholic church, Sacre Nom de Marie in Montreal. He is believed to have received degrees in the lodge known as Les Freres du Canada, under warrant from the provincial grand lodge of Lower Canada (Ancients). He was grand senior warden of the provincial grand lodge in 1820, grand junior warden of the district grand lodge of Quebec and Three Rivers in 1821, and senior grand warden of the latter body in 1822.


            Alfred B. Street (1811-1881) American author and poet. b. in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. He was director of the New York State Library at Albany from 1848-62. His collected poems were published in 1845. Among the better known individual poems are The Gray Forest Eagle; The Settler; Lost


201 Oliver D. Street Hunter; Frontenac. A member of Temple Lodge No. 14, Albany, N.Y., he was considered "poet laureate of the state.”


            Oliver D. Street (1866-1944) Lawyer and Masonic author. b. Dec. 6, 1866 in Warrenton, Ala. Graduate of U. of Alabama in 1887 and 1888. Was active in state and local politics, being a nominee for congress and governor. Was U.S. district attorney, 1907-14. Served as grand master of the Grand Lodge of Alabama, 1925-27. Author of The Symbolism of the Three Degrees of Masonry; World Masonry; and History of Freemasonry in Alabarna. Raised Nov. 19, 1901 in Marshall Lodge No. 209, Guntersville, Ala., and was master in 1904-05 and 1910. Exalted in Eunomia Chapter No. 5, R.A.M., Huntsville, Ala. on June 29, 1906, and on July 6, 1906 became a charter member and first high priest of Palmyra Chapter No. 130, Guntersville, Ala., serving until 1919. Greeted in Montgomery Council No. 3, R. & S.M., on Dec. 2, 1919; knighted in Cyrene Commandery No. 10, K.T., at Birmingham on May 21, 1926; 32° AASR (SJ) on Nov. 20, 1914 and KCCH on Oct. 21, 1919. Member of Zamora Shrine Temple, Birmingham and Red Cross of Constantine in that city. d. Aug. 3, 1944.


            Paul H. Streit Major General, U.S. Army, and physician. b. March 18, 1891 in Seguin, Texas. Graduate (M.D.) U. of Texas in 1916, and postgraduate training at U. of Bordeaux, France. Is nose and throat specialist. Commissioned in U.S. Army Medical Corps in 1917, and rose through grades to major general in 1949. In 1919-20 he was a member of the Typhus Relief Expedition to Poland. From 1943-45 was surgeon in Central Pacific Base Command. He then commanded Dibble General Hospital, 1945-46; Brooke General Hospital, 1946-49; Army Medical Center and Walter Reed General Hospital, 1949-53. Retired, he is now consultant of the United Mine Workers of America Welfare and Retirement Fund. Member of Columbian Lodge No. 7, Columbus, Ga. and Walter Reed Chapter No. 303, National Sojourners. Inactive in lodge since WWII.


            Gustav Stresemann (1878-1929) Chancellor of Germany in 1923 and Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1923-29, during the difficult years following WWI. He was a member of the Reichstag from 1907. He pursued a postwar conciliatory policy. He negotiated the Locarno Pact of mutual security with France, and secured Germany's admission to the League of Nations on an equal status with the other great nations. He sponsored Germany's adoption of the Dawes plan in 1924, and the Young plan in 1929. In 1926 he shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Aristide Briand. Twenty years before he became a Freemason, he published an article entitled "The Mason's Way and the Building of our Humanity." He was initiated in the Lodge, Friedrich der Grosse, in 1923, and was an honorary member of the Grand Lodge, Zu den 3 Weltkugeln. His speech before the League of Nations, seeking German admission, began: "The divine Architect of the earth has created humanity not as a conformed unity, but as people of different blood who express their souls in their own language. But the supreme will of the divine order is not to turn against each other, but to help each other to higher development." It is claimed that at the end of the speech he gave a Masonic sign by mistake. In his lifetime and even after his death the National Socialists claimed he had misused his membership in Freemasonry for political purposes. His efforts to cooperate in the unification of German Freemasonry were frustrated owing to the dis-


202 George E. Stringfellow memberment into nine grand lodges. German Freemasons, now united in the United Grand Lodge of Germany, honor Stresemann's memory. His dream of unification was accomplished following WWII.


            Victor Stretti (1878-?) Czechoslovakian painter in magazine illustrations, advertising and book work. He was a member of the Lodge Jan Amos Komensky.


            William L. Stribling, Jr. (19041933) Prizefighter. b. Dec. 26, 1904 in Bainbridge, Ga. Received 32° AASR (SJ) at Macon, Ga. in 1928. d. Oct. 3, 1933.


            Silas A. Strickland Civil War General. Member of Capitol Lodge No. 3, Omaha, Nebr.


            William Strickland (1787-1854) Architect. b. in Philadelphia. He studied under Benjamin H. Latrobe, q.v., and in 1809 became a landscape painter. He produced a series of aquatint engravings of the city of Philadelphia. His first important architectural work was the old Masonic Hall, Chestnut St., Philadelphia, which was opened in Dec., 1810. The style was Gothic. His next important work was the U.S. Bank, modeled after the Parthenon at Athens, and finished in 1824. Then followed the Chestnut Street Theatre, Arch Street Theatre, U.S. Custom House, St. Stephen's Episcopal Church, Merchants' Exchange, U.S. Mint and U.S. Naval Asylum, all being in Philadelphia. He later turned to railroad construction, and went to Europe to study the systems there. His last work was the state house at Nashville, Tenn.; he died while superintending that construction. Member of Columbia Lodge No. 91, Philadelphia, and past master of same. d. April 7, 1854.


            Samuel Stringer (1734-1817) Physician of Revolutionary War. b. in Maryland, he studied medicine in Philadelphia with Dr. Thomas Bond, and was appointed to the medical department of the army in 1755 by Gov. William Shirley. He served in the campaign of 1758 at Ticonderoga. He settled in Albany, N.Y., and on Sept. 14, 1775 was appointed director and physician of the hospitals of the Northern department, and authorized to appoint a surgeon for the fleet that was then being fitted out upon the lakes. He accompanied the troops in the invasion of Canada, but on Jan. 9, 1777, was dismissed by Congress, which ordered an inquiry to be made concerning medicines he had bought. General Schuyler remonstrated against his removal, and on March 15, 1777 he was reprimanded by congress. He afterward practiced in Albany, where he achieved a great reputation as a physician. He was senior warden of Masters' Lodge No. 2, Albany, when it was warranted in 1768, and was one of the members of the Ineffable Lodge of Perfection, Scottish Rite at Albany. d. July 11, 1817.


            George E. Stringfellow Vice President of Thomas A. Edison, Inc., West Orange, N.J., and Imperial Potentate of the Shrine, 1958-59. b. Dec. 2, 1892 in Reva, Va. He began with Edison Industries in 1918 as manager of the Washington sales office. In 1923 he became general sales manager, and as such, was in daily association with Thomas A. Edison until the latter's death in 1931. He is also a director of a number of nationally known corporations. While hi. Washington he was raised in Hiram Lodge No. 10; exalted in Washington Chapter No. 2, R.A.M., and served as high priest; knighted in Washington Commandery No. 1, K.T., and became a member of the Almas Shrine Temple. His memberships were later transferred to Hope Lodge No. 124, East Orange, N.J.; AASR (NJ) at Trenton, N.J.; Cres-


203 Julius L. Strong cent Shrine Temple, Trenton, N.J.; St. Quentin Conclave No. 75, Red Cross of Constantine; Crescent Court No. 65, Royal Order of Jesters, and an active member of the Supreme Council, Order of DeMolay.


            Julius L. Strong (1828-1872) U.S. Congressman to 41st-42nd Congresses, 1869-72, from Conn. b. Nov. 8, 1828 in Bolton, Conn. Member of state house of representatives in 1852, and state senate in 1853. Studied law at National Law School, Ballston Spa, N.Y. and admitted to bar in 1853, commencing practice in Hartford, Conn. He was again a member of the lower house in 1855. Member of St. John's Lodge No. 4, Hartford, Conn. d. Sept. 7, 1872.


            N. T. Strong A Seneca Indian Chief who was raised in Manhattan Lodge No. 62, New York City on April 15, 1840.


            Samuel Strong (1762-1832) General in War of 1812. b. July 17, 1762 in Salisbury, Conn. During the War of 1812 he raised a body of soldiers and hastened to the relief of the garrison at Plattsburg, N.Y. For this he received the formal thanks of the legislatures of Vermont and New York, and a gold sword from the latter. He became a large landholder at Vergennes, Vt. Member of Dorchester Lodge No. 1, Vergennes. d. Dec. 5, 1832.


            James F. Strother (1870-1930) U.S. Congressman to 69th-70th Congresses, 1925-29, from 5th W. Va. dist. b. June 29, 1870 in Pearisburg, Va. Settled in Welch, W. Va. in 1895, where he began law practice with his father. Admitted to McDowell Lodge No. 112, Welch, W. Va. in 1899. d. April 10, 1930.


            Louie W. Strum (1890-1954) Judge. b. Jan. 16, 1890 in Valdosta, Ga. Graduate of Stetson U. in 1912. Practiced law at Jacksonville, Fla. Associate justice of supreme court of Florida, 1925-31 and chief justice in 1931. Federal judge, Southern district of Florida 1931-50, and on U.S. court of appeals after 1950. Mason, knighted in Damascus Commandery No. 2, K.T., of Jacksonville in 1915; received 32° AASR (SJ) on Nov. 25, 1915; became member of Morocco Shrine Temple, Jacksonville on Nov. 26, 1915, and was potentate of same in 1928. d. July 20, 1954.


            Charles Edward Stuart (1720-1788) Full name was Charles Edward Louis Philip Casimir. An English prince known as the "Young Pretender" and "Bonnie Prince Charlie." Was elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, and grandson of James II. He fought at the siege of Gaeta in 1734. Was sent by Marshal Saxe in 1744 to head a quickly thwarted French invasion of England. He landed in the Hebrides unsupported, and raised his father's standard in Scotland. After success at Prestonpans, he was crushed by the Duke of Cumberland at Culloden Moor in 1746. After five months of hiding, he escaped to Brittany, but was expelled from France by terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. His life is the subject of Sir Walter Scott's, q.v., Waverly. He is reputed to have taken an active interest in Masonry, and on Sept. 24, 1745 was installed as grand master of the Order of Knights Templar at Holyrood Palace. Previously Chevalier Ramsey, q.v., the Scottish Freemason had been his tutor. Returning to France after his ill-fated expedition, he is said to have established a Rose Croix Chapter at Arras on April 15, 1747 and his patent styles himself: "King of England, France, Scotland and Ireland and as such substitute Grand Master of the Chapter of Heredom, known as Knight of the Eagle


204 William Stukeley and Pelican and since our disasters, under that of Rose Croix.”


            Edwin S. Stuart (1853-1937) Governor of Pennsylvania, 1907-11. b. Dec. 28, 1853 in Philadelphia. Graduate of Lafayette and U. of Pennsylvania, as well as U. of Pittsburgh. Engaged in bookselling and publishing from 1868. Was mayor of Philadelphia, 1891-95. A director of Bell Telephone Co. of Pa. and Diamond States Telephone Co. Member of Keystone Lodge No. 271, Philadelphia. d. March 21, 1937.


            Jesse H. Stuart American author. b. Aug. 8, 1907 near Riverton, Ky. Graduate of Lincoln Memorial U. at Harrogate, Tenn. in 1929. He taught and lectured before colleges and universities since 1940. Was superintendent of schools at Greenup, Ky., 194143, and since that date, principal of McKell High School, South Shore, Ky. Served in U.S. Navy in 1944. Among his books are Taps for Private Tussey; The Year of My Rebirth; Mongrel Mettle; The Thread That Runs so True; Head 0' W-Hallow; Trees of Heaven; Men of the 1Vloientains; and many others. Named "Man of the Year" for Kentucky in 1957. Originally a member of Harrison-Fullerton Lodge No. 937 of South Shore (Greenup Co.), Ky., where he taught school. Later dimitted to Greenup Lodge No. 89, Greenup, Ky.


            William M. Stuart President of Martin-Senour Co. (paint), Chicago, since 1946. b. Sept. 13, 1896 in Basham, Va. Was with Sherwin-Williams Co., 1921-31, and with Martin-Senour from 1931. Member of Virginia Heights Lodge No. 324, Roanoke, Va.